Company profile 3

Internal Analysis 4

Competition 4

Demand 5

Market Segmentation 7

Domestic factors 8

New niche 9

Saturation of Indian fashion market 10

Potential for growth 11

Economic growth and income 12

Entry strategy 14

Pricing of products 14

Brand Risk 16

Recommendations 17

References 19


In responding to the expanding globalization and unexploited Indian Market, Uniqlo would like to export its services and products to India. This report on Uniqlo will investigate the key global trends affecting the current and future developments of Uniqlo. Ltd and relevant domestic factors in if Indian market for Uniqlo. India is the third biggest population majorly of average age between 29 and 31 which makes a ideal target market for Uniqlo. The internal and external investigation on India needs the efforts of an expertise in international marketing. This report emphasizes the guidelines on potential market entries and the potency that will maintain Uniqlo in India’s new market. The main issue at hand is whether India, as the international market of choice by Uniqlo is a wise idea for Uniqlo and growth in performance. A way out to this issue includes collecting information on imports, taxes, exports, demographics, locations and customers from a wide secondary study.

Company profile

UNIQLO Co. Ltd started a separate outlet from Fast Retailing Co. Ltd in 2005. Its chief vision is to be a global leader before the year 2020, aiming at $50 billion as its annual revenue. Its major competitors are Inditex and H&M, nevertheless, UNIQLO, in its statement of mission affirms that Apple is its only competitor because it is a technological Company, not a fashion Company. Its mission is to consistently provide refined quality casual wear suitable for any person at a low price in any place. It is in consideration to this objective achievement of revenue of $50 billion annually which makes UNIQLO aspire to expand to the available Indian market.

Internal Analysis


Company Analysis Uniqlo is a Japanese casual clothing company, similar to stores such as H&M, Zara and The Gap. However, where stores like H&M and Zara aim to bring the latest fashion trends to the masses quickly, Uniqlo has their own business model that has proven unique and effective. Uniqlo mostly offers basic clothing options, such as T-shirts, sweatshirts, socks, etc. Uniqlo is able to keep these items on their shelves longer without having to discard “last season’s fashions.” This also provides for a lower overall deal they have with their suppliers. Uniqlo also offers their basic items in a myriad number of 3 colors to add some dimension to their somewhat narrow inventory. Uniqlo has found a way to compete with their bigger named rivals without sharing the same big costs. Uniqlo only sells about 1,000 fewer units of clothing than competitors like H&M, but they get their supply at a cheaper cost and their products have a longer shelf life. Uniqlo is now delving into trendier lines of seasonal clothing. Although maintaining their fresh take on basic clothing, they do not want to get boring so they have begun expanding the stores tastes. Uniqlo has stores in Manhattan, London and soon Los Angeles. Uniqlo has also just recently launched their first online store last week in an effort to rev up their international expansion. Uniqlo CEO, Tadashi Yanai, has declared his goal for Uniqlo by 2020 is to have $50 billion in sales and $10 billion in profits. Given Uniqlo’s rapid growth in sales over the past few years, they might meet Yanai’s goal. According to the Economist, Uniqlo has seen a 22% increase in annual sales growth percentage as of 2009.


The Uniqlo product concept is simple; keep it basic. Uniqlo is able to match their biggest competitors in sales because they offer an enormous variety of basic clothing in more colors than a Crayola box. They keep basic items longer because they do not have a “fashion shelf life” and through this management plan they are able to keep supplier costs low. Since expanding, Uniqlo has been delving deeper into the fashion trend scene so prevalent on their competitor’s shelves. Uniqlo manages to provide fashion forward clothing for all at an alarmingly affordable price. Uniqlo also specializes in warm clothing. Many of their articles of clothing come in a “heattech” option which means the article of 4 clothing was made and designed to keep you warm during the winter. Their specialized heat tech is exclusive to Uniqlo clothing, with it they’re able to design super lightweight fashionable coats, jackets and shirts that make the coldest winters feel warm. Uniqlo advertises through print ads mostly in New York City subways. They have two A list celebrities with massive broad appeal in Charlize Thereon and Orlando Bloom. They have also created a creative and clever way of advertising on their Pinterest page; they created over 100 fake Pinterest pages to create an animation effect with graphics they have on their sites. So when users scroll down, the images look like an animated film strip. It has garnered a lot of positive feedback as creative exposure for the expanding Uniqlo brand.

The chart above shows the market share demand that is controlled by Uniqlo. It is clear that in reference to other global brands, Uniqlo continues to enjoy a high return and market share of 5.4. billion in sales, while other brands control 2.7%. Uniqlo is therefore a recognized brand internationally although the same may not be true within the local market. As an international brand, Uniqlo must tailor its products to suit the local market. This is one of the most renowned facts about Uniqlo, the ability to read, analyze and restructure stores so that they are more suitable for the local market. The women’s apparel industry has been growing significantly in the past decade. Usui et al. (2017) states that in the year 2017, sales from women apparels made up at least 57.69% of the entire market share. In the next year, 2018 growth is estimated to reach an average of 63. 64%. Such projections are based on growth in the industry in the past decade. The market for women apparels is not only real, it is fast growing and brands that take advantage of this in the early years are set to make a handsome profit. However, unlike Zara and H&M who have made their name in the local Indian markets, Uniqlo is less known as a brand in the country. Despite offering higher quality goods at a better price, the stores are less recognized by individuals who are not avid travelers. This means that the store will need to invest heavily in marketing and displays that will allow for recognition. Although the demand for apparels and especially for local women apparels is high, the market also leans towards already recognized brands. India’s customers are more rigid in their traditional and customary purchases, often leaning towards stores that have served them over decades. However, the younger population which makes up, at least 56.7% of the market are seeking new alternatives and thrilling adventures in the name of shopping and this provides a unique niche which Uniqlo can take advantage of.

