The challenges facing expert witnesses dealing with Aboriginal People issues

Aboriginal people

Introduction

The Aboriginal people have always had laws, governments and some means of settling their disputes within their own communities. The Aboriginal societies in the northern America had dynamic cultures that constantly adapted to meet the circumstances that change. According to Bell (23), they have never given up their original rights of governing themselves in line to their cultures and customs. Although successive governments have tried diminishing or interfering with that right, and making a replacement with their “Aboriginal governments” concepts, they have been unsuccessful. There are many numerous challenges faced by expert witnesses in court cases dealing with Aboriginal issues. Culhane (66) asserted that the systemic, daily cultural discrimination inflicted on the Aboriginal people by the existing justice systems, diminishes and demeans the relevance and importance of their cultures, beliefs and their languages. The essay will discuss the challenges faced by the expert witnesses in court cases, how they overcome the challenges and the experiences of expert witnesses in the court cases involving the Aboriginal issues.

The challenges facing expert witnesses in a court of law when dealing with Aboriginal issues 

  1. Lack of knowledge of the history of the Aboriginal people by the judges and court officials

In his book, “Telling It to the Judge,” Ray (39) elaborated on the problem which expert witnesses experience in courts. The role of the expert witnesses is to educate the courts on the place of the aboriginal people in the Canadian history. However, the challenge faced by the expert witnesses is the lack of understanding by the court judges of the histories of the aboriginal people and their treaties. The scholarly duty of the expert witnesses of retelling these histories along critical and complex lines is bound up by the ever-changing legal understanding of the rights of the aboriginal people. Ray (39) further pointed out the differences between this debate spheres that overlap and their understanding, for the scholars or the expert witnesses, the past remains open and is alive to reinterpretation while the courts needs the historical facts that will lead to cases being decided and closed.

  1. Weight given to the oral evidence by the court officials

Another challenge faced by the expert witnesses is the problematic reception of the oral history and ethno history by the Canadian courts as presented by the witness experts. Ray (53) highlighted the frustrations and pleasures of the witness experts when dealing with the aboriginal issues in the courts. For instance, the oral evidence presented in the courts in the extensive research on many Ontario fishing claims. After producing much evidence, none of the cases come to trial and even the courts cited frustrations in dealing with cases.

Bell (25) provided a detailed explanation of the frustrating exchanges in the court rooms with the judges and the crown counsel. The expert witnesses doubles and plays the roles of a teacher who attempts to educate the judges, in the unusual courtroom which is not a scholarly setting. Culhane (69) also observed that the judges of the court  seem not to know what to do with the oral history, particularly when it comes to analyzing and weighing it in the scale compared to other forms of evidence that are familiar.

  1. Discourse in the courts

There exists profound differences in the Aboriginal and the other dominant justice systems, and this is a great challenge to the expert witnesses. Other justice systems in the European traditions are always adversarial. After an accusation has been made against a person, the legal advisers representing the defendants and the plaintiff confront each other before a jury or an impartial judge, and the witnesses are called to testify. Bell (24) pointed out that the concepts of accusation, adversarialism, guilt, confrontation, retribution; criticism and argument are alien to the expert witnesses. Furthermore, witness experts find it challenging to criticize others as it is in odds with the non-interference principles, freedom and individual autonomy. The idea that innocence and guilt can be decided on argument basis is incompatible with expert witnesses as their work is present scholarly evidence based on oral and written history (Culhane, 67).

The contraindications in the dominant justice system, results in heavy burden being placed on expert witnesses. Criticisms and accusations when giving adverse testimony that are required in the dominant justice systems, are according to (Fisher, 35), precluded in the value systems of the witnesses which tries to avoid confrontation and criticisms. This is a great challenge as reluctance or refusal to testify, or when making a testimony, an individual gives anything most emotionless, but the barest recital of events is because of the cultural behavior that is deeply rooted. It is ethically wrong to in Aboriginal societies to say very critical, hostile, implicitly wrong things on an individual in her or his presence.

  1. Language issues

The expert witnesses in court cases have language problems with the Aboriginal communities, and this is a great problem. The courts do not offer interpreters for the Aboriginal people. This brings the fundamental question whether of the pressing omission, and if whether they understand the concepts that underlie their languages used in the legal system, even translators and interpreters are used. The problem is that the courts, lawyers and police conducts business in a language that is neither the mother tongue of the Aboriginal people nor the second language of the Aboriginal people (Patterson, 19). Moreover, another serious challenge is whether the dominant society’s legal terms can be translated to the Aboriginal languages. However, if it can be done, is the same concept being relayed?

Moreover, the expert witnesses say only what they experienced or observed. Habits that are culturally ingrained such as respect for others and other people’s opinions, of being willing to be corrected, of doubt concerning a person’s righteousness, account s for the willingness and readiness with which the Aboriginal witnesses readily appear to change their testimony.

How these expert witnesses overcome these challenges

Ray (32) suggested that the issues of the native rights should be discussed and negotiated between the native leaders and the government. For the past decade, the issue that has cropped up is whether there exists a right that prevents the law enforcement against the Aboriginal people. Unless the country believe that Aboriginal people may do whatever they wish, with no respect to the dominant laws, it is significant that boundary be drawn between the universal laws and the laws that must be bent to protect treaty and Aboriginal people by the courts.

There have also been proposals by the expert witnesses as part of carefully constructed strategy to the parts of their communities and their Aboriginal leaders to test certain laws to their Aboriginal people. Similarly, the cases of individual’s product choice, where an Aboriginal person is accused of going against the law, and she or he argues a right of a treaty to do an offence. Reid (2) pointed out that many of the individual have no native community support. However, it is possible to adopt a case for an individual for the native community.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are many lessons that can be learning from the experiences and the challenges that the expert witnesses experience in the Canadian law courts. The strongest approach that expert witnesses and the government should adopt is to accept the qualified expert witnesses, and oral historians as qualified experts in their own rights. This will need much broader acceptance, understanding and incorporation of the aboriginal laws. This will be better than what the courts are ready to prepare and to consider presently. This concept is an important contribution to the complex task of coming up with new ways for the Canadian courts and the aboriginal communities to work together.

Work Cited

Bell, D.G., “Historians and the Culture of the Courts” Acadiensis 28 (1) 1988: 23 – 26. Retrieved from http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/acadiensis/article/view/10829/11637

Culhane, Dara, “Adding injury to insult: Her Majestry’s Loyal Anthropologist” BC Studies 95 (1992): 66-92. Retrieved from http://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/bcstudies/article/view/1438/1482

Fisher, Robin, :judging History: Reflections on the Reasons For Judgement in Delgamuukw v. BC” BC Studies 95 (1992): 34-54. Retrieved from http://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/bcstudies/article/view/1436

Patterson, Stephen E., “Historians and the Culture of the Courts” Acadiensis 28 (1) 1988:18-2. Retrieved from http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/acadiensis/article/view/10828/11635

Ray, Arthur J., Telling it to the judge: Taking Native History to court, Montreal: Mcgrill Queen’s University Press, 201. Retrieved from

https://bcstudies.com/reviews.php?id=838777

Reid, John G., Williams C. Wicken, Stephen E. Patterson, D.G. Bell, “History, Native Issues and the Courts: A forum” Acadiensis 28 (1) 1998: 1-5. Retrived from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30303162

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Extent to which the acquisition of Reebok International Ltd. by Adidas Group been effective as a growth strategy

Extent to which the acquisition of Reebok International Ltd. by Adidas Group been effective as a growth strategy

Extended Essay

Business & Management

 

RESEARCH QUESTION:

                                                                                        

To what extent has the acquisition of Reebok International Ltd. by Adidas Group been effective as a growth strategy?

                                                                                        

 

 

Candidate Name:
IB Candidate Number:
School Name: Emirates
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Date: DD/MM/YY
Date Submitted: //14

Word Count:3990

Abstract

This essay responded to the research question “To what extent has the acquisition of Reebok International Ltd. by Adidas Group been effective as a growth strategy?”An analysis of secondary data such as income statements and annual reports of years 2004-2007 was conducted on Adidas Group to evaluate revenue patterns before and after the acquisition. Furthermore, the interview with the assistant strategic manager of Adidas-Reebok Company was done to find out the extent of the merger’s growth. To find the extent of growth, the essay conducted SWOT analysis and financial and performance analysis of Adidas before the merger, and similar analysis of the Adidas-Reebok merger after the acquisition. The tools that were considered in financial and performance analysis included the cash flows, sales, market stock prices, and net income. From the SWOT analysis and the financial analysis of the company, it was evident that the Adidas has grown to a significant extent. Similarly, the paper explored several growth indicators after the acquisition of Reebok international limited by Adidas Group to measure whether there had been declining or inclining growth and whether it was substantial, mediocre or insignificant. The growth indicators discussed included cost of synergies, financial economies, economies of scale, increase of market share, and the stock performance of the merger. Through the analysis of the growth indicators, the essay showed that Adidas-Reebok Company benefited from cost of synergies, increased financial economies and economies of scale, increased its market share to 20% globally, and has traded healthily in the stock markets. The essay also highlighted some of the challenges the merger had faced and they include hindrance in financial growth, lack of control and coordination, poor working relationships and external diseconomies of scale. The essay was then summarized by a conclusion.

