Literature Review

How to Write Literature Reviews

How to Write a Literature Review: Step By Step Guide

A literature review provides the current and complete state of knowledge on a given topic as published in academic journals and books. Scholars usually write literature reviews on topics with limited information.

Basically, it is a summary of the references to a given topic. However, you are required to synthesize the sources you choose.

For instance, a student might be asked to provide a new interpretation of old sources or to provide an interpretation that combines old and new references.

What is the significance of a literature review?

The main purpose of a literature review is to summarize and organize the ideas from previous publications.

A literature review should be objective and should not add information that is not published.

But, it is not just supposed to summarize sources – a writer should connect the sources by looking for common ideas or trends.

A literature review provides a useful guide towards a certain topic that has limited sources.

Therefore, it comes in handy when you do not have enough time to conduct thorough research.

Things To Do Before Beginning Your Literature Review

Before beginning your literature review:

Seek clarity from the lecturer

Confirm from your lecturer:

  • The number and types of sources to include
  • If you need to evaluate the sources
  • And, if subheadings and additional information is mandatory

Revise other reviews

Look at other literature reviews in our field or course. Going through such reviews will give you a clearer idea of how to write your review. Furthermore, these previous reviews in your field will have references that will be a good place to start your research.

Narrow down the scope of your research

Some topics have many sources. And, your lecturer probably does not expect you to include all of them in your review.

Therefore, you need to narrow your topic so you can reduce the material you have to go through.

Consider the date of your sources

Let’s say you are composing a literature review about the treatment of a certain medical condition.

Medical procedures change regularly to accommodate current studies.

So, when writing a review you need updated sources as references that are even a year old could be out-of-date.

On the contrary, if you are writing a review in social sciences, the review might require you to assess how things have changed over time. In such cases, old sources should be included.

Literature Review Writing Tactics

The following are some tactics of writing a review:

Focus on an idea

A good literature review focuses on an idea. That is to say, you need to read and understand your sources, and then find a central idea that connects them.

For instance, you could focus on:

  • How well your sources present a given topic
  • A trend your sources reveal
  • Something that is missing from all your sources

Have a thesis statement

The typical literature review does not have a thesis statement.

However, it is advisable to tell the reader the idea, concept, or principle, behind the compilation of the review. In other words, try and inform a reader what they should expect.

The following are two samples of excerpts from reviews:

  1. The contemporary treatment for kidney failure is a combination of medicine and surgery.
  2. Should social media be considered in courses in the field of society and culture?

Pick an organizational format for your sources

This is a question of how you will present your review. What topics or subheadings will you include and how will you arrange them?

A literature review has three basic sections:

  • Introduction
  • Body (the section that lists and discusses different sources)
  • Recommendations or conclusion

Before writing the body of the review, you need to consider how you will organize the sources. The following are the methods you can use to organize your sources:

  1. Chronological – in a chronological organization, you arrange your sources according to their date of publication. In a literature review, you start with the earliest source and end with the latest source.
  2. Trend or theme – you can identify a trend or theme in your topic and organize your sources according to it. For instance, let’s say your review’s topic is cervical cancer treatment. You could use a thematic organization to organize your sources for types of cervical cancer. Therefore, you will have a section of sources covering squamous cell carcinomas and another on adenocarcinomas.
  3. Methodological – this approach focuses on the methods of the writers not the content of the sources. The method of the writer affects how they discuss a topic. For instance, when looking at women’s rights, you could focus on the cultural differences in the perception of women’s rights in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and America. Writers from these different regions will discuss women’s rights differently due to cultural bias.

Once you pick an organizational structure, it will be easy to deduce the segments you need to include in the body of your literature review.

At times your study requires additional information that you cannot incorporate in the organizational approach you picked. Such segments include:

  • History: this segment explains the chronological progression of the field or the sources included in the review. It can also explain something that is necessary to understand the review. This segment is mostly included if the organizational approach is not chronological.
  • Methods or standards: include this statement t explain the criterion you used to choose sources for your review. For example, you could use this subheading to explain to your readers that your review only includes only peer-reviewed journals.
  • Questions for further research: if your review sparks questions or a need for further research, include this segment.
  • Current situation: This section includes information that a reader requires to understand the idea behind your review.

The Dos And Don’ts Of Literature Review Writing

At this point you have decided on a focus for your review, you have your sources, and you have decided on an organizational structure and the additional segments to include. The next step is to start writing your review.

When writing your review, consider the following guidelines.

The Dos of literature review writing

  1. Back up your content with evidence

Whatever you are writing in your literature review has to be legitimate. Therefore, like any other academic paper, the content of your literature review has to be backed up with evidence. That is especially true when making a point or elucidating an argument in your introduction.

2. Include only important points

From your sources, you can deduce very many points. But, you only need to include the points that are relevant to the focus of your review.

3. Summarize and synthesize your sources

Take the important points from a source and summarize them. Then, include information on how the texts change your thinking and its significance to your research. The point is to connect your sources to the focus of your review.

4. Limit the use of direct quotes

A literature review looks into several sources. Therefore, it does not accommodate the detailed discussion of quotes from a single source. So, it makes more sense to rephrase what the writer said, rather than including a direct quote.

5. Be careful when paraphrasing

Often, you will have to paraphrase. But, when rewording, your final phrase should represent the writer’s idea accurately. To have an easy time when paraphrasing, in your text, refer to the writer of the source.

6. Revise

After finishing your work, go through it. Check that:

  • You have followed all the instructions from your lecturer
  • You have used language that is easy for your readers to understand
  • There are no grammar and typing errors
  • Your sources are documented
  • There is no jargon and fluff
  • Your sentences and ideas flow smoothly

The Don’ts of literature review writing

When writing your literature review, don’t:

  • Include sources whose research are based on assumptions and disregard or contradict the findings of your review.
  • Leave out a segment explaining the search criteria used in picking your sources.
  • Write isolated research that is not based on the focus of your review

How To Format A Literature Review

How To Format A Literature Review
How To Format A Literature Review

A literature review is a type of writing that examines published literature within a given topic.

As such, a literature review will require you to read and analyze different sources.

After that, you are required to present your understanding of the literature.

In essence, you are supposed to summarize different sources and write your synthesis.

Also, you are required to present the information in a specific order, and follow a specific format when presenting the assignment.

In this article, you will find useful information on how to format a literature review.

Structure and Format A Literature Review

Like most academic papers, a literature review should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.

But the content of these sections is different in literature reviews.


The introduction of a literature review should clearly indicate the main organizing principle.

The first thing you need to do is to introduce the general topic (for example, reproductive rights of women).

Then, inform the reader the main criterion used to select the sources, which in the case of the example above could be chronological history.

Finalize the introduction by linking the main organizing principle to your sources.


The body of a literature review provides a summary and synthesis of each source.

But, first, you have to choose a method to organize your sources.

There are three main ways of organizing sources in a literature review:

  • Chronologically: organizing sources chronologically means maintaining the right historical timeline.

Therefore, if you choose this organizing principle, you start with the earliest source and end with the latest source.

  • Methodologically: this organizing principle focuses on the methods used by the authors to present critical concepts. For instance, one way to methodologically organize sources on women reproductive rights is to look at the ways cultural bias affects the way authors depict the exercising of women’s rights.
  • Thematically: this refers to organizing sources in terms of a theme, trend, topic, or theoretical concepts you deem necessary to understand a given topic. Let’s say you are looking at sources in the topic of cervical cancer treatments, you could thematically organize the sources according to the type of treatments they cover, i.e., radiation and non-radiation treatments.


The conclusion should provide a summary of your findings.

In a literature review, you should relate your findings to the real world.

In other words, try to make your reader understand why your literature review was important.

It is also advisable to leave your readers with something to think about by ending with a rhetorical question or posing questions for further research.

Format a Literature review in APA

The instructions given by the instructor will help you determine the format and outline to use.

So before you start writing seek clarity on:

  • The review format to be utilized in citations
  • The number and types of sources to include
  • The expected length
  • The headings, subheadings, and any other background information to include

In most cases, you will present your literature review in the APA format.

If that’s the case, consider the following rules:

  1. Insert a page header, and type the page number aligned right, and the literature review title in caps left-aligned.

Note that, the title of the review should be shortened to 50 characters or less (including spaces and punctuation).

Also, the header of the first page should have the phrase ‘running head’.