Market Segmentation

In the past, Uniqlo has fallen short in maintenance of stable sales. Nam et al. (2015) highlight that during the first year customers are treated o unique offers which keep the sales high, however once the hype of the “newest store” in town is dead, the sales plummet leaving the stores struggling to get customers are meet targets that are set at an all time high. In this era, the focus for the store is not just on gaining new customers but rather on ensuring customer loyalty. The Indian market is unique in that, customers are often loyal to a singular store making the bulk of their purchases from these stores. With more than 1100, flagship stores across the globe, Uniqlo has gathered some unique experiences. Among these experiences, the most viable lesson gathered is on market segmentation. Market segmentation allows the company to address the needs of each individual customer. When a customer’s needs are individualized and customized so that they do not have to go seeking for alternatives, the store is able to create easily a loyal customer. This customer is often so impressed that they are willing to engage in word of mouth marketing, sharing with friends and co-workers the advantages of the store.

From the graph above it can be seen that the number of flagship shops under Uniqlo has been increasing on an annual basis. Just a decade ago, Uniqlo controlled only 39 flagship shops around the globe, however as indicated before at the end of the year 2017, the stores had growth to a maximium of 1104 shops. It is suggested and estimated that growth in the next few years will continue at the same pace or even higher for two reasons: first, Uniqlo as a brand is being recgnosied across the globe and therefore demand at local markets is higher and second, the fashion industry continues to show great potential for growth.

Domestic factors

Competition in the Indian and in fact global fashion markets has been quite fierce in the past decade. Liou (2018) indicates that even though the industry has been growing at the astonishing rate of more than 15% each year, and even more in the national markets; there has been an increase on new entrants into the market decreasing the potential market share for fashion retailers. The large retailer operating within borders may not be many, however they face even more competition from the small scale entrepreneurs who in themselves may not be able to offer high quality products at cheap prices but tend to have a higher customer satisfaction rate especially when it comes to unique and customized products.

The Indian market has shown an increase in the revenue collected from retail shops. The Graph above is a clear indicator of the potential and growth rate of the retail industry. What is to be noted is that a good percentage of the income from the years showing high growth such as 2014, from 52.3 billion to 59.76 billion have also shown an increase in small business entrepreneurs. India as a country has revitalized policies to allow for growth of small business, and such growth has been so tremendous that it has had a serious impact on the operation and income of large retail stores.

New niche

By offering high quality clothing, the company has already segregated itself to the urban consumer. This consumer is often willing to spend on quality clothing and understands the need for variety. In specific, Uniqlo needs to refocus attention on the professional woman. According to Anwar (2017), the average professional woman is not only an income earner but also seeks to impress through the clothes they wear. They are more willing to spend and purchase apparels if they so address their social class. This woman provides a non-exhaustive alternative to the one in a while customer. She seeks to meet the renown and established trends in order to impress not just in her social circle but also in the professional field. While in the past, the store has focused on the young and mature woman, this middle aged professional provides a unique aspect of the brand, where affordability though an issue may not be a deciding factor in the purchase.

Saturation of Indian fashion market

When we consider the Indian market, it has been seen that the small scale entrepreneurs are plentiful and have saturated the market. In 2016, the fashion industry in india showed growth of more than 2.3%, 3.67% in 2017 and projected growth of more than 5% in the year 2018, as shown in the graph below:

In 2017, more than 9.12 blllion rupees were spent on fashion in india. This is characterized by new investment and entrepreneurial projects in the industry. Each individual wants to have their own “tailor” and designer, an aspect which allows them to feel even more unique and enjoy a higher social class. Purchasing items at stores is seen as lacking taste and a form of backwardness which speaks to the lack of resources of the purchaser despite the quality of the store. Uniqlo is therefore not positioning itself to fight against the growing popularity of large stores (which in themselves are much fewer) but rather the small scale stores which offer a unique customer experience.

Potential for growth

The market that Uniqlo plans to enter into, high end fashion wear has shown tremendous growth at the rate of more than 5% each year, between 2016 the market stood at a growth rate of 52.3% and in 2017 57.6. Even with the saturation of new entrepreneurs, there remains a very high potential for growth. There are more than 30 million potential customers within the main cities only. With this in mind, the company needs to create a unique customer structure that addresses customer satisfaction. A high index of customer satisfaction is likely to draw in new customers who then remain loyal and allow for a steady income. This means focusing on areas which customers find only at the small fashion stores, which include unique and customized products for customers, so that they are willing to pay more for the same since they will be unique in their social circle.

Economic growth and income

Economic development in the country has been steady, even the recent global downturn in economic growth has yet to have a significant impact in the country. There has been an increase in income earning, and a focus on investment in employment reducing inflation rates to 3.8%. The government has also developed new policies and structures that are designed to entice new investors and employers into the county such as Uniqlo.

An increase in the inflation rates simply translates to an erosion of purchasing power and potential of the consumer. The company could therefore invest in advertisement and marketing and despite the willingness of the consumer to buy the product, they cannot afford it. Further, with an increase in inflation clothing apparels become a luxury for the average consumer. Despite their desire to purchase new clothes, they are forced to contend with what they already have. However, it is important to note that increased inflation has forced the Indian government to seek out international investment opportunities for businesses such as Uniqlo. The result is that such business do not need much resources in the way of licensing and wages which are subsidized. The margin for profit is therefore much higher in India than in other stores across the globe.