Total Word Count=290

 

 

Table of Contents

Abstract 1

Table of Figures. 3

1.0      Introduction. 4

2.0      Methodology. 5

2.1      Primary research. 5

2.2      Secondary research. 5

3.0      Company background. 5

4.0      Analysis of Adidas and Adidas-Reebok. 7

4.1      SWOT analysis. 7

4.1.1       SWOT analysis of Adidas before acquisition. 7

4.1.2       SWOT analysis of Adidas-Reebok Merger 8

4.2      Financial and performance analysis. 13

4.2.1       The financial and performance analysis of Adidas before acquisition of Reebok. 13

4.2.2       The financial and performance analysis of Adidas-Reebok Merger 15

5.0      Growth indicators after acquisition of Reebok international limited by Adidas group. 19

5.1      Synergies through acquisition. 19

5.2      Financial Economies 22

5.3      Economies of scale. 24

5.4      Increase of market share. 25

5.5      Stock market performance of Adidas-Reebok merger 26

6.0      Challenges to the acquisition growth strategy in Adidas-Reebok Company. 27

7.0      Conclusion. 28

8.0      Bibliography. 29

9.0      Appendices 32

9.1      Appendix 1. 32

9.2      Appendix 2. 33

9.3      Appendix 3. 34

9.4      Appendix 4. 35

9.5      Appendix 5. 36

Table of Figures

Figure 1. 13

Figure 2. 15

Figure 3. 15

Figure 4. 17

Figure 5. 18

Figure 6. 20

Figure 7. 26

1.0    Introduction

McCarthy (2013)[1] defined acquisition as the process of takeover of a company, in which a company buys almost all or most of the ownership stakes of the target company to get control. The process entails buying and a selling strategy to rapidly grow a company by taking over the firm’s niche and operations. The process of acquisition is one of the growth strategies of a company and is more beneficial than internal expansion. This is because through acquisition, the company will take advantage of the synergies, lower risks, integrate easily, get easier financing, get economies of scale, expand its market share and distribution channels and eliminate its competitors. The main purpose of acquiring a firm according to Finkelstein et al (2010)[2] is to take over the new business areas and finance the operations of the acquired firm in the same industry under one umbrella. The merged firms has many advantages as opposed to single firms operating individually in the market since both companies will combine their operations, human resource, research and development facilities, finance, and the managerial team and operate as one entity.[3] Acquisitions are paid through acquiring the stocks of the target company or in cash, or both. Adidas group acquired Reebok international limited in 2005. Both companies were operating in the sports footwear and apparel industry. While Reebok was based in United States, Adidas group was a German based company. Nike Inc was the global market leader, followed by Adidas group and Reebok third. Therefore, the acquisition of Reebok international ltd by Adidas group was bound to make tremendous changes in the market place. Despite the fact that the acquisition of Reebok by Adidas group was for strategic growth, the merger has progresses although faced numerous challenges likewise, hence the research question “To what extent has the acquisition of Reebok International Ltd. by Adidas Group been effective as a growth strategy?

2.0    Methodology

Relevant secondary & primary data will be extracted from the two sporting goods companies, and the findings will be explored and evaluated. Secondary sources will consist of online articles and annual reports before and after the acquisition occurred.

2.1     Primary research

(1) Interview with assistant strategic manager of Adidas-Reebok Company, Robert Magill.

2.2     Secondary research

  • Adidas Group Annual Report
  • Reebok International Ltd. Annual Report
  • Online article of acquisition
  • Relevant text books, Newspapers, Magazines

3.0    Company background

Recently in the modern business world, organizations have found it to be exceedingly important to adopt external growth strategies by merging, taking over and acquiring foreign firms either vertically or horizontally. Acquisitions have been substantially implemented in growing markets such as the sports industry. This involves the case of UK Company, Reebok being acquired by German based parent company Adidas Group on May 6th, 2006.[4] The acquisition was a strategic maneuver in order to gain higher market share, to achieve a larger extent of economies of scale and to diversify their products. Adidas Group would now be able to sell a wider product segment as Reebok were initially specialized in meeting the needs of “team” sports whereas Adidas were specialized in meeting the needs of “individual” sports. The two firms that complimented each other would have the chance to compete with market leaders, Nike.

In 2005, both Adidas-Salomon and Reebok reached an agreement where Adidas- Salomon acquired Reebok. The deal shaped the apparel and footwear industry since Adidas-Reebok currently control 20% of the market although still behind the main competitor Nike which is value to be $145 billion globally.[5]

Smit (2008)[6] noted that the transaction also brought together other brands of Reebok like the Greg Norman and Rockport line of golf apparel, and other lines of Adidas such as TaylorMade apparel business and golf equipment and Salomon ski franchise

The shares of Reebok went at $59 for €3.2 billion offer. This also included net minorities and cash, with a €3.1 billion transaction value.[7] The annual synergies cost was estimated to be €125 million.[8] According to Adidas AG (2014),[9] Reebok was a world leader in athletic apparel and footwear with an estimated €820 million in operating profits and €8,899 million in sales. The company had strong positions and better balanced three main regions; Asia 15%, North America 35% and Europe 46%.[10]

4.0    Analysis of Adidas and Adidas-Reebok

4.1     SWOT analysis

4.1.1   SWOT analysis of Adidas before acquisition

Strength

  • Strong brand name
  • Top market position
  • Diversified operations geographically

Weakness

  • Low inventory turnover
  • Poor margins

Opportunities

  • Growing global market of footwear
  • Healthier lifestyles adoption
  • Sponsorship agreements

Threats

  • Many legal risks
  • Counterfeits
  • The rising raw material costs[11]

4.1.2   SWOT analysis of Adidas-Reebok Merger

Strength

The acquisition of Reebok by Adidas led to some strength to the companies. The first strength is that the merger concentrates on production of diversified products to different consumer markets. Furthermore, due to research and upgrade of the merger, there has been increase of product lines of Adidas and Reebok products.  Furthermore, the large global market of the merger and the increased shares for Adidas-Reebok after the acquisition is strength.[12] David (2007)[13] indicated that Reebok sells in wholesale while Adidas is premium. Therefore, their merger has acquired the lower, middle and upper level markets globally. Lastly, the other strengths of the merger are the sharing of human resource, methodology of operations, skills set, expertise of the employees, research and development between the companies.[14] Other strengths include:

  • It has a strong innovation team in its research and development with links to other research partners like Waseda University (Tokyo), University of Michigan, and University of Loughborough.
  • Adidas-Reebok has a stronghold in the soccer industry
  • It has no bad reputation like environmental pollution or child labor
  • In its distribution channel, It has strong control
  • Variety and diversity of products offered online such as sporting equipments, apparel, and footwear among others
  • Reputation and recognition of its two brands (Adidas and Reebok) in addition to its 2400 worldwide stores in different regions.
  • Strong management team from both Reebok and Adidas
  • It is the biggest sponsor in several events such as UEFA and FIFA competitions, Olympics, NBA and other sports personalities like Reggie Bush and David Beckam.[15]

Weakness

The biggest weakness identified by Fireman (2005)[16] has been the sizes of the two companies and the complexity of the process of acquisition. Both Adidas and Reebok had huge productions and global markets and there management has been a challenge. Moreover, before the merger rolled out an appropriate strategy of disposing off the goods, there was wastage of goods. Lastly, the merger has been slow in streamlining the workforce of both two companies since the acquisition since the management profiles of both Adidas and Reebok were different.[17] Questionable quality of its products has also been raised since the company outsources 97% Adidas global production from Asian third party manufacturers to reduce production costs.[18] Other weaknesses according to DePamphilis (2007)[19] include:

  • Some of its products prices are high
  • Unhelpful or no online customer care services
  • The merger sells directly to its consumers and hence creating conflicts with the distributors and resellers of their products
  • Limited e-commerce in United states