2. In the title page, type the title of the review, the name of the student, and institutional affiliation.

This information should be center-aligned and should appear in the middle of the page.

The review title on the title page should not exceed 12 words.

3. Type the paper in Time New Roman font, and font size 12.

The whole document should have double-spaces paragraphs.


The truth is that it can be quite challenging to write a literature review.

But, with proper planning, understanding the structure, and having the correct outline, you will have an easier time.

The above guide will help you write a better literature review.

You can also sharpen your review writing skills by going through other reviews; there are free samples on our website.

Reading review examples will help you to better understand what the literature of your field requires.

If you need professional help formatting your literature review contact us now.

Outline Templates

Essay Outline Templates

9 Outstanding Essay Outline Templates to Get Your Essay GoingEssay

What is an Essay Outline?

Writing a good essay requires you to come up with a good outline.

An outline is more like a rough draft of the actual essay.

It is the plan or foundation for your essay.

Without a good outline, you might get stuck or run out of content to write halfway through your essay.

In essence, an outline helps with the structure of your essay.

More importantly, it helps you with the flow of information and organization of your points as you write.

Therefore, it helps you to stay focused and not stray from your original ideas.

However, it should be flexible to accommodate new information.

With an outline, you will have a clear idea of how the paper will go and the transition of ideas.

As such, an essay outline is one of the best tools if you do not want to run out ideas when writing. 

Essay Outline Templates

Once you have come up with one essay outline, you might not need to write one from scratch every time; you can use the original as a template.

However, not all essay outlines will work for each type of essay.

Below are essay outline templates for each type of essay.

All you have to do with our templates is to fill in the blanks.

Also, we have provided information about how each type of essay outline works.

1. Analytical Essay Outline Template

This template helps you come up with a topic and support it in the body of the essay.

Remember, an analytical analyzes a given topic.

Most students make the mistake of writing an analytical essay like a summary essay.

You need to understand how the author composed the piece of literature.

Why does that piece of literature exist, what is the theme, and what message did the author try to convey?

Overall, you are trying to explain why a particular piece of literature is a masterpiece.

You are not only supposed to answer those questions but also convincing your reader of your standpoint.

Your standpoint helps narrow down the focus of your paper.

Of course, you should back up your points with evidence from the book, poem, movie, or whatever literary piece you are analyzing.

Analytical Essay Outline Template
Analytical Essay Outline Template

2. Critical Essay Outline Template

A critical essay outlines the advantages and disadvantages of something.

You should clearly explain to the reader the good and the bad about what you are discussing.

Note that, an analytical essay focuses on the meaning behind a given text while a critical essay analyzes whether a given text is well written or not.

Our critical essay outline templates will help you analyze the text by carefully looking into all of its elements.

It will allow you to focus on each element, thereby making it easy for you to identify the excellence or the flaws in the text.

Critical Essay Outline Template
Critical Essay Outline Templates

3. Argumentative Essay Outline Template

In an argumentative essay, you have to convince a reader of your point of view on a given topic.

It is similar to a persuasive essay, only that you need to back up your points with facts and credible evidence.

Our argumentative essay template helps you structure your essay in an easy-to-follow manner.

More importantly, it will help you develop your introduction, come up with good arguments in the body, and close with a definite conclusion.

Argumentative Essay Outline Template
Argumentative Essay Outline Template

4. Persuasive Essay Outline Template

Like an argumentative essay, you should convince readers of your point of view in a persuasive essay.

However, in a persuasive essay, you need not support your points with concrete evidence.

You can write this essay based solely on your personal opinions.

You are allowed to persuade the reader by using an authoritative tone and appealing to their emotions.

Use this template to organize your ideas.

Persuasive Essay Outline Template (5 paragraph essay) notes…

  1. Introduction paragraph:
  1. Get the readers attention by using a “hook”. Pull your audience in!
    1. Quote, Fact, something interesting to start essay
  2. Give some background information about topic. Explain what the topic is and why it is controversial or important to you.
  3. Thesis or focus statement (MUST BE STATED in the LAST sentence of your introduction paragraph).
    1. This is a sentence stating your opinion about the topic and will be proven in the rest of your essay with 3 strong reasons and support.
      1. Example: I am in favor of ____________ because ____________, ______________, and ___________.
      2. Example: I am against _____________because _____________, _____________, and ___________.
  1. Body Paragraphs:
  1. (1st body paragraph)First argument or reason to support your position
    1. Topic sentence explaining your first reason.
      1. Example: My first reason for being against ___________ is __________________________.
    2. Provide support/evidence to prove your first reason.
      1. Facts, data, examples, etc.
    3. (2nd body paragraph) Second argument or reason to support your position.
      1. Topic sentence explaining your second reason.
        1. Example: Another reason I do not support _____________is _______________.
      2. Provide support for your second reason
        1. Facts, data, examples, etc.
      3. (3rd body paragraph) Counter argument and third reason to support position.
        1. State what the other side believes or may argue
          1. Example: Some may argue _______________
        2. Challenge their argument with your third reason and provide support.
        3. Example: but I disagree because _____________.
        4. Give support such as facts, data, examples, etc. explaining why your opinion is right and the other side is not right.
        5. Conclusion Paragraph:
        6. Sum up your main points and 3 reasons.
        7. Restate your thesis. Example: I am strongly against ______________.
        8. Final words: last comments or call to action. Encourage the reader to agree with you and take your side on the issue.

5. Expository Essay Outline Template

An expository essay demonstrates your knowledge in a given topic.

This outline will help in organizing your ideas and backing them up with facts and other credible evidence.

Expository Essay Structure Outline 


  1. Begin with a hook. Tell a detailed story that pulls the reader in.  The story should relate to the thesis of your essay in some way.
  2. Tie-in – This is a sentence (or a few sentences) that provides a link from your hook to the thesis of your essay.
  3. Thesis statement – This sentence is typically the last sentence of the introduction. It responds to the prompt and provides the main idea of the entire essay.  The thesis statement should NOT include 3 supporting reasons.  Sample thesis statement for the prompt “What is your favorite time of the year?”:  “Without a doubt, Thanksgiving is my absolute favorite time of the year.”

Body Paragraph 1

  1. Begin with a topic sentence – The topic sentence provides the direction for the entire paragraph and should include one reason/example that supports your thesis statement. For example, with the prompt and thesis statement mentioned above, an appropriate topic sentence for body paragraph one might be “Undoubtedly, I eat better on Thanksgiving than any other time of the year.”
  2. Extension sentence – This sentence provides further clarification on the idea presented in the topic sentence. It allows you to start moving into the details you will develop in the paragraph.
  3. Details – Provide detailed examples that support the idea you presented in your topic sentence. Personal anecdotes provide excellent details.
  4. Closing sentence – This is the last sentence of the paragraph and should summarize the main idea of the paragraph or put a finishing thought to it.

Body Paragraph 2

  1. Transition – This should summarize the main idea from the previous paragraph and lead into the new idea for this paragraph. Note that this also serves as the topic sentence for this paragraph with a new supporting reason.  Possible transition structures include:

Not only do I eat like a king on Thanksgiving, but I also get to spend precious moments with family members I rarely see.

Besides eating like a king on Thanksgiving, I also get to spend precious moments with family members I rarely see.

Eating well on Thanksgiving is only the beginning; I also get to spend precious moments with family members I rarely see.

While eating well on Thanksgiving is a pleasure, even more important are the precious moments I get to spend with family members I rarely see.

  1. The rest of Body Paragraph 2 follows the same structure as Body Paragraph 1

Body Paragraph 3

  1. Most important supporting detail/reason should be reserved for this paragraph to end your essay with a bang. Ways to transition to this last idea include:

Above all else, Thanksgiving is a time I get to show my gratitude for everything I have.

Most significantly, Thanksgiving is a time I get to show my gratitude for everything I have.

  1. The rest of Body Paragraph 2 follows the same structure as Body Paragraph 1


  1. Restate/summarize your three supporting reasons/examples from each topic sentence. Example:

I savor every bite of the food I eat on Thanksgiving.  Also, I appreciate the opportunity I have to spend quality time with my family and show gratitude for everything I have.

  1. Link back to your story in the hook and finish it up.
  2. Restate your thesis using different words.

6. Compare And Contrast Essay Outline Template

In this type of essay, you take two objects, ideas, persons, pieces of literature, etc., and highlight their differences and similarities.