Entry strategy

Pricing of products

The global international Uniqlo brand is renowned for its high quality products, which in themselves are high end. This is a brand that not only services the average citizen but also high end customers such as A listers. This makes the pricing strategy one of the riskiest and most delicate decisions that the brand has to make in each market. Products which can be purchased by renowned bollywoood actresses are considered in themselves quite costly. The average high end customer, who has high income and is able to afford high quality goods often, seeks higher prices as a way of recognizing and acknowledging their own social class. On the other hand, the average citizen offers a much higher return in terms of constant purchases in bulk, but for this consumer income has decreased in the past year, in 2015 average income decresased by 1.7%, in 2016 it decreased further by 1.97% and in 2017 decrease stood at 1.12% . Even though the Indian market inflation stands at an all time low 0f 3.8%, according to Chen and Fan (2017) such progressions are expected to increase in the next year and the years to come, projections for 2018 stand at 4.7 with an expected increase to 4.95% in 2020. Unemployment is expected to be on the rise and despite continued efforts by the government to encourage investors, income is expected to lower and costs of living increase as the markets adjust globally. This means that the company has to address the possibility of lower customer demand and unstable income during the first years. A combination of factors are likely to make the situation worse. On the one hand consumers have to deal with lower income and therefore decreased purchasing power while on the other hand, there is also the likelihood of increased competition through lower priced products as entrepreneurs attempt to take advantage of the need for cheaper products.

The above graph shows a possible increase in pricing of apparels, which has not gone down in the past decade and is expected to rise in the next decade. However, even with this in mind there is also another issue to put into consideration and this is competition. There are several large retail companies operating within the Indian market and competition for the past decade has centered on cheap prices. With increased unemployment, consumers are willing to spend only what they can afford. The purchasing power of the local consumer has decreased significantly, a fact that has led to aggressive pricing competitions. What has steadily increased in the price per garment for both men and women. However, the demand for these lines is much lower and often unsteady.

Brand Risk

Since its inception, Uniqlo operates more than 1000 successful flagship stores. However, with each new store the company faces unique competition as well as customary and cultural risk which reduces the potential for growth and success. Ci et al. (2017) gives an example of the Norwegian market where customer tastes and trends were hard to master for the store, focusing a complete change in the operation and products that were being offered in the market. It is due to this that the company almost shut done its own stores. The same risk is faced with each new store especially where culture and traditions still have a strong root.

In this country the store faces even larger competitors who are equipped with large marketing resources and have mastered the weakness of Uniqlo. These include readymade clothes which come at a much cheaper price from stores such as KPR mill which controls the largest share of the market earning more than 19.2 billion rupees annually, pearl Global earning 7.68 billion rupees and even smaller stores such as Poddar housing earning 1.29 billion rupees annually creating forceful competition for the new company .Failure in this market is likely to lead to a decrease in the quality of the brand not just in the country but also globally. Customers are likely to experiment and seek out alternatives from competition following such failure.


  • Uniqlo needs to stay away from oversaturation, a fact that has affected the quality of the brand in Japan where it was founded. Products that are unique and highly marketable should not be overproduced simply because the consumer demand is at an all time high. This is especially the case, where the competition has developed the product. Oversaturation lowers prices and leaves the store with unwanted stock when consumer tastes shift.
  • Aggressive marketing is a character of Uniqlo globally. However, lessons have been learnt from the same where aggressive marketing has brought in new clientele who in turn shift to the next newcomer within a short period. The focus should now shift from the desire to generate a large market share and more towards a steady income and clientele. Once the brand is established in the new market with an already reliable customer base, aggressive marketing can begin. It is important to note that aggressive marketing always takes away much needed resources for growth and the only result to show for is an influx of short term income that cannot be relied upon to support growth and development of the store.
  • There are several, new and upcoming designers not just globally but also within the country. These designers offer a fresh insight into what maybe an already highly saturated market. Collaboration with such designers is likely to bear fruit in terms of unique products that appeal to customers and consumers. Furthermore, the company will be seen as investing and encouraging the growth of the local talent thus drawing in more faithful and loyal clientele. Further, the company could employ services of local legends and celebrities to advertise and market the new products.


Anwar, S. T. (2017). Zara vs. Uniqlo: Leadership strategies in the competitive textile and apparel industry. Global Business and Organizational Excellence36(5), 26-35.

Chen, Y. L., & Fan, K. K. (2017, May). Exploratory study on corporate brand image and customer satisfaction on consumer purchase behavior: A case study of UNIQLO. In Applied System Innovation (ICASI), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 1190-1193). IEEE.

Ci, C., Park, S., & Kim, B. (2017, July). DIFFERENCES IN THE BRANDING STRATEGY OF THE BIG 3 SPA BRANDS: ZARA, UNIQLO, AND H&M. In 2017 Global Fashion Management Conference at Vienna (pp. 65-66).

Liou, C. L. (2018). Research on the Competitive Strategy of Japanese Retail Chain: The cases of Muji and Uniqlo.

Nam, H., Son, H., & Lee, Y. (2015). Effect of SPA Brand ConsumersEmotional Consumption Value Orientation and Assessment of Marketing Mix Attributes on brand loyalty. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume65(4), 45-60.

Smilansky, S. (2017). Experiential marketing: A practical guide to interactive brand experiences. Kogan Page Publishers.

Usui, T., Kotabe, M., & Murray, J. Y. (2017). A Dynamic Process of Building Global Supply Chain Competence by New Ventures: The Case of Uniqlo. Journal of International Marketing25(3), 1-20.


Personal statement

 Personal statement


Enterprise and project management is one of the dynamic fields because it supports the strategic directions of companies in implementing technologies which are helpful in increasing employee productivity, reducing costs and streamlining communications with the clients. My desire for this field has grown over the years as much as I have been in the architectural field. In my view, Enterprise and project management is the most challenging and interesting course anyone interested in becoming a project manager must undergo. I adore Enterprise and project management as it involves high level of creativity and innovation in regard to leading other field engineers and strategically managing projects to be successful. My zeal for Enterprise and project management was influenced by my life in the city of Shiraz, Iran and my father. Since childhood, I was fascinated by my father’s vast knowledge in architecture and his engineering works, and in most cases he let me assist him. As a result of this great experience, I developed desires to learn design and structural things. Initially, I was into architecture before my bachelor degree but my interest shifted to Enterprise and project management as a result of the extensive experience I got in the field thus would like to explore it more in depth.