Opportunity

Reduction of Operations costs has been great opportunity for the merger in areas such as the manufacturing units, and costs of research and development. Moreover, the acquisition has reduced the competition in the market since the major competitors are Nike and Puma.[20] According to Peng et al (2007),[21] Adidas-Reebok merger has been very much flexible in promoting their products brands, and this can be amplified by using celebrities like the start athletes for Adidas-Reebok to promote the brand. Lastly, the merger should adopt diversified marketing strategies to promote the Adidas-Reebok brand. Other opportunities for the merger according to Gaughan (2006)[22] include:

  • Invest in e-commerce or outsource a web developer
  • Collaborate with established online retailers to sell its products
  • Increase female participation in sports
  • Global sponsorship of sports events to boost its brand worldwide
  • The revival and gradual growth of Reebok in recent years.[23]

Threat

According to Kaplan (2010),[24] cannibalization has been the biggest threat to the Adidas-Reebok company. Before the merger both companies had huge markets and brands. However, after the merger the market of penetration of unpopular brand in a market formerly dominated by another partner brand has been difficult. This has resulted to cannibalization of the unpopular products hence reducing the market share. Similarly, a similar merger in future between puma and Nike is a big threat to Adidas-Reebok merger. Another threat is if Adidas-Reebok merger concentrates on the market share of one particular company because it can result to spoiling their mergers reputation. Other threats highlighted by Begg (2006)[25] include:

  • Increasing challenges on its products export and import duties
  • Negative images from the companies sponsored athletes, for instance the sexual assault case by Kobe Brayant
  • The strong reputation from its main competitor, Nike in the apparel and footwear industry

4.2     Financial and performance analysis

4.2.1   The financial and performance analysis of Adidas before acquisition of Reebok

The net sales of Adidas from continuing operations in 2004 were € 5.9 billion,[26] and the attributable net income to shareholders from discounted and continuing operations was €314 billion.[27] Peng et al (2007)[28] indicated that since 2001 after the new management took over, the price of the shares more than doubled. Moreover, in 2005 the dividends increased by 30% to € 1.30.[29] Figure 1 indicates the first quarter of 2004 and 2005 of Adidas, Salomon, TaylorMade-Adidas golf in 2005

Figure 1

According to Adidas (n.d),[30] Adidas divested in Salomon business and this increased its profitability. Moreover, the company recorded in 2005 global growth trends that are impressive. For instance, in Europe, the sales of first half year (H1) grew by 1% on a neutral basis of currency in 2005.[31] Moreover, the excitement related to world cup spurred growth from the second half (H2) of 2005 onwards. In North America, in H1 of 2005, the currency-neutral sales of Adidas grew by 18 %.[32] Buffoni (2013)[33] noted that Adidas also intensified its focus on profitability in North American region. On the other hand, the H1backlogs and currency neutral sales in Asia increased by 30%.[34] Similarly, in Latin America, the H1 currency neutral sales were u by 36%.[35] This was a thirteen consecutive double digit quarters growth. Figure 2 indicates the sales of first quarter of 2004 and 2005 of Adidas-Salomon by region in 2005. The figure 3 indicates the Adidas backlog by category of product and region by March 2005. Refer to appendix 1 and 2 for the Income statement and net sales of Adidas-Salomon in 2004 and 2005

Figure 2

Figure 3

4.2.2   The financial and performance analysis of Adidas-Reebok Merger

Since acquisition of Reebok by Adidas in 2006, the growth of Adidas has been reduced by Reebok. Fireman (2005)[36] observed that the sales of Reebok brand declined for the three consecutive years since its acquisition. The Reebok sales slumped by 26% in 2012[37] second quarter, hence reducing the revenue. The performance of Reebok was in sharp contrast to Adidas whose sales increased by 10% in 2012 to about 14.5 billion.[38] Figure 4 indicates the financial overview of the net sales by brand from 2009 to 2013.

Five year Overview        2013                2012                  2011                  2010                  2009  

Figure 4

Smit (2006)[39] pointed out that initially Adidas forecasted the sakes of Reebok to be €3 billion in 2015 but lowered it to € 2 billion because of commercial irregularities in its Indian branch of Reebok. This cost Adidas approximately €200 million in restricting the operations in India. Furthermore, Nike the main competitor of Adidas replaced Reebok as the apparel supplier for NFL in 2012.[40] This was because the contract was not in line with the new focus of Reebok on all fitness things. André (2013)[41] indicated that the termination of the contract resulted to a loss of sales in 2012 of approximately $200 million. Moreover, the forecast of Adidas brand by 2015 will be €12.8 billion[42], and this will be 5% increase from the projection in 2010 of €12.2 billion.[43] The other projections of business units of Adidas by 2015 include Reebok-CCM Hockey and Rockport €2.2 billion, up from €1.8 billion which was an initial focus in 2010.[44] Figure 5 indicates the net sales by product category from year 2009 to 2013

Five year Overview        2013                2012                  2011                  2010                  2009  

Figure 5

McCarthy (2013)[45] noted that Herbert Hainer, the Chief executive said that Reebok will come up with new products focusing on categories of fitness such as gym, running, cross fit, keep-fit, dance and yoga. The expected sales of Adidas sport-styles are also expected to increase by 2015 by €3.9 billion compared to €3.7[46] which was the initial forecast. The overall target of Adidas group sales by 2015 is €17 billion[47] with expected faster growth in golf business and Adidas brand to offset the Reebok weakness. Buffoni (2013)[48] observed that the projected operating profit margin of Adidas   by 2015 would be 11%, since 2012 it was 8%, and 2013 it was 9%.

Adidas AG (2014)[49] pointed out that this year may 2014 Adidas paid dividends of €1.50 per share. This represented €314 million dividend payout with 37.4% net income payout ratio attributed to the shareholders, Compared to the previous year of about 35.7 %.[50] Figure 6 indicates the dividend per share for Adidas-Reebok from 2006 to 2013. Refer to appendix 3 for income statements of Adidas-Reebok from 2009-2013, and appendix 4 for income statement of first half year and second quarter 2013/2014

Figure 6

From the SWOT analysis of Adidas before and after the acquisition, there are factors that indicate that acquisition of Reebok Company by Adidas group has led to its growth. For instance, through the acquisition Adidas-Reebok has expanded its research and development team to ensure that their products are relevant to the market, and are produced according to the customers’ demand. Moreover, through acquisition, the company has increased its channels of distribution and this has ensured that its products reaches the a larger market than before. The merger has also grown their brands to the point that its two brand has gain more reputation and recognition. Growth has also been seen in the expanded management team from both companies merged

Similarly, from the financial analysis, it is evident that Adidas-Reebok Merger has increased their net sales compared to Adidas group in 2005 from 7520 to 11,059. This is an indication of growth. The dividends to the shareholders have also increased over a five year period from €0.42 to €1.50.  The essay will from this point discuss the growth indicators of a merger and acquisition and relate them to Adidas-Reebok merger to show its growth  since the acquisition.

 

5.0    Growth indicators after acquisition of Reebok international limited by Adidas group

The acquisition that occurred between Adidas Group and Reebok International Ltd. was an inorganic growth strategy in order to gain a larger concentration ratio in the industry.

5.1     Synergies through acquisition

The benefits a company can get after strategic acquisition are results of economies of scale and synergies. In an acquisition that is well executed, the buyer can take full advantage of the synergies. This means that the two merged companies will be more profitable and stronger that either of the companies before. DePamphilis (2007)[51] defined synergy as more or two things combined are more effective or better that the sum of their individual parts. For instance, the merger of Adidas group and Reebok international limited combined their resources, and had more than their individual values.