Before you start writing such an essay, have a goal in mind.

Ask yourself what the purpose of the essay is.

You can either compare two things to clear a misunderstanding or to prove one is superior to the other.

Compare and Contrast Essay Outline Template

  1. Introduction
    1. Introduction to the broad topic
    2. Specific topic
    3. Thesis statement
  2. Body Paragraphs
    1. Body paragraph #1—First aspect that’s similar or different
  1. Subject #1
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
  2. Subject #2
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
    1. Body paragraph #2—Second aspect that’s similar or different
  1. Subject #1
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
  2. Subject #2
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
    1. Body paragraph #3—Third aspect that’s similar or different
  1. Subject #1
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
  2. Subject #2
    1. Detail #1
    2. Detail #2
  1. Conclusion
    1. Summary of main points—Restate thesis while synthesizing information from body paragraphs
    2. Evaluate the similarities/differences and discuss any future implications (if applicable)
    3. Significance—what’s the point you’re making?

7. Reflective Essay Outline Template

In a reflective essay, you reflect on how a past event or experience relates to a given topic.

In most cases, you have the freedom to choose the topic of the essay.

Students find such essays to be easy to write because no research is required, and you get to talk about yourself.

Still, you have to plan well and have an outline to produce an excellent reflective essay.

This template will help you create a catchy introduction with a hook and come up with a body that is descriptive enough to immerse any reader.

It also guides you in creating an exciting conclusion.

Reflective Essay Outline
(To save a copy for yourself choose “file>download as” or “file>make a copy”. Cheers!)

  • Introduction
      1. Hook—give a quick preview of the most exciting part of that story
      2. Thesis Statement—without giving too much away, write how this experience influenced you.
  • Body Paragraph
      1. Description of an influential person, place or event
  • Body Paragraph
      1. The effect of the person, place or event had on you at the time
  • Body Paragraph
      1. Lesson learned from reflecting on person, place or event
  • Conclusion
    1. Summary of the experience
    2. Overall impact/lesson learned

8. Cause And Effect Essay Outline Template

In this type of essay, the goal is to explain how something happens.

What causes a specific result is a question this type of essay attempts to answer.

This template will help you structure our essay and create a good flow and link between the causes.

9. Process Essay Outline Template

A process essay explains how something works.

It is easy to confuse a process essay and a cause and effect essay.

The difference between these two essays is that a process essay is more like a tutorial.

A process essay should explain a process in a way that an amateur would comprehend.

It helps to divide a process into parts and explaining each part separately.

This essay outline template will help you achieve just that.

Look at the sample cause and effect essay format:

1. Introduction
1.1. Attention grabber
1.2. Basic information about the topic
1.3. Thesis statement (indicate what the essay will be about: causes, effects, or both)
2. Body paragraph I
2.1. Topic sentence (indicates causes, effects, or both)
2.2. Cause 1/effect 1 (detailed explanation with examples)
3. Body paragraph II
3.1. Topic sentence (indicates causes, effects, or both)
3.2. Cause 2/effect 2 (detailed explanation with examples)
4. Body paragraph III
4.1. Topic sentence (indicates causes, effects, or both)
4.2. Cause 3/effect 3 (detailed explanation with examples)
5. Conclusion
5.1. Restating the thesis statement
5.2. Reminding the reader of the main points
5.3. Concluding sentence


An outline guides you as you write.

Moreover, it saves you time when you start writing, as you will refer to it whenever you get stuck.

An outline template makes coming up with an outline easier – you do not have to create it from scratch.

The outline templates we provide are easy to use as you only need to fill in the blanks as you conduct your research.

Contact us if you experience any difficulties using the essay outline templates.

How to Write an Argumentative Essay-Examples, Topics, Outline

How To Write Argumentative Essays with Examples

Argumentative Essay

You are debating with your friend over the medicinal use of marijuana.

You believe that it should not be used anywhere even medicines worldwide as it may lead to many problems.

Your friend believes that there are situations where marijuana can serve as the best medicine.

Now to prove your point both of you are ready to write argumentative papers on the topic.

But before writing anything you need to know a few things:

What Is An Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is a persuasive way used to find a solution for convincing someone with an opinion or idea.

It is applied based on well-researched facts and evidence to increase the convincing power of the argument.

Although the writing process of a regular essay might be tedious, an argumentative essay is even more taunting.

This argumentative essay is created under the writer’s opinion or idea which is used to convince anyone with opposing viewpoints.

However, it’s not as easy as you may think just like creating some statements does not help in cutting the mustard.

An argumentative essay shows the importance of possessing some major components which increase the power of the convincing.

Argumentative essays require a student to use strong arguments to support their point of view, and even create arguments to refute opposing views.

It is important to note that you need to use credible evidence to back up your arguments.

Therefore, you have to dedicate ample time towards research and gathering data and information.

Combine hard evidence with persuasive language, and you will come up with an excellent argumentative essay.

How To Write The Argumentative Essay

Unlike a regular essay, this type of essay requires a particular structure. The chosen topic for the article should be eye-catching to attract a good number of readers.

After deciding on the subject, it’s time to come with an argument based on the same. In the argument part, it requires strong statements for your idea to be convincing.

This is essay part needs a lot of creativity because it works along with the readers’ thoughts.

Remember that personal experience will not help in strengthening your argumentative essay.

Besides, with a good content source like scientific studies and government resources will be appreciated by any reader even when he or she is on the opposition side.

It is also vital to ensure that you are using data that is relevant to the essay topic.

Supporting The Viewpoint Of The Opposition

It’s good to consider that each topic has a different point of view and having the ability to disapprove the viewpoint of your opposition ignites the success of an argumentative essay.

With a few examples of an argumentative essay, this issue can be demonstrated easily.

A top quality example presents a topic backing them with a set of strong evidence. It is the strength of your evidence that decides the fate of your claim.

Objecting The Opponents Viewpoint

An opponent may not be happy with the refuting; however, if the essay contains four or three strong evidence to support the ideas.

The opposition views should be acknowledged although the refuting process has to feature things like facts, logic, quotes, and several statistics.

The presence of many pieces of evidence and statistics increases the strength of an essay. This is the section where much work and intensive research is needed to get enough facts and proofs.

But also a creative process of thoughts is required to lessen the research work and also to find any loopholes in the views of the opposition.

In most cases, the opposition views come in the third or second paragraphs in an argumentative essay.

The same content can also be used at the end, in the first paragraph or even in the body.

However, the references to the source must be included in the section for double checking of the evidence.


A conclusion comes at the end of the excellent task, and this conclusion is included in the best argumentative essay examples.

The judgment contains a summary of the main points and all the supportive evidence.

To be precise, it’s a summary of the full argumentative essay. The abstract should reflect an emphasis on the topic before concluding your essay.

This section is recommended to be maintained within a few paragraphs to avoid annoying readers.

An argumentative essay example shows that its success is determined by the convincing power of the statements to make readers adopt your opinions.

A professional and calm approach to writing the essay helps the writer in obtaining facts and evidences for backing up the claims.

In the end, this results in excellent results.


When an essay has been dusted and done, you should not adopt the philosophy of ‘shut it and forget it.’

It’s recommended to go through the piece polishing it and checking any errors including necessary spelling and grammatical mistakes.

This refines the essay further providing an excellent template for future use.

Argumentative Essay vs Persuasive Essay

Generally people cannot differentiate between these two types and take them as the same, but there is a clear difference between these two.

Both of these essays serve the purpose of proving your point of view but both are distinctively different in their method of proving from each other.

Persuasive essays use emotional aspect and moral reasoning to influence the readers’ point of view while the arguments put forward in an argumentative essay are based on factual information and logical reasoning.

In the discussion of the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the writer should be able to differentiate between these two types.

For an argumentative essay it is important to disregard the emotional aspects like religious point of view and ethics.

You can discuss and focus on these in a persuasive essay but for argumentative essays focus on the one dimensional logical reasoning.

Sample Topics for Argumentative Essays

How to Write an Argumentative Essay

  1. Is animal testing necessary for our life on this earth?
  2. Should death penalty be made a law for serious crimes?
  3. Should immigrants be given more rights?
  4. Is college so much important to make a good society?
  5. What should be done for the elimination of bias from the journalists’ work?

Format of an Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay is just like most of the traditional written assignments.