During my time living in the city of Tehran, I witnessed the high degree of expansion of the city, and this made me appreciate the wonderful architectural knowledge and structure of buildings in the city. Numerous individuals have obtained their post-secondary architectural education from UCL University and became great professionals with new and innovative ideas widely accepted and appreciated in Iran. Likewise, the UCL University has promoted energy saving techniques globally, and this led to my decision to study at the institution as energy saving and sustainability is important. Having studied sciences and mathematics in secondary school, I felt that I had a solid engineering foundation. Especially, geometry that was my favorite topic followed a design course that shaped my drawing and design talent.

Working with my father- project manager- and my brother who is an architect over three summers and Christmas holidays provided me with an opportunity to gain professional experience, knowledge of challenges associated with designing, management and constructions and criteria for handling them. I did assist my father to design and manage the construction of three buildings in Tehran. I also designed an apartment in Tehran and assisted my father manage its construction. The experience made me realize that I would be competent in construction and projected management as I had earlier on discovered during my bachelor study that I was talented in practical part of architecture and had terrific managerial skills judging from my experience as a group leader. Therefore, my passion and extensive background as well as experience in construction and project management have motivated me to pursue and specialize in construction and project management.


Culture Identity

Culture Identity


Table of Contents


Identity through Race: Martin Luther And Malcolm X.. 2

Identity through Gender: Mackinnon And Freidan. 3


References. 5

Culture of Identity

There has been an increased interest towards understanding the culture off identity. In this era, it can be said that a new form of recognition, a system of identification arose. This system breaks down the individual from a large multitude, outing in place a collection of various identification marks such as color, race and sexuality. The culture of identity removes individualism and enhances the feeling of belonging to, where an individual perception is defined by the group upon which they feel they belong to. The social group has its own distinguishable marks and identification measures which are shared among all members.

Identity through Race: Martin Luther and Malcolm X

Weedon (2004) cites that perhaps in this era the most fundamental identification mark was race. Malcolm X and Martin Luther King the ultimate leaders of this era are often associated with the identification marks that is, black and white. The culture identity theory emphasizes that the personal identity is forged out of shared experiences and interactions.  For both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, early family experiences developed and emphasized feelings of hate for a culture that despised people of a specific colour. Based on this assumption, they developed what many historians have termed as “black pride”. Black pride allowed people, even those in far off regions to come together. The feeling of belonging was based on simple identification marks, are you black or are you white. Black people held pride in their skin colour, developed hatred for the segregation culture and were protestors, people united to fight for what they considered their own rights.

Malcolm’s struggle was against systems and classifications that defined the black individual as less than human. To him and his predecessor, this was an attempt to reduce the social identity of the black person. For decades, the blacks were individuals each suffering on his own and each seemingly not aware of the other. The presence and belief in Martin and Malcolm brought together the blacks against white racism. The suffering of one individual became the suffering of all people of black skin.

On 1st  December 1953 for example, Rosa parks a singular black woman passenger was arrested for refusing to vacate a seat in the public transport bus in favor of a white woman. The single event caused uproar, with martin Luther and other political leaders leading the African Americans in a boycott of all buses in the transport system. Several marches resulted and many more were arrested in solidarity with Rosa Parks

Identity through Gender: Mackinnon and Freidan

Another identification mark significant in the 20th century is Gender. Catherine Mackinnon is the most prominent figure in matters of gender and especially sexual harassment. Before her, women suffered in the workplace and had little to no power for anything to be done. Mackinnon succeeded in bringing women together, so that they now became a social group with much more significant power. According to Castells (1997), culture identity gives individuals powered and a significant boost where they were otherwise weak and small. In the previous decade, sexual harassment though present had not raised any significant concerns. With Mackinnon’s publication of sexual harassment of working women however, women all over the world not just in the Americas arose to fight the vice. It was no longer about an individual being harassed by a particular supervisor or boss. Rather, it became more about women in general being discriminated and the fight for women to be treated equally with all men.

Gender is a strong market in culture identity, almost stronger than the race and color of the skin. A singular case is often translated into, “we women” against the men. In 1970, Betty Freidan made her name by showing that identity in gender went beyond any skin color. Women of different races, social classes and even countries took to the street protesting the nomination of Cars well who opposed the equality in employment of women.


Culture identity often enhances the differences between people making it difficult to foster nay form of cooperation. For example, in the late 20th century, blacks and whites regarded each other with suspicion and sometimes great animosity even where their cooperation was needed for success.

In a society where culture identity is enhanced, it is difficult to see beyond the features that distinguish people. When a woman for example is not employed, it is deemed to be a gender issue (Hall and Gay, 1996).  Rarely do people take the time to look at other qualifications that may have caused her to miss the opportunity such as education and experience. It is immediately categorized as sexual discrimination.

Culture identity makes equality impossible because often it enhances what others have and others do not. Before the coming of Luther and Malcolm X, there was little being heard about segregation and classification. However, the identity fostered by the two has led to remnants of the same even to this day. Often, the issue of race is cited when one person lacks and another has. It seems that equality will never be achieved as long as individuals think of themselves as being from one race or another.



Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity. Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 1997.

Hall, Stuart, and Gay P. Du. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage, 1996

Weedon, Chris. Identity and Culture. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2004.