According to Finkelstein (2010),[52] the key to company’s growth by acquisition is by utilizing the synergies. A company can expand and grow quickly, cheaply and face fewer risks through acquisition,[53] furthermore, it offers several; advantages such as instant economies of scale and easier financing. The competitive advantage of a merger is formidable and it catches its main competitors off guard, eliminates competitors and also in market penetrating to the areas the company was considered weak.[54] Acquisition of Reebok international ltd by Adidas group was strategic move for cheaper and quicker growth. The acquisition offered Adidas Company many advantages such as expansion of its economies of scale and easier financing. The financial pool and assets of both companies are now at the disposal of Adidas group. Furthermore, the acquisition provided Adidas-Reebok Company with competitive advantage to other competitors such as puma and made the merger the second largest company controlling the global footwear industry.[55] Smit (2008)[56] pointed out that the acquisition took off guard the main rivals of Adidas such as Nike and Puma, and also enable it to penetrate more markets where Adidas was weak

Synergistic acquisition according to Kaplan (2010)[57] is not only limited to acquisition of the direct companies. A Company can acquire another company to take advantage of the distribution channels of each of the companies. For instance, Adidas acquired Reebok International Ltd and took advantage of Reebok’s already established channels of distribution. The Adidas products were being sold through the Reeboks distribution channels, and also Reeboks products through the Adidas distribution channels

Acquisition can also be done by acquiring a company in a different geographic area but in the same industry. Cost synergies are realized when some services or departments can be centralized between the two companies to gain the economies of scale through the volume of business increase.[58] This is also evident after the acquisition of Reebok by Adidas where they were in different geographical areas but in the same industry. Buffoni (2013)[59] pointed out that Adidas-Reebok Company centralized some of its operations and services such as the customer service to take advantage of the economies of scale because of increase in business volume

The catalysts that drive may acquisitions of many businesses involve synergies. When many different companies merge, they become greater than when they are operating individually. The synergies that involves economies of scale and marketing has many benefits and opportunities that involve reduced overhead expenses, purchasing volume discounts, and production

5.2     Financial Economies

As much as organic growth or internal growth is better for a company, inorganic or external growth is good for rapid expansion of a business.[60] It is often much harder to acquire financial assistance from financial institutions for quick growth projections. However, a company can grow by over 100% rapidly through acquisition.[61] However, as much as there are associated dangers with rapid growth for a company, in acquisitions they are less existent since the systems of handling the growth of the merger are always already established. Hollensen (2014)[62] indicated that as much as the systems may need some changing and tweaking to fit in with the companies procedures, but there is a higher likelihood  that for a certain period of time they are serviceable, and that it will be easy to make the adjustments to achieve the rapid growth of a company.

Similarly, for financing an acquisition, the fincial institutions such as banks readily accepts growth projections from acquisitions than the traditional modest growths. This is because the bankers make projections for a company based on the financial performance of the past as shown from the company’s financial statements. Moreover, as much as business plans is required before financing, the banks requires the tangible assets which they can get hold of if necessary. Furthermore, the bankers draw inferences of the companies past performance from analyzing the cash flows.[63]

Acquisition of Reebok by Adidas increased the assets and the fincial economies of the merger. This has placed them in better position for growth since they have easy access of financing their operations and for growth expansion. Fincial economy of Adidas-Reebok has increased after the merger, and this has influenced its growth. It had an established system of handling its rapid growth plan, has tangible cash flows from both companies to indicate its credit worthiness and to support its growth projections based on the past impressive performance by Adidas group.[64]

DePamphilis (2007)[65] elaborated that as much as a banker can easily finance a merger, the sellers themselves can provide some of the needed cash to the buyer for purchasing their company at a lower interests through owner financing. Similarly, when acquisition process takes place, the buying company also acquires the large customer base that is already established. The new customers to the buyer are new to the buyer but they will continue doing business with the acquired business which they have been buying goods from for many years. As much as Reebok did not finance its own acquisition, Adidas settled the agreed amount from its own means. However, Adidas group bought new loyal customer base of Reebok international limited. These customers has continued being loyal to products and the brand of Reebok and therefore, as much as Adidas group own Reebok Company, the customer base of Reebok remains loyal to its brands.[66]

5.3     Economies of scale

In acquisition, the economies of scale production is obvious since many benefits of scale will be gotten when the facilities of production increases their operations. However, McCarthy (2013)[67] pointed out that economies of scale comes into play in areas such as production, professional expertise, administration, marketing as well as other areas. In Adidas-Reebok, the production increased from 50% to 85%. Additionally, Professional expertise, administration and marketing from both companies had economies of scale.[68] Figure 7 indicate the number of employees from year 2009-2013 in Adidas-Reebok Company.

Five year Overview        2013                2012                  2011                  2010                  2009 

Figure 7

5.4     Increase of market share

The simple logic benefit of buying a competitor in the market is having fewer competitors after the purchase. In the shoe market, there are many several players in the industry with few major players. However, after acquisition of Reebok Company, Adidas reduced his number of competitors by one, and now controls 20% of the market share after Nike.[69] This was an effective growth strategy for Adidas group.

Market share of a company that that has acquired another firm in the same industry can increase, with the accompanying influence in the market. According to Finkelstein et al (2010),[70] a firm with formidable share of the market can make prices more confidently and other decisions in the business instead of responding to what others do in the market. Adidas-Reebok merger can increase their prices without losing their clients, and this will make them influence the market as other small firms in the market will also increase their prices. However, other smaller companies in the market cannot influence Adidas-Reebok to change its prices they increase theirs since they do not have economies of scale.

5.5     Stock market performance of Adidas-Reebok merger

André (2013)[71] observed that the share prices of Adidas and Reebok increased from the time the process of merger was commenced until its completion. Adidas acquired Reebok’s stocks and the open market stocks also. For each Reebok’s share, Adidas paid $59[72] on the date of merger. Moreover, in 2005 august 22nd, the stock of Adidas in Frankfurt stock exchange rose by 7% from €147 to €158[73] just after one day. Similarly, in New York stock exchange, the Reebok stocks rose by 30% by one day from $44 to $57 from 2nd to 3rd august 2005.[74]

Adidas shares also dropped by as much as 3% in Frankfurt trading at €64.91 on September 2012[75] this was a drop by 1.5% after gaining a 30% increase to about €65.76 in 2012.[76]

6.0    Challenges to the acquisition growth strategy in Adidas-Reebok Company

Despite the fact that the merger has seen significant growth in many areas, it has also seen challenges in sectors.

  • Fincial growth hindrance– the merger has faced financial downfall in Reebok Company since its acquisition. This has hampered growth of Adidas group and necessitated injection of more financial capital. The branch of Reebok in India had financial mismanagement in 2012, and their contract with NFL was cancelled making the company loose $400 million in total.[77]
  • Lack of control and coordination– both countries operated different line of products, were in different geographical locations also. There had been the problem of coordination and control since Adidas is new in United States market, the uncertainty of the future of employees after the merger and change of management.[78]
  • Poor working relationships– as much as the merger brought the two companies together, they were former rivals. Therefore, suspicion has prevailed between and this has led to poor working relationships.[79]
  • External diseconomies of scale– these are factors that beyond the mergers control and have increased their total costs. For instance, increase in output in the industry, market prices and increase in raw materials costs.[80]

7.0    Conclusion

In conclusion, since the acquisition of Reebok international Limited by Adidas group, the company has grown and expanded in many areas. Adidas-Reebok currently controls 20% of the market after Nike Inc, the market leader. The merger has brought economies of scale, financial economies and large pool of human resource from the two firms. Moreover, the merger has taken advantage of synergy costs due to the merger and is recording improvement in sales. As much as the sales of Reebok has been slumping the growth of Adidas, the management has introduced expansion and product strategy to meet its target projections by 2015. The merger has also diversified its markets and products to suit all levels of market from low, middle and upper markets. Other growth that has been achieved due to the acquisition are wider brand recognition, trusted image and reputation. However, the merger has also faced challenges in its operations such as regional specialization, hindrance in financial growth, lack of control and coordination, poor working relationships and external diseconomies of scale

8.0    Bibliography

Adidas AG. 2014. New York, NY: Datamonitor. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&jid=BR5.>

Adidas. n.d. <http://www.weblinksresearch.com.au.>

Adidas-Salomon AG SWOT Analysis. n.d. Business Source Complete. Munster: Datamonitor Plc. <http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?db=bth&jid=%22BR5%22&scope=site&site=bsi.>

André Richelieu, and Michel Desbordes. 2013. “Sports teams and equipment manufacturers going international: The strategic leverage of co-branding”. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. 3 (1): 63-77.

Begg, P. F. C. 2006. Corporate acquisitions and mergers: a practical guide to the legal, financial, and administrative implications. London: Graham & Trotman.

Buffoni, Franco. 2013. Adidas. Paris: Créaphis.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/key-financial-data/five-year-overview/>

Coyle, Brian. 2000. Mergers and acquisitions. Chicago: Glenlake Pub. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=52734.>

David Rygl, M Kittler, and Tobias Dennerlein. 2007. Success of International M&As: The case of adidas’ acquisition of Reebok. ecch.

DePamphilis, Donald M. 2007. Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities. Amsterdam: Elservier/Academic Press. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=319671.>

Finkelstein, Sydney, and Cary L. Cooper. 2010. Advances in mergers and acquisitions. United Kingdom: Emerald. <http://site.ebrary.com/id/10445340.>

Fireman, P. 2005. “Back in 1991, Reebok’s CEO laid out the four essentials of global leadership. The payoff: In 2005, a $3.8 billion acquisition offer”. Directors & Boards. 30 (1): 16-16.

Gaughan, Patrick A. 2006. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructurings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hollensen, Svend. 2014. Global marketing. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Kaplan, Steven N. 2010. Mergers and productivity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. <http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=408372.>

McCarthy, George D. 2013. Acquisitions and mergers. New York: Ronald Press Co.