It starts with an introduction just like any essay then body paragraphs, the number of which depends upon the topic and the length of the assignment, and a conclusion at the end.

This is the basic structure with every part playing its specific role.


The introduction of an argumentative essay is similar to that of the persuasive essay.

Hook statement:

The hook statement hooks the reader to read the entire essay till the last sentence.

It arrests the interest of the reader in an interesting way.

This may be in the form of any interesting statement, a shocking and revealing fact or a rhetorical question.

Thus it serves the purpose of grabbing the readers’ attention and interest.

    • Example: Can we say that ONE individual has more rights over the other?

This will definitely stir the reader’s mind and make him think about what you said.

It will also hook your reader along to the end thinking where and how you will lead from this point.

Introduction: After you have initially grabbed the attention of your reader, now try to use facts or any points that might be important to talk about your thesis.

The introduction is important to give the reader some detail about the argument put forward.

The background information that you give to the reader must be relevant to the topic.

The thesis statement comes at the end of the introductory paragraph which is basically the heart of any essay. Whatever you write in your essay is written to support your thesis statement.

And how will you exactly create the thesis statement?  You need to just follow a few basic and simple guidelines:

  • Always phrase your thesis as a factual statement rather than an uncertain idea or a question.
  • Your thesis should be a definitive statement. It should be properly analyzed and researched by the writer and then used to prove something using supporting material.
  • This should be an original and unique thought and not an obvious and simple statement. It should not have been much researched. If it is an obvious fact then your essay will not be an impressive one and you will not be able to hook your reader as your whole essay will be written around it. So, it needs to be a fresh and unique thesis. In short it should not be an issue, question or statement that can be explained or answered in one sentence.

Body of an Argumentative Essay

The number of paragraphs depends upon the length of your essay.

This number varies with the kind of topic you are writing on.

If your thesis statement talks about something that can be explained and thus proved in a few points then the length of your essay will be short.

On the other hand if your thesis statement is a unique one that requires more analysis and research and you need much information to put into your essay then the length of your essay will increase with this, thus increasing its length.

Now let us see the different segments of every paragraph.98uyfdrc

Topic Sentence: Topic sentence introduces the reader to what your main topic of discussion will be.

It should not explain anything but should serve the purpose of stirring the mind of the reader and pulling him towards reading your essay further.

Therefore it should be just one coherent sentence that is complete in itself and makes your idea clear and comprehensible.

Example: The death penalty is an efficient and economical way of getting rid of those humans who are a serious threat to the society.

In argumentative essays you have to be straight forward and cold blooded.

Sounds harsh right?  You need to get used to it.

For argumentative essays you have to disregard emotions and come up with harsh but real facts!

  • Analyzing the Argument: Here you need to answer the reader why do you say what you have said in your argument for this you need to briefly explain your main argument. Now you need to prove the authenticity of your point to the reader. The length of this part will depend upon the amount of information you want to use to support it.
    • Example: The incarceration per inmate in the US is $31,286 per annum. Knowing the fact that this individual caused much financial damage without contributing towards the betterment of society, he is definitely a serious threat to the society and therefore should be given the death penalty!

Statements so harsh and morally offensive are all that make up all argumentative essays.

For these essays you will have to take one side or the other and support your arguments and prove them with facts.

Supporting Evidence:   An analysis would be incomplete without the supporting evidence required to prove its authenticity.

This sentence will support your main argument with some real Evidence for your thesis statement.

Providing evidence will strengthen your argument.

    • Example: Generally a government spends a big amount of money on an incarcerated prisoner per year! What purpose is left behind of this when the individual is living a futile life without giving any benefit to the society but just damaging it!

The above statement gives a logical reason and supports the idea stated in the thesis statement proving its authenticity.

  • Using counterargument to counterargument: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Similarly every argument will have a counter argument, and one should be able to identify and recognise it without which your argument will lose its weight. Therefore in an argumentative essay you need to identify and present the counter argument as well as validate your argument showing that your stance holds more weight!
    • Example: It is arguable that humans should be given second chances as the probability of the success of this second chance is much less than the economic burden on the nation. Thus it would be quite risky to take such a chance and would prolong the economic suffering of the nation!

Here you would have seen that a common counter-argument that any layman can definitely consider has been presented and then using logical reasoning this argument has been denied proving that my stance holds more weight!

  • Concluding statement:

When you think you have provided enough explanation and evidence and hence proved your point and defeated the opposite side, you need to wrap up your discussion with a satisfying statement.

You do not need to write a sentence with something new in it but just reconfirm the proven points.

Your tone in the sentence should be an assertive one.

Example: In other words, it seems an overall ridiculous decision at the cost of a nation’s economy to keep a fellow human alive who is a continuous threat to the society!

It should be as short and to the point as possible!

These were the parts of each paragraph of an essay. Now come to the last paragraph that is conclusion.


This comprises the last part of the essay, which restates the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph and concludes the overall essay.

Now let’s break down the concluding paragraph into its constituent parts!

  • Restatement of Thesis: The title is self-explanatory as you will only need to rephrase your thesis statement. It shouldn’t include any new information.
    • Example: Thanks to the ruling government, it can now limit its economic losses which have been caused by individuals to the nation in terms of wealth as well as health!
  • Restatement of Key Points: Remember the key ideas included in your body paragraphs with which you proved your thesis? Now it is time to pick them up again and rephrase them for further assertion.
  • Overall Concluding Statement: Here you need to make a statement that not only sums up your essay by restating the thesis statement but also validates it by peeping into the future with repercussions if the thought is not given due consideration. This would give a strong appeal to your essay.

Example: Keeping in view the financial situation of our nation we should struggle hard to keep it above water.

I would say that we are going to impact the nation’s capital health and prolong the disease of inhumane activities if we got rid of the death penalty.

General Tips on Argumentative Essays

  • Reason not Emotion: for an argumentative essay, we must remember that we are supposed to direct our points towards rational reasoning. Who cares for the emotions here!
  • Remember Counterarguments: Most of the writers forget to include counterarguments. This will surely harm their rate of success. A well supported argument without a considered counterargument is half as strong as it should be. Therefore always remember to explain why your stance carries more weight!
  • Get peer help: Your ideas or points will always make sense to you after all they are your ideas. But have you ever wondered whether they also make sense to your reader. Peer editing is a very useful technique to validate the logic behind your arguments and tell you how much your readers are going to understand your ideas!

Writing Help

You still have doubts that your essay will top your friends’ even after reading the tutorial!

It’s ok; nobody knows everything about the death penalty.

But at the best essay writing service on the web, Essay Freelance Writers, our experts can help you more than you could imagine!

Such topics are very easy and common but our writer’s have tons of experience with writing all types of argumentative and persuasive essays! Being experienced in all types of papers our college expert writers know how to get you an A on your paper! not convinced yet? Try us out!

Check out our essay writing experts yourself as well as have a live chat with them to clear your doubts. After talking them out to answer your questions and clearing your doubts, we are sure you are going to trust their knowledge and skills.

Argumentative Essay Outline

Argumentative Essay Outline To Help You With Your Writing (2019)

An outline, to an essay, is what a plan is to a building.

If you were to build a house without a plan, you are likely going to run into numerous problems, and the final product will not be as good as expected.

If a good plan minimizes the risk of errors and getting stuck, why not create it?

Students start writing essays without an outline mostly because they do not appreciate the advantages of an outline.

And, even some of those who do know its benefits do not know how to come up with an outline.

With that in mind, we have come with the following guide on how to create an argumentative essay outline.

Argumentative Essay Outline Format

Your outline should follow the following format:


The introduction is one paragraph that should introduce the reader to your topic and your point of view.

Consider the following tips when writing the introduction:

  1. Begin your introduction with a hook. The first statement should grab the attention of the reader. For an argumentative essay, a hook can be a controversial statement, a less known fact, a piece of statistical data, or an intriguing question.
  2. Explain the importance of the topic. What is the importance of talking about that topic?
  3. Explain why you are talking about the subject and let the reader know your point of view.
  4. Present your thesis statement. Clearly, state the argument or claim you will support in the body of your essay.

Main body

Several paragraphs that provide arguments to support your main argument.

Each supporting argument should be on its paragraph.

You could start with the arguments supporting your claim, then finish with sections refuting the opposing views.