Consumerism and Planned Obsolescence



Consumerism and planned obsolescence

Consumerism is an idea described as a process by which consumers tend to purchase goods or services in an increasing way in terms of consumption and most cases on luxuries products. As suggested by Espejo (2010) consumers develop the continuous spending spree on goods and services over a period. In a case scenario, when one spends his or her entire monthly salary in purchasing new and modern clothes and foot wares. That change of wardrobe is not necessary, and priority but one still affords to have the clothes and foot wares. Consumerism, therefore occurs when such a person would spend the entire salary on changing his or her wardrobe.

The planned obsolescence, on the other hand, means designing a product for consumers that will become obsolete after a set period such that it becomes unwanted in the market. According to Woolf (2004) the process of planning enables the product attract enormous sales and high returns within the set period. The role played by planned obsolescence in consumerism is mainly to increase sales volume of a product within a period and to avoid further investments on research and development of the same product. Moreover, the opportunity cost of engaging in planned obsolescence outweighs the cost incurred in renovations and re-designing of the product (Fitzpatrick, 2011).

For instance, when the software application programme is developed as a product ready for market launch, it captures a design with a period let’s say annually then it collapses and expires from use. It is programmed that with time it becomes obsolete. Such is a scenario how planned obsolescence can be incorporated into a design and is referred to as programmed obsolescence.



Espejo, R. (2010). Consumerism. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press

Fitzpatrick, K. (2011). Planned obsolescence: Publishing, technology, and the future of the academy. New York: New York University Press

Woolf, A. (2004). Consumerism. North Mankato, Minn: Chrysalis Education






Strengths. 2

Weaknesses. 2

Suggestions for improvement 2




The completed test shows that basic knowledge on the culture and cultural empathy are adequate. During the completion of the test, I felt that I can be an effective healthcare providing. This is because I have appropriate reaction towards taking care and mastering the needs of others. I was pleased to note that not only do I have a strong need to bring humanity to the profession; I also have the skills and character to ensure integration of the humanistic aspect of nursing. Adamson et al (2011) indicates that nursing requires need to demonstrate a high rate of empathy: that is the unconditional and full acceptance of the conditions under which the patients are. It is only through being empathetic that a nurse can be able to provide holistic care for the patients. Holistic care is not just about the right treatment and medication; it is also about improving the psychological and social state of the patient. In line with this, the high scores on questions measuring empathy proved that nursing is the right career path for me. Today’s patients present with a myriad of problems and diverse characteristics. A nurse must be fully empathetic to be able to cope with the different cases, races and even nature of patients.


Acknowledging culture affects all aspects of life: to be fully empathetic, nurses need to understand that culture and various aspects of it are responsible for influencing patients, their treatment and even recovery. I am expected to understand the role of family culture in treatment. However, I have noted that this is a singular place that I would require improvement. This is because I tend to focus more on the treatment and care of the patient, sometimes electing to ignore the cultural biases of the patient.  I tend to forget that what works for one patient may not work for another.

Views of the aging process: Grant et al (2013) states that families often ignore seeking intervention for their parents and loved ones who are either terminally ill or suffering from one ailment or another.  In some cases such ailments are often translated as part of the aging process. Dreher and McNaughton (2002) show that nurses are required to understand and in some cases acknowledge families that delay seeking treatment for this reason. However, he continues majority of the nurses cannot appreciate the traditions and norms behind this behavior. This is an area where am having difficulty. Often I have viewed these families as backward and in some cases even cruel. It is important to understand that their decision is not made out of cruelty but simply culture and norms.

Suggestions for improvement

The most important aspect of trans-cultural treatment is complete understanding of community demographics.  When a patient for example is African American, nurses often have pre-occupations and misinformation based on this simple aspect. However, there is need to understand that depending on year of immigration, place of birth, schooling, working and even social circle; characteristics of black Americans differ greatly. Truong et al (2014 ) state that misconceptions with regard to gender, race and even social class are common. In his study, for example he found that patients seeking healthcare in public health institutions were often considered not to be wealthy. This includes upper class who visited the emergency wing. Training is vital in hospitals and health centers to ensure that staff understands cultural dynamics.



Adamson, Jean, Warfa, Nasir, & Bhui, Kamaldeep. (2011). A case study of organizational cultural competence in mental healthcare. (BioMed Central Ltd.) BioMed Central Ltd.

Dreher, M., & McNaughton, N. (January 01, 2002). Cultural competence in nursing: foundation or fallacy?. Nursing Outlook, 50, 5.)

Grant, J., Parry, Y., & Guerlin, P. (January 01, 2013). An investigation of culturally competent terminology in healthcare policy finds ambiguity and lack of definition. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37, 3, 250-256.

Truong, Mandy, Paradies, Yin, & Priest, Naomi. (2014). Interventions to improve cultural competency in healthcare: a systematic review of reviews. (BioMed Central Ltd.) BioMed Central Ltd.



The Criminal Lifestyle and Stability

 The Criminal Lifestyle and Stability

Why Is Criminal Life Attractive?

Walsh and Beaver (2009) state that crime is often attractive for two simple reasons. First, criminals often look and act more successful than other individuals. For this purpose, others are attracted to their lifestyle because of the superseded economic and social class revenue. Secondly, crime is a simple and easy route to earn and make much more than through legal means. Individuals may ask themselves, why spend hours working and days struggling to earn an income, when you can simply rob someone within minutes and make much more.  Beaver (2009) cites that rationality dictates the choice to enter into a criminal life. Individuals often feel that they can get away with a particular crime. The benefits of engaging in crime, therefore far outweigh the risks thereof.  Although such rationality maybe handicapped, it is the main basis of increased crime rates.