Peng, Yangjun, Jiaojiao Chen, and Serena Narain. 2007. Adidas. Singapore: Page One.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/share/dividends-overview/>

Smit, Barbara. 2006. Pitch invasion: three stripes, two brothers, one feud – Adidas and the making of modern sport. London: Allen Lane.

Smit, Barbara. 2008. Sneaker wars: the enemy brothers who founded Adidas and Puma and the family feud that forever changed the business of sport. New York: Ecco.

“SPORTS Reebok to turn up the volume – Reebok’s acquisition by Adidas has given it the muscle to make the sort of noise expected of a USD3bn brand”. 2006. Marketing. 24

9.0    Appendices

9.1     Appendix 1

 

9.2     Appendix 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.3     Appendix 3

Five year Overview        2013                2012                  2011                  2010                  2009  

 

 

 

9.4     Appendix 4

 

 

9.5     Appendix 5

Interview between Bob Brian (BB) and Robert Magill (BM), the assistant strategic manager of a local distributor of Adidas-Reebok products on 24th September 2014 in Dubai

BB: why did Adidas Group Acquire Reebok International Ltd?

BM:  Adidas group acquired Reebok company to expand its operations and also as a strategy for growth

BB: since the acquisition, Reebok has continued to record dismissal performance and burdening Adidas growth. Why the low performance

BM: Reebok has faced some financial difficulties and that’s a fact. Majorly it has been due to  shift in demand for other goods,  their goods has been moving slowly, cancelling of some major supply contracts and also financial improprieties in some branches like the India branch in 2012.

BB: What has some of the growth Adidas has achieved since the merger in 2005?

BM: generally some of the growths include increase in workforce, economies of scale, financial economies, synergy, increase in products and distribution channels, increase in market size, reduction of competitors and increase in stock prices

BB: what are some of the challenges the merger has faced from 2005

BM: like any other merger, there have been numerous challenges to the company but the company has faced and tackled them well. First is the hindrance in financial growth. As you know the Reebok company has been performing dismissaly, Adidas has to finance some of its operations to make it going. Another is lack of control and coordination in the few years after the deal was complete. Both employees are to be incorporated, management realigned. This also led to poor working relationships because of suspicions and lack of trust. Lastly are the external diseconomies of scale from the market such as the governments laws, prevailing political atmospheres, economic changes among others which the company ha no control over.

BB: What are the core strengths of the company?

BM: the Adidas-Reebok merger has very many strengths such as strong research and development teams, stronghold in the soccer industry, efficient distribution channel, variety of products serving all market levels, two renowned international brands, strong management teams and employees and effective corporate social responsibility among others

BB: Lastly, what is the future of Adidas-Reebok? Are there opportunities for the merger?

BM: as a company, we foresee significant growth in future. Some of the opportunities the merger will take advantage of include the adoption of diversified market strategies to promote our brand. The company also plans to invest in ecommerce, for collaboration with established online retailers, increase the female participation, and increase its global sponsorship of sports events.

 

[1] McCarthy, George D. 2013. Acquisitions and mergers. New York: Ronald Press Co.

[2] Finkelstein, Sydney, and Cary L. Cooper. 2010. Advances in mergers and acquisitions. United Kingdom: Emerald. <http://site.ebrary.com/id/10445340.>

[3] Gaughan, Patrick A. 2006. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructurings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[4] Peng, Yangjun, Jiaojiao Chen, and Serena Narain. 2007. Adidas. Singapore: Page One.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/share/dividends-overview/>

[5] Buffoni, Franco. 2013. Adidas. Paris: Créaphis.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/key-financial-data/five-year-overview/>

[6] Smit, Barbara. 2008. Sneaker wars: the enemy brothers who founded Adidas and Puma and the family feud that forever changed the business of sport. New York: Ecco.

[7] Smit, Barbara. 2006. Pitch invasion: three stripes, two brothers, one feud – Adidas and the making of modern sport. London: Allen Lane

[8] Ibid.,17

[9] Adidas AG. 2014. New York, NY: Datamonitor. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&jid=BR5.>

[10] Ibid.,112

[11] Adidas-Salomon AG SWOT Analysis. n.d. Business Source Complete. Munster: Datamonitor Plc. <http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?db=bth&jid=%22BR5%22&scope=site&site=bsi.>

[12] André Richelieu, and Michel Desbordes. 2013. “Sports teams and equipment manufacturers going international: The strategic leverage of co-branding”. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. 3 (1): 63-77.

[13] David Rygl, M Kittler, and Tobias Dennerlein. 2007. Success of International M&As: The case of adidas’ acquisition of Reebok. ecch.

[14] Ibid.,201

[15] Interview with the strategic manager, September 2014

[16] Fireman, P. 2005. “Back in 1991, Reebok’s CEO laid out the four essentials of global leadership. The payoff: In 2005, a $3.8 billion acquisition offer”. Directors & Boards. 30 (1): 16-16.

[17] “SPORTS Reebok to turn up the volume – Reebok’s acquisition by Adidas has given it the muscle to make the sort of noise expected of a USD3bn brand”. 2006. Marketing. 24.

[18] Ibid.,302

[19] DePamphilis, Donald M. 2007. Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities. Amsterdam: Elservier/Academic Press. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=319671.>

[20] Smit, Barbara. 2008. Sneaker wars: the enemy brothers who founded Adidas and Puma and the family feud that forever changed the business of sport. New York: Ecco.

[21] Peng, Yangjun, Jiaojiao Chen, and Serena Narain. 2007. Adidas. Singapore: Page One.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/share/dividends-overview/>

[22] Gaughan, Patrick A. 2006. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructurings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[23] Interview with the strategic manager, September 2014

[24] Kaplan, Steven N. 2010. Mergers and productivity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. <http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=408372.>

[25] Begg, P. F. C. 2006. Corporate acquisitions and mergers: a practical guide to the legal, financial, and administrative implications. London: Graham & Trotman

[26] Hollensen, Svend. 2014. Global marketing. Harlow: Pearson Education.

[27] Ibid.,66

[28] Peng, Yangjun, Jiaojiao Chen, and Serena Narain. 2007. Adidas. Singapore: Page One.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/share/dividends-overview/>

[29] Ibid.,119

[30] Adidas. n.d. <http://www.weblinksresearch.com.au.>

[31] Ibid.,2

[32] Ibid.,3

[33] Buffoni, Franco. 2013. Adidas. Paris: Créaphis.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/key-financial-data/five-year-overview/>

[34] Ibid.,34

[35] Ibid.,34

[36] Fireman, P. 2005. “Back in 1991, Reebok’s CEO laid out the four essentials of global leadership. The payoff: In 2005, a $3.8 billion acquisition offer”. Directors & Boards. 30 (1): 16-16.

[37] Ibid.,16

[38] Adidas AG. 2014. New York, NY: Datamonitor. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&jid=BR5.>

[39] Smit, Barbara. 2006. Pitch invasion: three stripes, two brothers, one feud – Adidas and the making of modern sport. London: Allen Lane.

[40] André Richelieu, and Michel Desbordes. 2013. “Sports teams and equipment manufacturers going international: The strategic leverage of co-branding”. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. 3 (1): 63-77.

[41] Ibid.,65

[42] Ibid.,65

[43] Ibid.,66

[44] Ibid.,71

[45] McCarthy, George D. 2013. Acquisitions and mergers. New York: Ronald Press Co.

[46] Adidas. n.d. <http://www.weblinksresearch.com.au.>

[47] Ibid.,nd

[48] Buffoni, Franco. 2013. Adidas. Paris: Créaphis.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/key-financial-data/five-year-overview/>

[49] Adidas AG. 2014. New York, NY: Datamonitor. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&jid=BR5.>

[50] Ibid.,217

[51] DePamphilis, Donald M. 2007. Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities. Amsterdam: Elservier/Academic Press. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=319671.>

[52] Finkelstein, Sydney, and Cary L. Cooper. 2010. Advances in mergers and acquisitions. United Kingdom: Emerald. <http://site.ebrary.com/id/10445340.>

[53] Ibid.,391

[54] Gaughan, Patrick A. 2006. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructurings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[55] Ibid.,151

[56] Smit, Barbara. 2008. Sneaker wars: the enemy brothers who founded Adidas and Puma and the family feud that forever changed the business of sport. New York: Ecco.

[57] Kaplan, Steven N. 2010. Mergers and productivity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. <http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=408372.>

[58] Begg, P. F. C. 2006. Corporate acquisitions and mergers: a practical guide to the legal, financial, and administrative implications. London: Graham & Trotman.