Or, you could start with a paragraph that refutes the main opposing view, then continue to support your claim in the paragraphs that follow.


The conclusion is a paragraph that sums up your main points and your argument.

In this section, remind your readers of the importance of the topic, restate your thesis, and relate it to your supporting arguments.

Readers mostly remember the ending of any piece.

Therefore, it is important that you create a strong conclusion that will stick in the readers’ minds for long.

You can create a memorable conclusion by ending it with a rhetorical question, a statement that inspires the reader to conduct further research or a call to action.

Argumentative Essay Outline Template

  • Introduction
  • Hook: Begin with an anecdote, a piece of statistic, an intriguing question, or a controversial statement.
  • Explain why the topic is important and why people should care.
  • State your thesis: What is your point of view? (Also, you could briefly state the arguments you will use to back up your claim).
  • Body
  • Argument #1: State your argument by crafting it to a topic statement. Use an in-citation from one of your sources to support it. Mention different points to support the argument.
  • Argument #2: State your argument by crafting it to a topic statement. Use an in-citation from one of your sources to support it. Mention different points to support the argument.
  • Argument #3: State your argument by crafting it to a topic statement. Use an in-citation from one of your sources to support it. Mention different points to support the argument.

NB: You could show how your arguments refute a related opposing view in each paragraph or in a separate section.

  • Conclusion
  • Restate your thesis
  • Sum up your arguments
  • Conclude by asking a rhetorical question based on your argument or by asking your readers to do something about the topic of discussion.

Copy the template above and use it each time you are preparing to write an argumentative essay.

Argumentative Essay Outline Example

Now, let us put the information above into perspective.

The following is an outline prepared by one of our writers, who was preparing to write an argumentative essay titled: Isn’t illegalizing abortion violating women’s rights?

  • Introduction
  • Hook: Mention statistical data on the prevalence of abortion.
  • Explain why there is divided opinion on the topic of abortion. Highlight the reasons why a woman might opt for abortion and why some people are against the practice.
  • State your thesis: There are concrete reasons why abortion was legalized in the first place: amending the constitution to illegalize abortion is a disregard of women’s rights and will definitely cost some women important opportunities.
  • Body
  • Argument #1: Women have a right to their own bodies. Support this argument using different points drawn from your sources.
  • Argument #2: Illegalizing it will increase abortion-related fatalities, as people will still seek abortion services. Support this argument using different points drawn from your sources.
  • Argument #3: It is not fair for a mistake to shape the rest of a woman’s life. You could support such an argument by referring to cases of rape and unwanted pregnancies.
  • Conclusion
  • Restate your thesis: Abortion should remain a choice if we are to term ourselves a progressive generation.
  • Sum up your arguments
  • Conclude by asking a rhetorical question based on your argument or by asking your readers to do something about the topic of discussion. For instance: Why are politician diverting their attention from the war on terror to start a war on ovaries?


We have not only shown you how to create an argumentative essay outline, but also provided you with an outline template, and demonstrated how to use the template.

So, basically, you have all you need to research and start writing your argumentative essay.

Remember to copy and save the outline template above, or bookmark this page for future reference.


When providing an extensive explanation of writing argumentative essays, it is best to offer examples to give an in-depth understanding of an argumentative essay.

‘Is much money being paid to the CEOs?’ and ‘Have people become too much dependent on mobile phones? These are the two topics chosen for argumentative essay examples.

Let’s have a look at each argumentative essay example.


Are CEOs Receiving Too Much Salary?

After the 2008 financial crisis, the world had made the CEOs the talking point. They have played many roles in the financial crisis because their wage packets are very high.

The media was alerted by the amount of money received by top people most organizations. Even now there is a belief that CEOs get paid much salary than they are worth.

Too much pay or not?

Three working days is what a top working CEO requires to make the median salary of around £30,000 which is equivalent to that of an employee in the United Kingdom.

And therefore, based on the data released in 2016, the CEO working in an FTSE 100 company receives a salary ratio that is 120 times more than that of an employee.

The median salary of a CEO sat around £3.45 million in 2015 which now has a significant increment of £4 million.

Sir Martin Sorrel, the founder of WPP Plc, is the topmost paid CEO in 2017 in the UK receiving £70 million wages.

According to research carried out by Stanford Graduate School of Business, they stated that 74% of the people in America believed that the CEOs were excessively paid.

Although there is a widely spread consensus that a CEO, being the head of an organization should receive much than the employees in a factory, the pay scale has received much attention.

Besides, the pay gap has increased within the last three decades because back then the CEOs only received 40 times the salary an average employee used to earn.

The Undeviating Direct Influence

A CEO influences the company’s productivity directly on the stock market. This may have both a positive and negative impact.

The death of Steve Jobs resulted in Apple Company losing 5% in the market stock value while the Microsoft Company gained an 8% profit after the step down of Steve Ballmer.

Besides, the trajectory and expectation of an organization depend entirely on the CEO’s vision because he or she is the person in charge.

There are CEO’s who are well-paid, but they are deciding to resign their jobs as a result of bad press. One of the famous case examples is that of Take Dame Glynis Breakwell who stepped down from Bath University as a result of media frenzy.

Bath University was growing well in all rankings during her time; hence it was money that was well spent although she was receiving a salary of around £500,000 annually she still resigned.

Most of the traders and analysts of the stock market are agreeing that CEOs have a direct impact on an organizations growth.

However, this may not have much effect on a short term period, but the vision of the CEO has a long term impact on the company.

Having so much company responsibilities on their shoulders, using a few million to pay off their hard work will not seem costly to them.

The things that need to be done

The excessive remuneration of CEOs has become discontent source amongst employees although their impact is quite intensive.

Since the 2008 financial crisis globally, this discontent is being felt widely. Just after the financial crisis, the salaries of the CEOs had taken a significant hit, but after a few years, the wages took back the journey towards the North.

Still, with the knowledge of the CEO’s influence in a company, the widespread consensus requires their salaries to drop to a reasonable range limit.

Although setting wage limits is not possible, but its performance orientation can be increased than it used to be.

With the remuneration being based on the outcomes will be a good starting point.

If substantial shreds of evidence are provided, it will be a great barometer that can be used to decide on the salary limit of CEO.

A misconception has been widely spread on the package salary stated for a CEO.

Sundar Pichai, being one of the worlds leading CEO receives a salary packet of less than $200 million annually.

The direct salary the ALPHABET CEO is receiving is $650,000, although this is sounding absurd to many.

Stock options resulting from the remaining compensation chunk, have several built-in clauses.

The compensation has attained a more modest look abruptly. This is often the great truth about the CEO’s pay.


There is inequality pay between the basement-level employees and the high ranked officials in an organization.

Although they all work on the progress of the company, this significant disparity among the employees may cause potential bad vibes and grudges.

More CEOs accepting lower salaries can come forward.


Have people become too much dependent on mobile phones?

In this modern society, mobile phones are a must-have asset. Other than regular conversations, they are a central application for a variety of aspects.

In the last decade, mobile phones have integrated more even after being invented to connect people while on the move.

Watching videos, listening to music and other things may not be possible. Mobile phones have started to occupy more prominent roles in people’s lives to the point of addiction which is currently a new part of life.

Overwhelming reasons for the popularity

The main reason for the rapid mobile phones growth has been narrowed down to them having changed the mode of communications perceived by humans.

These devices have made the world a small place since they permit communication rapidly.

Rather than the vocal communication used several decades ago, it may not be possible to send videos, pictures, and location using mobile phones.

They are crucially flexible with something for everyone in this department. These godsend mobile devices resolve Long-distant relationships.

Also, they have as well established business performance even when there is a large mass of earth separating them.

The mobile device is now an emergency device for safety as revealed by statistical data showing that mobile devices of Americans are used to make 74% of distress calls.

Has The Dependency Rate Increased?

Mobile phones have been embraced by modern society at a cost but in a big way. The essence socialism of today is translated into a tiny handheld device.

These devices are now multifaceted which has increased the mobile devices dependence level including small actions such as checking the time of the day.

The addiction to mobile phones is now a big problem, and even when there is no communication, people are still glued to mobile phones.

Any time during the day, the mobile phone is now the hubs that provide entertainment. Variety medium has been used by most creators of content to install entertainment games and applications into these mobile devices

The negative impact of excess usage of mobile phones

The risk analysis of our daily lives caused by mobile phones was done a few years back by ‘The World Unplugged Project.’