Stability in crime is the ability to predict future behavior through present behavior. The present behavior needs to be fully rewarding in order to influence future behavior. When individuals are used to turning towards deviant and criminal behavior from which they earn much more, more easily then it can easily be said they have shown a predictable and stable form of behavior patterns. Beaver (2009) cites a study that individuals who have been arrested once are more likely to be arrested again within a short span of time. For criminal behavior to be fully rewarding, the criminal must be able to navigate the risks in such a manner that they become negligent. This of course means practice and stability in order to gain insights, knowledge and skills that in turn amen the criminal behavior worth the risk.


Beaver, K. M. (2009). Biosocial criminology: A primer. Iowa : Kendall Hunt Publishing Company

Walsh, A., & Beaver, K. M. (2009). Biosocial criminology: New directions in theory and research. New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.







Table of Contents


Background. 1

Marketing strategy. 1

Management 1

Day to day operations. 2


Electronic menus. 2

Tablets for table and restaurant management 2

Effect of innovations on day to day operations. 3

Effect on management 3





Cooge Pavilion is a restaurant located in the heart of the city. It specializes on offering a wide variety of casual lunches and dining experiences for the patrons. The restaurant has been in the market for more than a decade now. It has been touted for its unique organist ion which includes three floors, that is the ground, the Mediterranean and the roof. Each of the floors offers its own unique dining experience depending on what the patron is looking for. Perhaps the greatest feature of the restaurant is the rooftop bar, which allows patrons to enjoy a scenic view of the beach as well as offers a wide space for fun including an interesting array of drinks.

Marketing strategy

Cooge Pavilion has adopted a differentiation strategy by offering a wide variety of experiences for the average diner. The ground floor for example specializes in pizzas and burger, children under the age of 18 can be accompanied by adults and enjoy this dining experience. On the other hand, the rooftop specializes in adult fun only, with a range of alcoholic drinks and an exciting social interaction environment.

Furthermore, whereas majority of the restaurants located on the beach are highly priced and especially for the boutique restaurants, Cooge Pavilion maintains an averagely priced menu for both drinks and food. This means that the restaurant therefore enjoys a wide variety of loyal customers. This restaurant for example shows a high level of local patrons how the business keep running even when the tourist are absent.


The restaurant has a manager who handles all financial and day to day management decisions. The manger reports to the owners of the organization who then are responsible for the executive decisions. It is important to note however, that the manager often has an upper hand in the decision making. This is because he is more aware of the situations on the ground.

Cooge Pavilion prides itself in offering quality service and food. To ensure this policy is maintained, the restaurant has three executive chefs who are in charge of the kitchens in each floor. A unique aspect of this arrangement is that the chefs often operate on a rotational basis between the three floors. Each executive chef is in charge of ensuring the supply of the best and freshest quality of products. They often meet in the mornings to discuss the menus and supplies for the day.

Day to day operations

A typical day at the restaurant begins at five every morning and ends well into the night. Chefs often take shifts to allow for rest. The morning shift has to handle the breakfast menu which has taken root and is in high demand within the area. At eight o clock, the executive chefs meet with the manager to discuss the menus and any changes to be implemented in the daily schedule.  Because chefs are in charge of their own kitchens, they are also expected to hire their own approved staff including the service personnel. This is because; as shown by (Scanlon 1993 ) they can easily identify talent and train them to ensure that quality is maintained in the restaurant. However, every hire needs to be approved by the manager for purpose of maintaining some financial control. At the end of the day, chefs and managers again come together with the supervisors to evaluate the day including challenges experienced with the service delivery and solutions that could be implemented for the future.


Cooge Pavilion has maintained a strong hold in the market. However, with changes in technology, there is need for the restaurant to take into consideration some of the following proposed changes which will allow efficiency in delivery of services.

Electronic menus

For the past decade, all businesses are attempting to go electronic for many reasons. Cooge Pavilion has three floors, with more than a hundred tables for the patrons. While electronic menus may seem luxurious, for this large restaurant they can help speed up the service delivery by handling backlog. Simply, each table will be fitted with an electronic menu which in turn feeds to the main menu an order schedule in the kitchen. The menu will include, what is available in all three restaurants. Each patron will be given the chance to peruse the menu, scrolling through majority of the beverages and food items available. They can then place their order directly or through a service waiter.

Service waiters will be available for any clarification and to assist the patrons in placing their orders. Because the restaurant is taking on a chef driven approach towards the menu creation, the available orders may change from time to time. However, the electronic menus will include as much information as possible on what is available.

Tablets for table and restaurant management

During busy hours, supervisors and chefs are often pressed with regard to the demands that have been put by patrons. Often, confusion reigns and leads to wastage especially where orders are not handled properly. Tablets input with the right software will allow the supervisors to keep track of the tables, the patrons and the orders. This will also minimize chances of waiters and service staff absconding with the payments and fees charged to the patrons. Through this system, the supervisors will keep track of the orders placed in a particular table and can also be alerted of any delays so that he can calm the patrons. The system also sends orders directly to the kitchen. Therefore, service staff do not need to enter and crowd the kitchen space. They can continue taking other orders, and only appear to take their orders when they are ready.

The system is very simple to operate. The menu for the day is input and during installation the placements of the tables is also input. Waiters have access to the system at various vantage points from which they can place their orders. The order is catalogued and immediately sent to the kitchen with an estimated wait time. The supervisor can track all this through the tablet. Once the order is complete, a delivery note is published by a press of the button. The delivery and receipt of the order are published together and prepared awaiting final approval. In case an order has delayed, an alert is immediately sent to the supervisor so that amendments can be made. In addition, chefs can confirm the orders easily through their own system ensuring that the service delivery is quick. The system is completely software, although hardware for operations are needed. It is also as unique as the restaurant itself and can therefore not be duplicated by competitors. Maintenance can be done easily, although professional knowledge of the operations system is required.