[59] Buffoni, Franco. 2013. Adidas. Paris: Créaphis.< http://www.Adidas-group.com/en/investors/key-financial-data/five-year-overview/>

[60] Coyle, Brian. 2000. Mergers and acquisitions. Chicago: Glenlake Pub. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=52734.>

[61] Ibid.,49

[62] Hollensen, Svend. 2014. Global marketing. Harlow: Pearson Education.

[63] Ibid.,127

[64] Smit, Barbara. 2006. Pitch invasion: three stripes, two brothers, one feud – Adidas and the making of modern sport. London: Allen Lane.

[65] DePamphilis, Donald M. 2007. Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities. Amsterdam: Elservier/Academic Press. <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=319671.>

[66] Adidas-Salomon AG SWOT Analysis. n.d. Business Source Complete. Munster: Datamonitor Plc. <http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?db=bth&jid=%22BR5%22&scope=site&site=bsi.>

[67] McCarthy, George D. 2013. Acquisitions and mergers. New York: Ronald Press Co.

[68] Adidas AG. 2014. New York, NY: Datamonitor. <http://search.epnet.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&jid=BR5.>

[69] Ibid.,73

[70] Finkelstein, Sydney, and Cary L. Cooper. 2010. Advances in mergers and acquisitions. United Kingdom: Emerald. <http://site.ebrary.com/id/10445340.>

[71] André Richelieu, and Michel Desbordes. 2013. “Sports teams and equipment manufacturers going international: The strategic leverage of co-branding”. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. 3 (1): 63-77.

[72] Ibid.,68

[73] Ibid.,69

[74] Ibid.,69

[75] Ibid.,70

[76] Ibid.,70

[77] David Rygl, M Kittler, and Tobias Dennerlein. 2007. Success of International M&As: The case of adidas’ acquisition of Reebok. ecch.

[78] “SPORTS Reebok to turn up the volume – Reebok’s acquisition by Adidas has given it the muscle to make the sort of noise expected of a USD3bn brand”. 2006. Marketing. 24.

[79] Fireman, P. 2005. “Back in 1991, Reebok’s CEO laid out the four essentials of global leadership. The payoff: In 2005, a $3.8 billion acquisition offer”. Directors & Boards. 30 (1): 16-16.

[80] Ibid.,16

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The Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners in Digital Technology

Quantitative Investigation of the Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners in Digital Technology

Quantitative Investigation of the Satisfaction of Older Adult Learners in Digital Technology

Summary

In the past two decades, the number of the adult learners who engages in online learning has grown rapidly due to the many advantages of online learning. However, as much as there is growth in the number of adult learner using online leaning method, there is more concern because of the high rate of dropouts among many higher education organizations and institutions. The study purpose was to find out whether drop outs and the persistent learners have any differences in their individual characteristics such as educational level, gender, and age; the external factor s such as organizational support and family. The quantitative data used in the study was collected from 147 learners who had completed one of the programs in online courses offered or dropped out of the large university of Midwestern. The persistent and drop out learners showed statistical differences in organizational and family support perceptions, and relevance and satisfaction. Furthermore, it was indicated that the theoretical framework, which consists of organizational support, family support, relevance, satisfaction in addition to individual characteristics, has the ability of to predict the decisions of the learners to persist or to drop out. Relevance and organizational support were particularly shown to e predictive. The implications of the compiled results are that the organizations need to support their adult learners for them to complete their online courses they enrolled for.

Critical analysis

There exist no simple solutions that will keep the adult students to persist with their online courses if not the support from their immediate families, the support of their organizations and their instructors. Some of the given reasons for the drop out, however seem more common and stronger, and therefore requires the student support. This is also connected to the factors that include the adult students themselves such as satisfaction, which plays a major part in the drop out or persistence with the online course (Park & Choi, 2009).

The study indicated that the adult learners have a higher likelihood of dropping out of their online courses when they do not get the much needed support from their organizations and families when they are going on with their online courses, regardless of the academic aspirations and preparations of the learners. Furthermore, the internal factors like the learner’s motivation and the design strategies of the course should be made a priority during at the stage of course development to make the course interesting and, more participatory and keep the adult learners more engaged in their academic work (Levy, 2006)). However, upon the launching of the course and now it is in progress, the course instructors and administrators should think about the external factors that might interrupt the participations and persistence of the learners (Levy, 2006).

It is of great importance to consider the situation of the learners while maintaining or managing the course. This will be helpful to the learners for them to get assistance when needed (Park & Choi, 2009). Furthermore, in situations where the instructor are very much aware that the adult learners of the online course are not receiving adequate support from their organizations or families, it is advisable that the instructor should help the learners to continue staying in the course by using motivational strategies that are appropriate, paying extra attention and also providing internal support. In fact, the support to the learner should be integrated from course’ beginning and continue through every stage. Because it is an online course, application of new technologies can enhance the role of the teacher as facilitator, coach and a tutor (Park & Choi, 2009).

In the study, it is concluded that the instructional designers should analyze systematically the external factors that surround the learners, and apply the results of the analysis in initiation of learning and in learner’s motivation so that the high rate of dropouts can be minimized. This study results support the importance of the identified external factor s that are overlooked easily by the instructional designers (Park & Choi, 2009).

This study also indicated that the drop outs had major differences in the learner’s perception on the relevance and satisfaction compared to the persistent learners (Levy (2006).  In brief, the findings show that there is a lower likelihood of a learner dropping out when they are very much satisfied with the online courses. Similarly, the learners has a lesser likelihood of dropping out if the online course they have registered for are very much relevant to their own personal lives.

It is suggested from the results of the study that the satisfaction of the learners with the registered online course, and the relevance of the online course to the job of the learner, prior experience and knowledge are the major factors that affect the learners’ decisions to persist or to drop out. Therefore, in order to improve satisfaction as a mechanism of motivating the online learners, the learners should be given rewards such as praise, completion certificates and promotions. Furthermore, for achievement of the relevance, the course should be designed in a way that contains learning cases and materials that are related closely to the goals, experience and interests of the learners (Levy, 2006).

References

Park, J.-H., & Choi, H. J. (January 01, 2009). Factors Influencing Adult Learners’ Decision to Drop Out or Persist in Online Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12, 4, 207-217.

Levy, Y. (January 01, 2006). Assessing Satisfaction and Academic Locus of Control of Dropout Students in online Learning Courses.

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ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) AND MENTAL HEALTH

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD) AND MENTAL HEALTH

Introduction

Trauma is any occurrence, usually not any ordinary that harms the spirit, self and body. It covers a wide range of experiences that are hurtful, including the traumas that has emotional, mental, sexual and physical realm of our being (Blackburn et al 2012p.18). There are different forms of traumas that regularly occur and these are called Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE). According to Felitti et al (1998p.249), the largest study of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) ever done to examine the economic, social and medical effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences over the lifespan of children. The number of participants in the study was 18,000. Mendelsohn et al (2011p.77) pointed out the components of Adverse Childhood Experiences. These include the childhood emotional, sexual and physical abuse and neglect. Similarly, another component is a child growing up with substance abuse, domestic violence, crime or even parental loss.

From the study conducted by Felitti et al (1998p.246), the study findings reveal that Adverse Childhood experiences in life affect adults in different ways. To begin, the burden of the disease and the costs of medical care to the adult, Adverse Childhood Experiences affect adults in wellbeing, increases the suicide rates and depression. Moreover, drug abuse and alcoholism is common to adults who are affected by Adverse Childhood Experiences. Other effects on adults include disability and job performance and finally effect on the subsequent generations.

According to Schiraldi (2000 p.102), Adverse Childhood Experiences are linked to the ten most death causes in United States. The top ten risk factors include a history of sexually transmitted diseases, over fifty sexual partners, injected drug use, illicit drug use, alcoholism, suicide attempts, depression, physical inactivity, severe obesity and smoking.

According to Thomas (2008 p.113), if the trauma is accepted by the people as real and the survivors or victims experiences is validated and its expression supported its short term effects also referred to as  acute traumatic stress, can be processed, expressed, metabolized or ameliorated in a healthy way so that no or few lasting detrimental effects eventually remain. However, if traumatic experience reality is invalidated or denied by the victim, important or by close others such as family, assisting professionals, friends, and then the individual may not be able to completely heal from the traumatic adverse effects. If the trauma persists, with no support and validation in expressing its related pain, it may grow into Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), that Van (1998p.97) believe is the main disorder among the trauma survivors who are unrecovered.