To confirm, the longest time a person can survive without a mobile phone, an experiment was carried out which ended badly.

Mobile phones were kept away from the participants for 24 hours whereby some of the displayed physical problems while others showed plenty of psychological symptoms.

Mobile devices have a huge impact that can be summed with the behaviors like checking mobile phone for new messages and also when there is nothing available.

People continuously think about receiving new contents on their mobile phone which is having an influence on society badly.


Even though mobile phones are making our life convenient, it is also coming with plenty of other health problems.

Mobile devices are superficially appearing to enhance life’s quality, but on the other hand, they are continuously consuming the whole society.

Although it’s not possible or feasible to remove mobile phones in our life, each person should see the weight of the problems resting in their pockets.

They are a source of depression, loneliness, stressfulness, frustrations, nervousness, irritability, and anxiousness which is spreading around us.

Therefore, it is crucial to limit the usage of mobile phones.


It’s not confusing to write argumentative essays. You will easily be able to convince readers to support your viewpoint as long as you key all the elements in the essay.

To convince of the two options your viewpoint is the stronger viewpoint; it is essential to have credible sources.

To make your viewpoint stronger than that of the opposing side, you should provide factual evidence to be able to refute the opposition.

We are suggesting you check out our examples of argumentative essays as you also check out our different topics because they will help you in writing quality work.

Thesis statement: Professional Writing Guide (2019) 

How To Rephrase A Thesis Statement

Thesis Statement

The papers requested in tertiary education are meant to convince or persuade a reader to agree with your point of view.

A good paper, therefore, will effectively convince a reader that you not only have an excellent idea but also a logical point of view on a given subject or topic.

For that reason, after introducing the topic of discussion, you write your thesis statement, which is mostly a sentence or two.

Your thesis statement declares your position on the topic of discussion; it tells your reader your focus idea and guides them towards the direction you will take.

In other words, a thesis statement is a summary of the argument in the body of your paper.

The thesis statement of your paper appears in two places – the introduction and the conclusion.

You write your thesis statement in the conclusion to remind the readers the point you have been trying to make throughout the paper.

However, in conclusion, you will have to rephrase your thesis: you can’t simply repeat it as you phrased it in the introduction.

The wording and the sentence structure of your thesis statement in the last paragraph have to be different.

The following is a guide on how to go about writing your theis statement, restating a thesis statement, how to write your racism thesis statement, and interesting thesis statement examples.

What Is A Thesis Statement?

A thesis statement is a claim you present for your essay.

You write it towards the end of the introduction, i.e., after introducing the reader to the topic and its significance.

The thesis statement informs the reader of your stand on the topic of discussion.

All the arguments you make in your paper should support your thesis statement.

The task of coming up with a thesis statement seems so tricky.

But, what you are failing to realize is that you do not have to write it first, and you can always change it to match the theme of your paper.

It is easier to match your thesis to your paper than to match your paper with your thesis.

How To Rephrase A Thesis Statement

Figure out a suitable position for your restatement

Most of the time, the restatement comes at the beginning of the conclusion.

However, it does not necessarily have to be the first sentence.

For example, you could begin your conclusion with a rhetorical question, then a restatement of your thesis.

But, there is no clear-cut formula for writing a conclusion.

It helps to write a rough draft of your conclusion so you can figure out the ideal position for your thesis restatement.

In fact, you might have to test several positions of the restatement so you can figure out the most ideal.

Make it have a deeper impact

By the time a reader gets to the conclusion, they have gone through the rest of the essay.

Therefore, they have a better idea of what the essay is all about and your stand on the topic of discussion.

Take advantage of all this by restating your thesis statement in a way that it will have a deeper level of emotional impact.

One way of restating a thesis with a deeper meaning is addressing the reader.

Let’s say your essay discusses cybersecurity for small businesses, you could start your thesis restatement by saying, “As a small business owner, …”

Such a statement creates a connection with the reader and will help relate the points in the body of the essay to your thesis.

Answer the “so what” question in your thesis statement

The thesis statement in the introduction might not answer the ‘so what’ question.

The one in the conclusion should because the reader has already gone through the main points of your argument.

Answering the ‘so what’ question tells your reader the significance of your argument.

And, telling your readers the significance of your argument adds weight to your thesis.

Let’s say your paper is about the impact of drug abuse in college.

You could address the ‘so what’ question by restating your thesis statement as follows:

Drug abuse in colleges is slowly becoming an epidemic at the watch of college authorities and parents who can help contain this problem by widening their perspective to accommodate more effective solutions such as helping the youth find better ways to deal with stress and frustration.

Avoid clichés

When rephrasing your thesis statement, do not start with clichés such as ‘In conclusion’.

Such starts are boring and do not add meaning to your thesis.

Also, such phrases and your lecturer will simply conclude you lack creativity.

To avoid these phrases, start your conclusion using a fresh take of what the paper discusses or a rhetorical question related to your argument.

Do not make apologies

When writing your conclusion, you should be confident that you have given enough proof in the body of your paper.

So, as you restate your thesis and as you write other sentences in your conclusion do not make apologetic statements.

Such statements include:

  • It is possible that…
  • It seems like…
  • It is just my opinion…

These phrases undermine your argument and make it seem like you are not confident in the evidence you have provided.

However, if the topic of discussion was just a possibility, you can use such language.

Also, do not use absolute language if your essay includes two opposing viewpoints; you might alienate some of your readers.

How to make the restatement different from the original thesis

The following are tips on how to make the thesis restatement sound different:

Vary the structure of the statement

One of the best ways to rephrase the thesis is by changing the structure.

If you began the thesis with a prepositional clause, restate it by starting with the subject.

Let’s say the original thesis started, “During the beginning of the twentieth century in Africa, colonialists…”

In the restatement, you could say, “Colonialists in Africa in the early twentieth century…”

Change the tense

The thesis statement in the introduction is probably in the future tense since you were informing the readers what they should expect.

For instance, “This paper will examine the prevalence of drug abuse among the youth…”

When rephrasing the thesis statement in the conclusion, you can use past tense since you are telling the reader what you have already discussed.

Change the wording

Identify the crucial words and phrases in the original statements and replace them with stronger synonyms.

You can use the Thesaurus Function in your word processor, an online thesaurus, or the traditional hardcopy dictionary to look for synonyms.

You cannot replace everything, especially prepositions, and articles.

Therefore, you should focus on changing the adjectives, adverbial phrases and nouns that add meaning to the point you are trying to put across.

Break it up

The thesis statement in your introduction is probably brief, a sentence or two.

But, in the conclusion, you have the liberty to make it longer.

So, break up the points and spread them across several sentences, or even a paragraph.

Not only will the thesis statement read and sound different, but also show how well you have proven your argument in the body of the essay.


Restating a thesis statement is important if you are to write a good conclusion to your essay.

The restated thesis should emphasize your stand on the topic of discussion.

Therefore, it should make it persuasive and definitive.

And, the tips shared above will help you do just that.

Racism thesis statement 

As a student, you will handle a wide range of subjects and assignments.

One topic that is popular for essays and research papers is racism.

There are a lot of resources on the topic, so students tend to assume a racism essay is easy.

The challenge you will face with a racism essay is not content, but coming up with a thesis statement.

A racism thesis statement should be powerful and something your audience can understand and relate.

In this article, you will find useful guidelines and tips on how to write a racism thesis statement and examples of racism thesis statements.

Tips On How To Write A Racism Thesis Statement

Before writing your racism thesis statement, consider the following guidelines.

  1. Find a racism topic or issue to write about

Racism is a broad issue that continues to plague the world even today.

For that reason, it shouldn’t be difficult to find an informative topic from which you can develop a thesis statement.

You can choose to approach racism through other social issues such as art, politics, economy, equitability, poverty, and history.

2. Pick a topic that is interesting to you

You might not be familiar with all the issues surrounding racism.

And, as mentioned earlier, racism is a broad topic; there are many approaches you can take in your paper.

Therefore, to have an easier time developing a thesis, pick a racism topic that interests you.

For instance, if you are conversant with the history of America, your thesis statement could focus on the effects of racism during the Civil Rights Movement that began in 1954 and ended in 1968.

3. Hook your reader

As you write your thesis statement, try to include a hook.

A hook is a statement that grabs the attention of a reader.