Effect of innovations on day to day operations

Electronic menus will increase the efficiency of service provided to the customers. As indicated before, Cooge Pavilion prides itself in quality service provision. With an electronic menu there are less chances of making mistakes and a higher chance of introducing customers to a wider variety of dishes and services in the restaurant. (Gordon and Brezinski 1999) state that often the service delivery staff do not engage customers in trying out the new products available. Because customers are unaware there are newer versions and a variety of more dishes available, they are less likely to try them out.

Both innovations will introduce Cooge Pavilion into a unique possibility. They will allow immediate interaction between the three categories of the restaurant. Bringing together these components has been a matter that the restaurant has considered for a long time. The electronic menu will allow the customers to view all menus including those of other restaurants. They can also order from these menus to compliment the food they are ordering from another restaurant. Supervisors can use the tablets to keep track of the different orders and the location of such orders. This will give the restaurant a new marketing opportunity. For example, families who have come with their children need not confine the choice of their menu to the ground floor because children are not allowed to the other floors, they can order drinks from the top floor to compliment their food.


Effect on management

Perhaps the greatest effect of the innovation will be with regard to ease of cost control and reduction of the same. Because clients can order directly using the electronic menus, fewer service delivery staff will be needed in the restaurant. This will greatly reduce the cost of service delivery while at the same time increasing the efficiency of service provision. Orders can be dealt with quickly and efficiently, yet the number of staff on the floor has been greatly reduced. This reduction will also increase the ambience of the restaurant which is often crowded with service delivery staff carrying trays or rushing to the kitchen to place orders and collect payment.

Secondly, it will be easier to keep track of finances, that is, items sold and payments made. (Mill 2001) states that majority of the restaurant losses come from miscalculations where clients are wither overcharged or undercharged. When clients are undercharged, it means the restaurant directly loses income. On the other hand, overcharging may lead to a bad reputation and loss of clientele who become disoriented with the restaurant. Tablets for table management will allow easy tracking of sales and payments. In addition, the automatic calculation means there are fewer chances of overcharging and disgruntlement. The tablet allows both the chefs and the supervisors to keep real track of the tables at any particular moment.

With this system in place, each order can be confirmed with the delivery and receipt in real time. In addition each item placed on order can be tracked to the individual who placed the said order. This will make the staff highly accountable and responsible for any orders in their name. There is expected to be a significant increase in profits and operational income once these systems are in place and the losses accruing have been handled.


Gordon, R. T., & Brezinski, M. H. (1999). The complete restaurant management guide. Armonk, N.Y: Sharpe Professional.

Mill, R. C. (2001). Restaurant management: Customers, operations, and employees. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Scanlon, N. L. (1993). Restaurant management. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.





Consumerism is described by Behrends (2004) as the obsession and fondness of consumers to acquire goods and services in ever- increasing quantities. The more spending of consumers in the purchasing of good and services is desirable as it has been proposed by economists as the ultimate solution to economic problems arguing that more spending would encourage increase in production consequently leading to creation of jobs thus is encouraged.

Most ladies are obsessed with the acquisition of new clothes, shoes and other fashion accessories. They flock shopping malls and garment stores everyday in pursuit of acquiring new attires either for an important occasion or just for a change and they buy whatever catches their eyes sometimes unplanned for. Consumerism in this context is that preoccupation by ladies to constantly spend more in acquiring more wear as implied by Behrends (2004).

The deliberate action by manufacturers to place a limit on the life span of a commodity is referred to as planned obsolescence as stated by Behrends (2004). Manufacturers decide to produce specific commodities for predetermined periods after which they become obsolete- that is, their production terminate hence vanish from the market. Planned obsolescence encourages consumerism in that consumers purchase more of the product they like if they know it’s elapsing time prior.

The software industry is one of the most dynamic industries with new computer soft-wares produced frequently while the old once become obsolete. Planned obsolescence is incorporated into the designing of soft-wares since the developer programs the software to operate within a specific time frame after which they stop functioning and become completely useless forcing the consumer to get new software as implied by Behrends (2004).


Behrends, C. (2004). Consequences of planned obsolescence for consumer culture and the promotional self: Analyzing ads. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.





The police have a very crucial duty in the society and the justice system. They enforce the law by aiding in enhancing the safety and security of the community. However, they are liable to a lot of transgressions due to the nature of their job and research confirms that the police department is among the most notorious in corruption (White, 2007 p. 20). Therefore, civilian oversight bodies have been established to be custodians of the police. The major role of these bodies is to ensure the public retains its confidence in the police department and improve the policing operations by imposing police accountability for their actions, policies and organizations to help police officials stay focused in their job of enforcing peace and order as recommended by Head, Brown & Connors ( 2008, p. 3). Their aim is to prevent police misconduct which they do by identifying, investigating and making appropriate recommendations based on their findings. Some of these oversight bodies in New Zealand and Australia are Police Integrity Commission, Crime and Misconduct Commission and Independent Police Conduct Authority. The paper critically analyses the three bodies, comparing and contrasting their scope of operation, powers and their effectiveness in meeting their objective.

The independent oversight bodies, PIC, IPCA and CAC inclusive, are established by legislators’ acts hence are answerable to the government through an annual report to the parliament concerning their annual work, achievements, challenges and recommendations Kerrigan (2003, p. 56). They are charged with the responsibility of enhancing the public’s confidence in the police for the purpose of maintain harmony. Therefore, their main objective is to oversee the conduct of the police to ensure that their operations, procedures and actions are in accordance with the law and the police cord of conduct to aid stem the overgrowing complains concerning injustices by the police and neglect of duty for the sake of a better society as implied by Ross & Parke (2009, p. 3).