To get healed from trauma, the person who has experience trauma has to be able to mourn the related pain. To mourn, the individual must remember well enough the trauma and accurately name it. Whitfield (1997p.331) pointed out that remembering and mourning a trauma of the past may be difficult since there exist many roadblocks compared to the others. For instance, many people refuse to believe that a parent or a relative could or would neglect or abuse their own child or a relative child. Perhaps this forms the basis for the plethora of support and disbelief in the court systems and the media n favor of the accused charged with abusing or molesting their child or the ones close to them. Brandyberry et al (1998p.271) observed that it is common knowledge that over 90% of the people who abuse a child knows well the child before abusing them, and most of them are related to the children.

Blackburn et al (2012p.56) observed the psychological sequelea or the pathological results of Adverse Childhood Experiences. The symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD) or DSM IV include traumatic event exposure, are experiencing, hyper arousal, numbing/avoidance and functional impairments. Similarly the complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or the extreme stress disorders include; alterations in affective arousal regulations, alterations in consciousness and attention, somatisation, characterological changes that are chronic and finally systems of meaning alterations.

Felitti et al (1998p.109) observed that in addition to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, early life trauma is linked with impaired self awareness, sense of self and significant disturbance in regulation of emotion and interpersonal functioning. The prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder related to trauma of early life can be gauged by the study by Felitti et al (1998p.109). the DSM-IV field trials Post Traumatic Stress Disorder identified the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder prevalence in a clinical sample and combined community as 77% for sexual abuse on children and 45% for physical abuse of children and 85% for people with sexual and physical abuse (Mendelsohn et al 2011p.87).Moreover, in the mental healthcare settings, the prevalence of childhood abuse reported a rate ranging from 35% to 50%, depending on the service (Mendelsohn et al 2011p.89).

The factors increasing a person’s vulnerability to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder include the female gender, genetic vulnerability, psychiatric illness history such as anxiety and depression, repeated or prolonged exposure to trauma, poor social system of support and childhood trauma. However, the protective factors against Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as observed by Schiraldi (2000p.329) include; the early care givers of a child which play a very crucial role in buffering the child against the stressful situations impact, and more importantly, assist build resilience against adverse experiences in the future. Additionally, the presence of early attachments that are secure is a protective factor.

The neurobiology of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder related to early life trauma is explained in studies by Thomas (2008 p.137). The study shows that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder involves both emotional under modulation and emotional over modulation in a bid to restrict emotional experiences that are unwanted. The emotional under modulation includes hyper arousal, re-experiencing, anger and fear states. However emotional over modulation includes analgesia, numbing and states of dissociation.

Van (1998p.24) asserted that the interpersonal dysfunction includes; sensitivity to criticism, social isolation, revicimization such as domestic violence, physical assaults and adult rape, difficulty in standing for oneself, functioning problems and child rearing difficulties. The social emotions are elicited by social interactions and also involve language, social intentionality and meaning. However, the non social emotions according to Blackburn et al (2012p.226) emerge as a result of a posing stimulus to direct physiological relevance such as fleeing, fighting and food.

In analyzing the self reflection and sense of self in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder related to trauma of early life, Felitti et al (1998p.252) asserted that sense of self is the ability to make a reflection upon oneself. This requires a sense of self that is robust, which has been given a description as a schemata collection regarding the ability of a person, attitudes and traits that guides people’s behaviors, social interactions and choices

The study conducted by Mendelsohn et al (2011p.67) found out that the second most common adverse child experience or trauma was the overt sexual abuse on children, reported in 22% out of the 9508 of the medically evaluated adults. Furthermore, Schiraldi (2000 p.73) observed that for the past few years, a number of their accused molesters of children have cried of false memory when finally their victims recovered and revealed their adverse child experiences to others. According to Thomas (2008 p.186), child molesters usually try to silence by violence or threats their victims, and this could be an explanation why some of the victim never talk to others about their adverse experienced to others. May be Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is likely to be their main disorder, and traumatic amnesia in people with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is common, no matter what their core trauma was.

From clinical observation of the trauma survivors, they tend to possess many disorders or diseases at a higher prevalence compared to the general population. These conditions and disorders include addictions, dissociative disorders, suicide attempts, depression, somatizatin, borderline personality disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, psychosis, self harming behaviors, prostitution, violent behaviors and pedophilia. Hence, the trauma survivors are frequent among the general medical populations as well as psychological and psychiatric outpatient and inpatient practices and clinics Van (1998p.104).

These diagnoses and the determination of the potential causal connection to the trauma of the child require skillful taking of history, and dealing with painful materials for the patient to disclose to the clinician. Whitfield (1997p.375) asserted that it is time for the public health and the general medical communities to directly begin to address the occurrences of adverse child experiences in combination to their long term effects instead of relegating the duty to the social services, psychologists, psychiatrists and trauma specialists whose number is too small compared to the huge number of survivors of trauma.

According to Brandyberry et al (1998p.296), the unrecovered survivors of trauma tend to exhibit behavior of high risk such as excessive risk taking, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. By engaging in these behaviors of high risk, the trauma survivor, the trauma survivor is not acting antisocially or crazy, but rather re enacting aspects unconsciously of their original trauma for them to master it and eventually heal from it hopefully.

The study by Blackburn et al (2012p.32) provide more circumstantial and direct evidence that a substantial portion of the psychological and medical illnesses may be trauma based in large part. This implies that the health professionals allowing people to work to name, identify and mourn of their past traumas have a likelihood of contributing to their ability to heal from some of the diseases, problems and disorders that are associated with trauma. These lessen the impact of these associated problems and illnesses, and the final higher costs of not treating them in t5hos manner.

Mendelsohn et al (2011p.47) have also shown that some of the common organic diseases often trace their origins not from merely childhood, but in the unprocessed childhood traumatic emotional experiences. The manner in which these grief that are unhealed translates into organic diseases forms the large part of the results of the different behavioral coping mechanisms employed to gain some relief such as drugs, smoking, promiscuity, excess drinking, overeating, violence and toxic relationships. Mendelsohn  et al (2011p.53) elaborated that these mechanisms of self medication usually work to a certain degree for some time, and their risks also seems too remote, that they are actually seductive when the relief need is acute. It is not a surprising that Adverse Childhood Experiences have long term psychological effects that are prominent. Decades later, what is unexpected is an association of the adverse childhood experiences with the common organic diseases.

Over the past decades, the twelve step self help recovery fellowships at the grass root like Al-Anon, AA, Co-Dependence Anonymous and Adult Children of Alcoholics have noticed some of the Adverse Childhood Experiences and several of their connections. These effective but inexpensive groups have form part of the recovery movements during the 1980’s and the 90’s. Most of their members have also utilized the use of bibliotherapy in the form of selected books for self help that simplify some of the more principles of recovery and psychology which are effective. Some examples of such organizations include American Coalition for Abuse Awareness (ACAA), American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC), One Voice, and The International Society for the Study of Dissociation (ISSD), The Sidran Foundation in Baltimore, the National Centre for Prosecution of Child Abuse and The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS)(Schiraldi 2000p.343).

The AA twelve steps, now being used by over 100 other self help groups and fellowships have added a dimension of spirituality to the recovery. The spirituality in this scenario is defined as having to do with the relationships with self and universe in deeper dimensions.

These self help grass root fellowships and other aids for recovery have also assisted many healthcare professionals, many of whom posses a personal history of more or one Adverse Childhood Experiences or traumas, in working a program that is effective of their own recovery. By doing that way, they have surpassed the more conventional medicine, psychology and psychiatry limitations with success. These health professionals who are now recovered are able in turn to offer their clients and patients a wide range of therapeutic choices to use in their work of recovery. By doing so, they are improving and expanding the care standard for most of their patients (Thomas 2008p.142).

In the prevention of the Adverse Childhood Experiences from afflicting people, Van (1998p.89) suggested that the problem can only be limited by people’s own creativity. For example, the organizations of health professionals should consider addressing the mental and physical health of their professional members, as well as their recovery from the effects of any Adverse Childhood Experiences that is harmful. Similarly, other journals should encourage and give consideration to more clinical and basic research on trauma for publication. Alternatively, healthcare organizations and managed companies for care should pay for long term and short term appropriate treatment of the adverse effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in survivors of trauma, which in the long run will save them money. Moreover, each training program for professionals of health should have information on trauma effects, such as child abuse or other Adverse Childhood Experiences, how to ask them about, and what to do with a trauma patient who has experienced it.

Another suggestion as elaborated by Whitfield (1997 p.542) include stopping treating children as though they are the property. People should treat children with love and compassion, and not with fear or shame. More parenting programs that are effective have been in existence for many years. These skills should be incorporated and be taught in the schools. Brandyberry  et al (1998p.107) noted that some communities have seen excellent results in child neglect and abuse elimination by establishing centers for parenting that visit weekly every new parent and child for the first two years. The training of every professionals of health should include Adverse Childhood Experiences recognition and techniques to treat and manage their long term effects.