Try hooking your reader by relating your thesis to popular culture.

You could even refer to current issues on the news or even relate to popular television programs, movies, or books.

4. Avoid offensive language

Remember racism is a personal issue; it is open to bias depending on your line of thinking.

Therefore, most of the issues surrounding this topic are controversial.

When discussing a controversial topic in an academic paper, avoid offensive and rude language.

Examples Of Racism Thesis Statements

To get a good score in your racism related research paper or essay, you need a well-thought-out and well-constructed thesis statement.

The following are examples of thesis statements in different racism topics.

Existence of racism

Such an essay tries to prove that racial segregation is still a significant social problem.

Therefore, your thesis statement should focus on the problems racial segregation causes.

Consider the following example:

It is a fact that police killings involving people of color are more compared to white people. Joshua Correll of the University of Colorado, confirmed this when he designed a game where the participants played cops. The results of the game indicated that, despite the race of the people playing cop, they were more willing to kill a person of color and showed hesitation when the suspect was a white person. This shows that racism continues to plague society.

Workplace-related racism

Racism is a form of prejudice often experienced in a workplace environment.

A workplace racism thesis statement could read as follows:

Prejudice in a workplace environment is a backward practice that undermines productivity. In the professional sphere, whites are considered to be mentally superior and therefore they get the top jobs which pay higher wages. Blacks are considered to be physically endowed, and therefore they land physical labor jobs, which generally pay lower.

Anti-racism movements

Anti-racism is a phrase that was coined by people who formed movements to fight the consequences of racism.

The greatest anti-racist movement was the one led by Martin Luther King Jr between the early 50s and the late 60s.

Another key antiracist figure was Nelson Madiba Mandela of South Africa.

Anti-racism also covers the beliefs and policies set to combat racial discrimination.

An anti-racism essay thesis statement should evoke emotion from a reader.

The following is an example:

Anti-racism movement leaders were treated inhumanely; Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for 27 years and Martin Luther King Junior was assassinated. But, without them, society today would not be as egalitarian as it is. Their sacrifices are the sole reason blacks and whites can walk on the same street and even work together to create a brighter future.

Cause and effect

You can choose to write about the cause and effect of racism.

For example, ignorance is a cause of racism that results in fear and eventually violence.

The following is an example of a thesis statement that focuses on ignorance and fear as the primary causes of racism.

Undoubtedly racism has negative consequences, key among them being fear and violence, as a result of a need to protect themselves. One major cause of racism is ignorance. Uneducated and unexposed feel threatened by people of a different race. Such people condone and practice this prejudice without considering it has negative effects and consequences on both the individuals they are discriminating and the society at large.

Racism Thesis statements based on art and literature

Books, music, and movies cover a wide variety of racism topics.

The following are examples of literary and artworks you can base a racism essay on:

  1. Othello

Othello is a play by Shakespeare that addresses some delicate societal issues such as racism.

You could develop a thesis statement highlighting the racism in the play.

Othello, who was black, was highly disrespected by Lago, and other characters such as Emilia, Roderigo, and Brabantio. These characters labeled him ‘Barbary horse’, ‘an old black ram’, ‘thick lips’ and other demeaning names. He was also abused for marrying a Venetian woman. All this shows that there is a strong conviction that one race is superior to the other and a barbaric intolerance towards the ‘inferior’ race.

2. To kill a mocking bird

This book by Harper Lee is popular for the way it portrayed the struggles of a black man in the southern states in the early 20th century.

The book is a good source for a racism essay as it depicts racism and effects in an easily comprehensible way.

The following is an example of a racism thesis statement from To Kill a Mocking Bird:

Tom Robinson was suspected of murdering Mayella Ewell, a white woman, and was sentenced not because there was any evidence but because he was black. White characters, like Atticus Finch, Scout, and Jem, who tried to defend him were given shaming names such as ‘Nigger lovers’. The story in the book clearly shows the tribulations a black man went through and how his word meant nothing.

3.Disney films

Disney films are popular for their interesting and fascinating stories, as well as the world class acting and production.

However, close scrutiny of several films and you will realize there is a certain degree of racial prejudice in the way the films portray characters.

The following is an example of a thesis statement focusing on the racial prejudice in Disney films:

There is a significant degree of racial prejudice in the way Disney portray characters in their films. For example, in Jungle Book, the gorillas communicated in an African vernacular language. Another example is in Lady and the Tramp where the cat villains had slanted eyes and spoke with an East Asian accent. The film production company has a tendency to portray protagonists as white and antagonists as people of color.

4. Advertisements

The advertisement sector also depicts racial discrimination.

To demonstrate, consider this thesis statement:

Several surveys show that black people are underrepresented in commercials, both mainstream media, and online ads. According to the US Census Bureau 2010 records, blacks, and other racial minorities represent 30% of the population. Yet, only 7% of ads involve black people while the other racial minorities are hardly ever represented.


Racism is a fairly easy subject for an essay and research paper.

However, it has so many sources and so many different points of view that selecting one idea to focus on creating a thesis statement can be problematic.

But, with the guidelines shared above developing a thesis statement for your racism essay will not be as difficult.

Remember, you need to let the reader know your point of view and you should demonstrate your objectiveness on the issue.

Thesis Statement Examples

Thesis Statement Examples
Thesis Statement Examples

A thesis statement is a crucial part of any academic paper.

Not only do you need a strong and valid thesis statement, but you also need to create persuasive arguments to support it.

If you are to develop a good thesis statement, you need to understand the definition of a thesis statement, why you need to include a thesis statement in your academic paper, and what makes a good thesis statement.

We have addressed all those things in this article.

Plus, there are examples to demonstrate how to create a good thesis statement.

Additionally, we have included a section on how to avoid common thesis statement mistakes.

How To Phrase A Thesis Statement – With  Thesis Statement Examples

A good thesis statement clearly and transparently answers a specific question.

In this section, we are going to show you three examples of thesis statements with explanations why they were developed that way.

Thesis statement example 1: Cycling in the morning and evening promotes heart health in adults.

This thesis statement addresses the question of whether cycling is healthy.

The statement makes it very clear that cycling is healthy.

Another way to phrase such a thesis would be ‘cycling is healthy’.

But that is a very general statement.

What makes this example of a thesis statement strong is because it is precise and states why cycling is healthy (it improves heart health), and for whom cycling is healthy (adults).

The takeaway here is that a good thesis statement does not state the obvious.

Your thesis statement should provide your reader with extra information.

Telling your reader what they already know does make them interested in continuing to read your paper.

Note that, the point of an academic paper is not to address something readers already know and agree with.

A good academic paper should present your point of view and bring up an argument that is both challengeable and debatable.

Thesis statement example 2: The initial cost of school uniforms seems why, but uniforms promote equality by removing the visual income difference between students.

This thesis statement answers the question ‘should school uniforms be introduced in our institutions?’

It is a strong thesis because, first, it cites one reason why some people are against uniforms, then provides a very valid importance of uniforms.

A reader will be interested in reading the arguments supporting the notion that uniforms promote equality.

Thesis statement example 3: The internet has improved the quality of life.

This thesis statement is for an essay about the advantages of the internet.

However, it is an extremely weak thesis.

Most readers already know the internet has improved lives.

So, why should they read your paper?

Readers would have been interested in reading the arguments in such a paper if the thesis statement was specific on how the internet has improved lives, and whose lives it has developed.

What Makes A Good Thesis Statement?

There is no specific answer to that question because what will be a good thesis for an argumentative essay will not be so strong for an informative essay, a persuasive essay, and other types of papers.

A thesis statement for an informative essay should provide a general overview of the topic, and a brief summary of the main points in the essay.

For example:

Research indicates that sleep improves productivity by refreshing the body’s energy levels, reducing the buildup of stress hormones, consolidating memory.

For most essays and academic papers, follow the rule of three when developing your thesis statement.

The rule of three dictates that your thesis should provide three important pieces of information, especially if you are writing an informative or expository essay.

Following the rule of three, means that the thesis statement for argumentative and persuasive essays should provide three good reasons why you have a valid claim.

The rule of three is especially helpful when developing a thesis statement for middle school and high school essays.

These essays take the five-paragraph structure.

Providing three points in your thesis allows you to focus on each point in its own paragraph in the body of your essay.

However, university level papers are lengthier and often have a more complex structure.