The Police Integrity Commission does identify and investigate serious cases of misconduct and those regarding public interest just like the Independent Police Conduct Authority. On completion of the investigations, they forward their findings to the appropriate authorities since they lack the power to prosecute. IPCA forwards their findings to the police and if unsatisfied with the action taken by the police intern report to the Attorney General and the Police Minister who interns reports to the parliament and necessary actions are taken. IPCA refers the majority of minor complaints and those regarding breach of police code of conduct to the police for investigation while in NSW such cases are handled by Ombudsman as explained by Hryniewicz (2011, p. 3).

PIC, IPCA and CAC do hold public hearings in order to gain the public’s trust by showing openness and transparency although they also have private hearings in case of delicate issues but release a report to the public on completion of investigations. Their major objective in conducting the hearing is to find the truth thus use minimal legal procedures and is not bounded by the norm of evidence. They do enhance their efficiency by conducting objective and comprehensive research concerning any complaint presented to them by the civilians against the police as implied by Sen (2010, p. 34).

Prenzier & Ronken (2001, p. 2) states that the independent oversight police bodies have different scope, constitution, duties and responsibilities that arise as a result of historical factors that contributed to their foundation and implementation. For instance Police Integrity Commission was established in 1996 to deal with specific issues in in the police department of New South Wales Police Force following the recommendation of the Wood Royal Commission while Independent Police Conduct Authority was founded to oversee the police force in New Zealand because it was the solution at the time and lastly, Crime and Misconduct Commission was founded following constitutional amends in 2001 that gave it the responsibility of stemming corruption among the public as well as the police force in Queensland as described by Prenzler (2004, p. 4).

The Police Integrity Commission’s activities are overseen by Inspector of the Police Integrity Commission who is a non-member of the commission. The commission employees highly qualified investigators hired from any commonwealth nations with prior knowledge of police operations. Similarly, IPCA also does not employee former offices from within the police departments as investigators they oversee to assist achieve independence although some oversight bodies do not mind as implied by Garth & Beckley (2013, p. 9).

Ransley, Anderson & Prenzler (2007, p. 6) says that the Police Integrity Commission is charged with prevention, detection and investigation of misconduct in the police departments. However, Independent Police Authority safe for preventing, detecting and investigating police misconduct also supervises the conditions of detentions and treatment of inmates to ensure that their living conditions meet the standards of the United Nations and the Human Rights Commission. Crime and misconduct Commission, on the other hand, has a wider scope of duty since it does investigate cross-public issues as well as serious and organized crimes. They also review civilian cases being investigated by the police as implied by Lonne & Thomson (2005, p. 2).

Gottschalk (2009, p. 3) give cross-public organizations such as Crime and Misconduct Commission as the most effective in retaining the public’s trust in policing organization and improving policing activities by stemming corruption as they concentrate on preventing corruption thus aid in restoring trust of the public in the police force. This is because all their activities and constitution aim at stemming the vice. They employee anti-corruption officials alongside investigators as they have realized that corruption is very difficult to deal with thus require combined efforts. CIM follows up police investigations on civilians thus ensures that they conduct their investigations according to the requirements of the law thus aiding in minimizing misconduct, neglect or corruption. They also focus on education of both the public and the police of the necessity of holding integrity for the benefit of peace and understanding in the community. This helps to foster integrity and self-discipline from within which is the ultimate solution to corruption and policing misconduct issues as recommended by Davidson & Gottschalk (2012, p. 7).

Consequently, PIC and IPCA are only effective in the short term considering their major focus is in identifying, investigating and forwarding the culprits for punishment which is more ideal in stemming breach of police code of conduct but not in preventing corruption. These organizations do face a lot challenges including difficulty in conducting investigation resulting from the complexity nature of the policing organizations. Their lack of the power to prosecute also disadvantages them since there is a possibility that the culprits may walk scot free or that the actions taken against the culprits may not be enough to stem the undesirable practices completely and they have been often accused of overstepping their boundaries Filstad & Gottschalk, 2011, p. 5). Research indicate that the public are not entirely satisfied with these commissions hence advice that the amendments ought to be made to widen their scope to focus more on fostering integrity as implied by Cordner & White (2010, p. 24). .

In summary, Police Integrity Commission, Independent Police Conduct Authority and Crime and Misconduct Commission are independent oversight police bodies based in New South Wales, New Zealand and Queen’s land respectively. Their major responsibility is to enhance the civilian’s confidence in the police by ensuring that the police are accountable for the actions, procedures and organization. More importantly they aid in minimizing corruption in the police department. They build the public’s trust through openness and transparency in their activities, independence and objectivity in their investigations and credibility of the cases investigated independently and their outcomes. These bodies have the power to investigate and make appropriate recommendations based on their findings but not the power to prosecute culprits which is kind of a setback since at some point they are accused of overstepping their boundaries. The PIC is charged with prevention, detection and investigation while the IPCA safe for those other duties does monitor the welfare of inmates. Their major focus is in investigating cases against police reported by civilians and report to the appropriate authority. Whereas, the CAM is a cross-public body that focus more on corruption mitigation and is more effective in the long term goal of stemming of the vice as their activities are directed towards cultivating integrity among the police officers and the public. Consequently PIC and IPCA are more effective in addressing civilian’s complaints about the police than in stemming corruption in the police department. Therefore, the government has been advised to transform the existing oversight bodies’ responsibility and constitution equipping them with the required power to effectively carry out their job.


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Head, B., Brown, A. J., & Connors, C. (2008). Promoting integrity: Evaluating and improving public institutions. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

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Ross, D. L., & Parke, P.A. (2009). Policing by consent decree: an analysis of 42 U.S.C. 14141 and the new model for police accountability. Police Practice and Research. doi: 10.1080/15614260802381109

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