Another suggestion proposed is giving more political and monetary support to organizations that work in child abuse prevention, such as councils of child abuse and services of child protection. Therefore, people should look to the selected state and national organizations for guidance and training. Lastly, people should support groups such as the Healthy Families America and Alliance for Children which are creatively working to improve child rearing and parenting and child maltreatment prevention (Blackburn et al 2012p.117). The federal organizations could also double their funding and efforts for health improvement and children well being.

The treatment that targets symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, emotion, self dysregulation and interpersonal is elaborated by Felitti et al (1998p.255). Training skills in interpersonal and affective regulation plus exposure treatment prolonged specifically developed for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder related to child abuse. Furthermore, skills training in emotion, self and interpersonal regulation plus and exposure that is prolonged, has been shown to reduce impairment that are related to childhood abuse Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and its associated interpersonal, emotion and self dysregulation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, in all generations, the current generation is the first in history to understand and recognize the child abuse and neglect ravages and begin to do something tangible about it. Moreover, this is the first generation to start healing the people psychologically and physically from the harmful effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Through trial and error and several researches and publications and subsequent dissemination to the wider public, the people can apply constructively the knowledge and skills to the children. Some suggestions have been that if one generation can be raised of healthy children, humanity can go far in eradication of war, social violence and many other worldly problems. Through research, humanity can develop significant new knowledge that when executed, promise to foster the future generations of healthy adults, children and societies.

The following articles give more information on adverse childhood experiences, post traumatic stress disorder and mental health

  1. Blackburn Knight, R., & Falstein, M. (2012) A Man’s Recovery from Traumatic Childhood Abuse The Insiders. Hoboken, Taylor and Francis. Retrieved from http://www.UCM.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1047009.

In intimate and candid words, the author elaborates his courageous and long fight to overcome the sadistic ravages of child abuse. The author makes the reader see, feel and hear its horrors, unvarnished and raw. Instructive to both victims and therapists, the content gives techniques and hope to the healing people. Accompanied by long years of research on dissociation literature, the author tried many different approaches to treatment. He finally uncovers “the insiders” through hypnoanalytic procedures, the unconscious ego that represented the memories of his betrayal at childhood. This literature is good for therapists and many others who are seeking to heal and understand the child abuse horrors.

  1. Felitti Vj, Anda Rf, Nordenberg D, Williamson Df, Spitz Am, Edwards V, Koss Mp, & Marks Js. (1998) Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 14, 245-58.

This article repot on different common trauma forms that regularly occur in different countries. They call these traumas as the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

  1. Mendelsohn, M., Herman, J. L., Schatzow, E., Coco, M., Kallivayalil, D., & Levitan, J. (2011) The trauma recovery group: a guide for practitioners. New York, Guilford Press.

Written with an expert, it offers practical guidance for therapists. The book presents a group treatment approach that is based on evidence for interpersonal trauma survivors. This treatment that is limited to time is designed patients that has achieved basic stability and safety in the present life, and is ready to work more on enduring ways that trauma has affected their relationship and self perception.

  1. Schiraldi, G. R. (2000) The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook a guide to healing, recovery, and growth. Los Angeles, Calif, Lowell House. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=23967.

The book explains that trauma manifest in many forms, from surviving a disaster or witnessing a very violent crime with the effects of rape, abuse, alcoholism or combat. The deep emotional wounds may look as if they will not heal. The book offers remarkable wide range of management and treatment alternatives and techniques. This shows the survivors that growth and recover is the other side of pain

  1. Van Der Kolk, B. A. (1998) Trauma and memory. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 52, S52-S64.

Taking a deep examination at the most recent memory research on traumatic events, the book has sate of the art data covering the controversial areas of the repressed memory. The author and other contributors integrated multi disciplinary findings into a coherent treatment proposal, and social and legal practices and policies.

  1. Thomas, P. (2008) Post traumatic stress disorder. Farmington Hills, MI, Lucent Books.
  1. Whitfield, C. I. M. (1997) Traumatic amnesia: The evolution of our understanding from a clinical and legal perspective. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. 4, 107-135.
  2. Brandyberry Lj, & Macnair-Semands Rr. (1998) Examining the validity and reliability of childhood abuse scales: putting The Courage To Heal to the test. Child Abuse & Neglect. 22, 1253-63.

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Situation Analysis for Starbucks Company

Situation Analysis for Starbucks Company

Company and Product Overview

Starbucks Company is a multinational company is a marketer, roaster and retailer of coffee that operates in over 60 countries. There are four segments of the company which it operates: Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia pacific and the channel development. The company purchases coffees and roasts before selling them, along with the handcrafted tea, coffee and other beverages in addition to different fresh food items. These are done in their stores that are operated by the company. Furthermore, Starbucks Company sells a variety of tea and coffee products. The company also licenses its trademarks through channels like the licensed stores, national accounts for food service and groceries (Bussing-Burks, 2009).

Starbucks Company has been the most successful company in the industry of coffee in the few decades that has passed. The company uses aggressive strategies for expansion to push out most of its competitors. It has focused on forming a dense stores network around United States, while opening up other new locations around the globe. Michelli (2007) pointed out that currently Starbucks is the leading coffee market retail selling coffee at a premium price to maximize their profitability.

Read also: Starbucks Corporation marketing mix

According to Sica (n.d), Starbucks Company surpassed the major competitor, Wendy and Burger king to become number three restaurant by posting $9.07 billion in sales last year. The company is also projected to gain in as one of the day parts of restaurant that is fast growing for breakfast. The estimated media budget of the company is a fraction of the total expenditure of other top chains in the industry. Bussing-Burks (2009) indicated that Starbucks company spend $94.4 million on media compared to the media expenditure of MacDonald of about $887.8million in 2010 in united States only.

The major competitors of Starbucks Company include Caribou coffee, MacDonald’s and Dunkins donuts. When comparing Dunkin donuts verses Starbucks, Americans who are hard working prefer Dunkin donuts taste over Starbucks. Dunkin donuts launched in 2009 a $100 million advertisement campaign that ran through the radios, outdoor and print advertising, in store purchase points, sports marketing, online advertisements and special events (Michelli, 2007).

In comparing MacDonald verses the Starbucks, MacDonald has heavily marketed its MaCafé coffee drinks for breakfast for the past two years. Additionally, they have continually introduced new drinks for non coffee and coffee products such as the frappes and smoothies. Sica (n.d) pointed out that MacDonald antagonized Starbucks in their TV adverts just like the Dunkin donuts. Moreover, MacDonald uses also signage and billboards, sponsor sports events at large scales.

In comparing Caribou coffee verses Starbucks, Bussing-Burks (2009) observed that in 2008, Caribou coffee spent about $2 million in advertising. Moreover, the visitor demographics analysis shows that Caribou coffee could be having a more online success if they applied the same tactics as Starbucks. Additionally, analysis shows Caribou coffee is preferred by young adults between 18-34 years. This represents 32% compared to 42 % that is attracted by Starbucks.

Situation Analysis

The second most traded commodity globally is coffee. United States of America is the largest coffee importer in the world. Coffee demand is price inelastic; this implies that when the prices of coffee rise, coffee consumption is not reduced.

Starbucks according to Michelli (2007) is the worlds most recognizable and powerful high quality brands that are unique. The market share of Starbucks is 32.6% with over 11,500 coffee stores in United States. The SWOT analysis of Starbucks is according Sica (n.d) to include:

Strength:

  1. Is the best and the biggest coffee shop in the industry
  2. Has a natural edge over other competitors who are less known in that customers associate it with popular experience and high quality
  3. With its widespread locations, it reaches larger market
  4. Drive through store
  5. Large demographic spread of its new products prevents new entrants and ensure large exposure

Weakness

  1. The whole business is in coffee industry only while its competitors like the Dunkin donuts have invested in other industries
  2. Strong presence in home market, United States, hence oversaturation of their market
  3. High price
  4. Competition from other brands that are low priced

Opportunities

  1. New opportunities for international markets
  2. New products
  3. Organic drinks
  4. Health drinks
  5. Energy drinks
  6. More bottled drinks
  7. Kid focused drinks
  8. Forming of partnerships with other companies of coffee

Threats

  1. New entry into market
  2. Stiff competition from McDonalds when they upgraded in 2006
  3. Smaller coffee houses that are privately owned
  4. Anti- Starbucks groups
  5. Image threat

 

References

Bussing-Burks, M. (2009). Starbucks. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press.

Michelli, J. A. (2007). The Starbucks experience: 5 principles for turning ordinary into extraordinary. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sica, Danielle. (n.d.). Starbucks Corporation: a strategy capstone. (Starbucks Corporation: a strategy capstone.

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