Therefore, you should develop a thesis statement that matches the length, purpose, and structure of the paper.

The following is an example of a university-level research paper:

The society, media, and religion still uphold traditional family values. These family values insist on the father-mother-child nuclear family structure. This conventional family structure is outdated and has negative psychological effects on children from single-parent families.

That is a good thesis statement because it informs the reader what the paper is all about and clearly presents the writer’s point of view.

The statement is also good because it provides the writer with a roadmap for acquiring relevant data when conducting research.

How To Write An Abortion Essay – With Thesis Statement Examples

Common Thesis Statement Mistakes

  • Choosing to write about a topic you are not interested in or familiar with.
  • Choosing a point of view or argument you cannot validate with strong evidence from your sources.
  • Using words that express uncertainty such as, may, might, could, should.
  • Going with an obvious claim that is not challengeable – there is no point researching and arguing an indisputable claim.


A thesis statement should be precise, provide an answer to a specific question, communicate your stance clearly, and allow debate.

If you experience problems building your own thesis statement, refer to the examples and tips shared in this article.

Alternatively, contact us for professional thesis statement help.

Article Critique

How To Write An Article Critique

How To Write An Article Critique

A critique is an objective analysis of a given article.

The article could be scientific or just a literary piece.

Whichever is the case, you need to analyze and possibly criticize the work.

However, most students simply provide a summary of the main points and forget they are supposed to analyze and challenge the article.

Also, note that you should base your analyses on facts and rational arguments that you can back up with evidence – not personal opinion.

In a nutshell, a good article critiques should demonstrate your understanding of an article and the topic discussed and whether or not you think the author had solid arguments.

Basically, to write an article critique that is good, you have to read an article, analyze it, then gather evidence.

Thoroughly Read The Article

  • Read the article to get the general message

You cannot critique an article you have not read.

The first time you read it, make sure you understand the topic and get the general message, the author is trying to relay.

It is more like you are searching for the thesis of the article.

You want to see if you agree with this thesis.

  • Re-read the article as you analyze it

The next time you read the article, try to make some analysis.

Ask yourself the following questions:

  • What was the target audience of the article?
  • What was the purpose of the article?
  • What argument was the author trying to prove?
  • Are there holes in the points the author used to support his arguments?

Highlight, using a pencil or marker, anything you think stands out.

  • Create legends for your analysis

Create legends to differentiate between parts you found rational, inconsistent, and confusing.

For instance, you could use circles for points or passages that are confusing, and arrows for parts you found totally irrational.

  • Develop preliminary concepts for your critique

Before you start gathering evidence, make sure you have a rough opinion of the article.

After reading the article 2 to 4 times, you should have a preliminary critique.

This preliminary critique will be the basis of your evidence gathering.

It helps to note down how you feel about the article.

Also, at this stage, try and think of sources you will use to critique the article at hand.

Think of any documentary or book you might have read that provides arguments that contradict the article you are to critique.

Read also: Quantitative Article Review

Gather Evidence

At this point, you have already formed an opinion about the article.

Now, it is time to check if your opinion holds water by gathering evidence.

To do that:

  • Ask yourself if the message of the author is rational

The easiest way to examine the rationality of the article is to analyze the intro and conclusion; are you convinced?

Then, compare the main argument of the author with other literature in the same field.

Also, check whether the author conducted in-depth research before writing the article.

You can do that by checking the works quoted in the text if any.

Go a step further and check the practicality of the arguments in the article: Is what the author is trying to say applicable and successful in the real world?

  • Check for biases in the author’s arguments

An author is likely to be biased if they have something to gain from the discussions depicted in their article.

Another obvious indicator of bias is failing to include evidence that contradicts their arguments.

Also, if the points are not properly cited, then they are most likely personal opinions, thereby foundation-less.

Often, people form bias due to a narrow point of view due.

As you critique an article, check for opinions that are likely to be influenced by issues such as politics, gender, race, economic status, and ethnicity.

  • Scrutinize stylistic elements (especially in literature critiques)

In literature, content is not the only thing you should analyze.

You should check the literary and formal techniques the author used.

The main things to pay attention to are, word choice and tone.

Stylistic elements could reveal more problems in the article’s arguments.

For instance, is an author is using a heated and enthusiastic tone, you will most likely find the author is biased and ignores contradictory evidence throughout his work.

In non-scientific and non-sociological pieces, stylistic elements are the only way to critique.

Read also: Writing Article Reviews

Write an Article Critique for yourself

At this point, you understand what the article is all about, you have formed your analyses, and you have evidence.

The next step is to write a critique.

  • Start with an engaging introduction

To write an article critique, an introduction should:

  • Include the name of the author, the name of the article, the publisher, the date of publication, and the focus of the article.
  • Indicate areas where the article succeeds and areas where it fails remarkably.

Limit the introduction to a paragraph or two, at most.

  • Provide evidence for your analyses in the body of the critique

In the body of your critique, expound on your arguments; why do you disagree with the article.

You should have several arguments, where each argument falls under a separate paragraph.

Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence, followed by supporting sentences.

The supporting sentences should have evidence, from the article itself and external sources to back up the idea in your topic sentence.

If you do not have one argument that disagrees with the article, then make sure each paragraph expands on your analysis but in a different direction.

  • Conclude by summing up your main points and explaining why your opinion is correct

In the last paragraph, recap the main points in your critique.

But, go further and explain to the reader the relevance of your critique.

The point is not to aimlessly criticize the work of another scholar.

Demonstrate to the reader the bigger picture of your review.

Show the implications of your critique in your field of study.

Also, make sure you leave a lasting impression in your reader by leaving them with a rhetorical question, a call-to-action, or a question that requires them to conduct further research.

Final thoughts

A critique is not a summary of an article – it is an objective analysis that should challenge the article in question.

In this post, you will find a step-by-step process on how to write an article critique.

By the time you reach this point, to write an article critique will not seem so difficult.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you write a critique?

A critique is an objective analysis of a given article. The article could be scientific or just a literary piece.

Whichever is the case, you need to analyze and possibly criticize the work.

However, most students simply provide a summary of the main points and forget they are supposed to analyze and challenge the article.

Also, note that you should base your analyses on facts and rational arguments that you can back up with evidence – not personal opinion.

In a nutshell, a good article critiques should demonstrate your understanding of an article and the topic discussed and whether or not you think the author had solid arguments.

Basically, to write an article critique that is good, you have to read an article, analyze it, then gather evidence.

How do you write a literary critique?

  • Start with an engaging introduction. Indicate areas where the article succeeds and areas where it fails remarkably.
  • Provide evidence for your analyses in the body of the critique. In the body of your critique, expound on your arguments; why do you disagree with the article.
  • Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence, followed by supporting sentences.
  • The supporting sentences should have evidence, from the article itself and external sources to back up the idea in your topic sentence.
  • If you do not have one argument that disagrees with the article, then make sure each paragraph expands on your analysis but in a different direction.
  • Conclude by summing up your main points and explaining why your opinion is correct

What makes a good critique?

A critique is not a summary of an article – it is an objective analysis that should challenge the article in question.

  • Ask yourself if the message of the author is rational
  • Compare the main argument of the author with other literature in the same field.
  • Also, check whether the author conducted in-depth research before writing the article. You can do that by checking the works quoted in the text if any.
  • Go a step further and check the practicality of the arguments in the article: Is what the author is trying to say applicable and successful in the real world?
  • Check for biases in the author’s arguments. Check for opinions that are likely to be influenced by issues such as politics, gender, race, economic status, and ethnicity.
  • Scrutinize stylistic elements (especially in literature critiques).

How do you critique an article in APA?

  • Introduction– it is 150-250 words long and contain some core ideas of the major work
  • Body Paragraphs – In the body of your critique, expound on your arguments; why do you disagree with the article.
  • You should have several arguments, where each argument falls under a separate paragraph.
  • Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence, followed by supporting sentences
  • Conclusion– Conclude by summing up your main points and explaining why your opinion is correct
  • In the last paragraph, recap the main points in your critique. But, go further and explain to the reader the relevance of your critique
  • Reference Page– is the last element of your paper and includes the list of sources and works cited in the text. Each reference should be arranged in accordance with APA requirements, and alphabetically in ascending order.
  • In-text citation– You need to in-text cite your sources in APA format. You need to place the author’s name and publication date in brackets, e.g. (Smith, 2019)