Digital technology

Sep 5, 2019 | 0 comments

Sep 5, 2019 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

MANAGING A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS PROJECT – Impact of digital technology on Tesco PLC

Table of Contents

Part 1 (P1, P2, P3) 3

Project Management Plan 3

Part 3 (P5, P6, P7) 26

Performance Review 26

Appendix 34

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES (P1)

1.1 Background

In the modern world of the post-globalization era, when the competition to:

  • deliver ever cheaper and better quality products and services with support from the latest technologies
  • know your clients and what they want
  • deliver the products and services when and where the clients need them
  • communicate instantly with suppliers, stakeholders, and clients
  • reach new markets and new clients on a global

is becoming tougher, it has become obvious that companies that do not incorporate digital technologies in their everyday activities will be left behind and will lose their competitive edge in a business environment in which reaching the client a nanosecond before your competitors and a mile farther than them represents the difference between being in our out of business in your specialization.

More and more tech-savvy consumers – requiring less technical assistance, less frequently (Schwalbe, 2015) – are now getting used to getting what they want the instant they want it, and patience or understanding errors is not something naturally occurring to them in their quest for what they want or need.

Therefore, companies have started implementing modern technology in their daily working operations which has led to the enhancement of the operational activities and roles.

Tesco PLC, headquartered in Hertfordshire is a multinational organization operating in the retail industry (tesco.com, 2018). Apart from the retail business, Tesco has diversified its product portfolio and has ventured into new business lines like telecom, financial services, and others. It is the ninth-largest retailer in the world.

Self-checkout points, the online catalog of products, online ordering & sales, inventory, feedback from customers, online banking – all-digital processes implemented by Tesco in the everyday running of their business arms – led to a very high degree of digitalization and use of web-based applications, many of these software solutions, associated hardware and resources being procured through cloud computing.

1.1 Project Definition

The current project is being developed and conducted to respond to Tesco’s senior management request to assess the impact of digitalization on business activities.

1.2 Problem Statement

Following an intense process of modernization and advancement through digitalization, Tesco’s management has to learn how this transformation has impacted costs, efficiency, accuracy, customer base, customer service, profit, data protection, safety and security, talent recruitment.

    1. Project Strategy

The project strategy is to:

  • Research information available online and in written literature to identify the main elements and trends in business digitalization and the digital technologies available
  • Primary and secondary research
  • Research and identify Tesco’s main departments (according to the organizational chart)
  • Research and identify the digital technologies implemented by Tesco so
  • Design an e-survey (via SurveyMonkey cloud tool) meant to identify the exposure to and the interaction with digital technology and the effect it on business
  • Survey all staff from across all departments
  • Enroll Tesco’s management support to achieve the electronic completion of the survey by at least 300 staff
  • Analyze and interpret the responses received electronically and compile the final report
  • Present the report to Tesco’s senior management

1.4 Project Objective

To identify and assess the impact that digitalization had so far on Tesco as a business.

1.4.1 Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of digital technology on TESCO.

To achieve this purpose, mixed methods are to be used, including quantitative and qualitative methods. As both have advantages and disadvantages, using a combination of both methods capitalizes on the strength and reduces the weakness of every method. The approach helps the researcher to collect the information.

The qualitative research will be carried out through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with Tesco’s senior management.

The quantitative research was carried out using electronic questionnaires as the main survey tool, alongside personal interviews.

1.4.2 Objectives

  • Identify the impact of cloud computing on the costs of IT and data safety (admin, IT – the departments with user input in this matter)
  • Identify the impact of CCTV monitoring on safety within the premises and loss through theft (Security, Retail and Finance departments can provide the best input)
  • Identify the impact of using social media (i.e. Facebook) and the retail website on the broadening of the customer base, on sales volumes, and on profits (Marketing, Sales, Admin, Finance can provide info)
  • Impact of self-checkout points on customer satisfaction, operational costs, stock accuracy, and sales volumes. Are there disadvantages also? Retail, Stores – departments best places to respond
  • Identify the impact of inventory software and hardware (i.e. hand-held terminals) on stock accuracy, stock movement, and sales (Retail, Stores, Admin – can provide useful input)
  • Identify the impact of on-line job recruitment via Tesco’s own website (the Careers section) on recruitment costs and on the supply of the skills needed by the organization (Human Resources and Finance – most able to provide this information)

The objectives stated above are SMART:

Specific The aim is to understand the impact of digital technology implemented so far on the company’s operations, customers, communication, costs, and profits.
Measurable Each technology implemented so far will be connected to the departments its impact, creating a clear mapping of the impact on the organization’s departments and its relationship with customers and markets
Achievable The information needed to assess the impact of digital technology does exist. Exhaustive primary, secondary, online, and library research will reveal all the connections between the digital technologies implemented and the impact on each aspect of the business.
Realistic The objectives are realistic: the digital technology is in place and it does affect the business – all the data for the research is available, it only requires a complex set of activities to extract and summarise it, hence the current project.
Time The three months allocated for the completion of the project is sufficient for preparation, design, execution, analysis, and reporting

1.5 Project assumptions

Project assumptions are as followed:

  • Tesco Plc has already implemented a wide range of digital applications in the everyday run of their activities:
    • cloud computing
    • self-checkout machines
    • CCTV monitoring systems
    • software-driven stock reception, movement, and inventory
    • fidelity and saving schemes for customers (Tesco cards)
    • online buying through their website tesco.com
    • Intranet
    • etc.
  • Tesco invested in digitalization in all departments and processes

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN (P2)

2.1 Project Scope Statement

The scope of the present research is to reveal – through surveying Tesco’s employees from all major departments – the deep transformations happening within the organization.

This insight and knowledge will enable the management to adapt the structure of the company to the challenges and transformation brought about by digitalization, to design efficient, streamlined, cost-effective processes, and to identify the skills needed in the future to further support the process of modernization through digitalization.

    1. Included Scope

The included scopes of the project are:

  • Secure £3,925 – the cost of the project, as presented in section 2.4.4Cost, to be able to conduct the research and finalize the project with a written report. The amount above will cover £3,510 – the cost of labor during the project, as well as consumables, services, and transport costs – an additional £415
  • Primary and secondary research to identify Tesco’s organizational structure and digital technologies implemented so far
  • Reference information available online and on specialist magazines regarding digital technologies available for businesses in the retail sector
  • The project requires the use of a computer on which to build the electronic survey form (using Survey Monkey – the free cloud software available online)
  • A printer is required to be able to print off hard copies of the final report and any other documentation required during the completion of the project
  • A mobile phone will also be used for the necessary communication with Tesco management

2.3 Excluded Scope

The excluded scope of the research includes:

  • Customers’ feedback about the impact the digitalization had on them and their interaction with Tesco as a business
  • Information regarding the impact of digitalization on rival companies
  • Research and recommendations on new, emerging digital solutions
    1. Performance, cost, and timescales

2.4.1 Performance

The elements of performance measured along the project’s timeline are:

  • Design a can survey using the SurveyMonkey application
  • Send the e-survey out via email to all staff members (with support from the It department and the company’s management)
  • Receive back at least 300 completed surveys in total, ideally from each department.
  • Analyze, interpret and summarise the results
  • Write and present the final report

To monitor the evolution of the project and its milestones (measurable achievements) and to keep it within the delivery deadline I will maintain an Activities Logbook.

2.4.2 Timescale

The project is scheduled to be finalized then 3 months from the date the contract for the research has been signed.

2.4.3 Time management

A project schedule (Gantt chart) will be designed, to include:

– all the activities and actions necessary for the project

– the sequence and the timing of how these activities and actions will be completed depending on their inter-dependence (data input/output) with the other activities

Daily monitoring of the Gantt chart must ensure that the project is on course to be finished by the expected deadline.

2.4.4 Cost

The total cost of the survey is £3,925, with the breakdown of the elements of costs presented in the tables below:

Activities Hours worked Cost per hour (£) Total (£)
Clarifying with the client (Tesco) the project’s output (objectives, deliverables, etc.) 20 15 £300
Researching the organization (structure, staff, etc.) 40 15 £600
Designing the survey 30 15 £450
Launching the survey online/seeking to maximize the response rate 10 15 £150
Organize responses by departments and hierarchy 15 15 £225
Data entry 20 15 £300
Analysis 50 15 £750
Summarizing the findings into the final report 45 15 £675
Present the report to Tesco’s management 2 15 £30
Printing of supporting materials 2 15 £30
Labor cost 170 15  £3,510
Equipment, consumables, services, and travel costs Units Unit cost Total (£)
Computer and printer 1+1 £0+£0 £0
Copier paper 5 packets (*500 sheets A4) £3.00 £15
Ink cartridges 6 £20 £120
Pen 20 £1.00 £20
Printing 400 sheets (one side) £0.30 £120
Transport 20 journeys £7.00 £140
Total £415

2.5 Deliverables

The deliverable of this project are:

  • The identification of digital technologies implemented so far in Tesco’s departments and processes
  • The identification of Tesco’s organizational structure (main departments)
  • Designing the e-survey form via the SurveyMonkey (free) cloud-based software
  • Emailing the survey to all Tesco’s employees
  • Receiving back a minimum of 300 responses, which should include all departments
  • Creating the final report for Tesco’s management regarding the impact of digital technology and how it transformed the business and the challenges brought by this transformation that the company may need to address in future

2.6 Success Criteria

  • Completing each phase of the project according to the project’s schedule (Gantt chart)
  • Complete the project within the budget calculated and allocated
  • Complete the project within three months from the date the research contract was signed by both parties (Tesco and myself – the researcher)
  • Design a questionnaire able to inter-connect departments, roles, interaction (communication), digital technologies in use, and their impact on processes
  • Collect the complete responses to the e-survey from at least 300 staff from all major departments and all types of responsibilities
  • Maintain a logbook to ensure an audit trail of the progression of the project and to produce observations and conclusions valuable in the run of other projects in future
  • Ensure the confidentiality of the respondents to the e-survey by creating the final report in a manner that will make it impossible to link responses to functions or individuals

2.7 Quality Management

2.7.1 Quality Planning

The main purpose of section 2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN (P1) of the project is to ensure that through detailed planning of activities, the definition of measurable deliveries, and timescales the project fulfills the client’s requirements.

2.7.2 Quality Assurance

The clear definition of the deliverables of the project, the detailed planning of the activities, and the project schedule will ensure that the final report is delivered on time and contains the information the customer commissioned the researcher to obtain.

2.7.3 Quality Control

During the execution of the project the deliverables and the delivery times, as well as the quality of the information produced at each step of the project will be compared against the measurable elements of the project – as defined at the beginning – and against the timescales agreed in the Gantt chart.

The Project Logbook will include the actions and the results completed and achieved, to capture the flow of the project, as well as ensuring the traceability of/responsibility for everything done so far.

2.8 Risk and Resources

The project management team related to this research needs to be aware of all the possible risks and threats in the case of implementing and developing the use of digital technology. There can be several risks and threats that can be aroused at the time of doing the research. As the communication system and primary research of the project are based on the internet so there may be a minor change to get some wrong information about the research that is based on the impact of digital technology in Tesco Plc. The possible risks and threats for this research can be described as follows:

  • Wrong information from the internet about Tesco Plc.’s internal factors related to the usage of digital technology
  • Security-related risks at the vendor
  • Regulation and legislation related risks
  • Location-related risks
  • Financial risks

2.3 Risk assessment Plan

No. Date
Identified
Owner Risk Probab
-ility
(L,M,H)
Impact
(L,M,H)
Effect on Project Risk Reduction Actions
Proposed & Actual
If it happens: Triggers & Actions
Proposed & Actual
1 10th September 2018 The project manager Financial risks High High The estimation of the research is not very high, so there is a chance that the estimated cost for this research can be overflown in the time of researching By proper research and survey of the market value, the researcher needs to make a proper cost estimation planning and must look after the ongoing cost of the research that the estimation will not overflow much Triggers

Cost reduction strategy will be used in this regard

Actions

For implementing this strategy, the management team of the research should assess the cost reduction potential, develop a cost reduction plan, wage cuts, and program implementation

2 14th September 2018 The researcher Human Risk Medium High If the subordinates related to the project is not well known about the project then they will be unable to gather all the necessary information for the research and it can make the research unsuccessful or incomplete Through proper training before starting the research and proving proper guidelines to the subordinates on the research time can help the researcher to reduce this problem Triggers:

Identification of the employees who are not comfortable in using digital technology

Actions:

Planning and execution of a training process

3 1st

October 2018

The researcher Security Risk High High This can be a massive threat to the research as all the documents and information during the research time must be confidential so any kind of issues on the information prevention can lead the research to be incomplete and unsuccessful All the essential documents and information must be well protected and must be maintained by the research himself Triggers:

Slight leakage of data or manipulations in the data

Actions:

identifying the loophole and fixing it

4. 2nd October 2018 The researcher Existing Risk High High In case of this risk, the procedure of interview to gather the necessary information can be taken into account because if any participants provide the wrong information then it can lead the research to the wrong outcome Proper cross-checking and taking the interview from trustworthy persons can help to reduce this risk Triggers:

Continuous monitoring of the research progress

Actions:

immediate actions to be taken to safeguard the data

  • Expired risks
No. Date
Identified
Owner Risk Happened? Impact
(L,M,H)
Effect on Project Risk Reduction Actions
Proposed & Actual
If it happened: Triggers & Actions
Proposed & Actual
1 10th May 2018 The researcher and the project management team Data collection risks 10th March 2017 The risk is related to the subordinates of the research procedure who do not have a clear idea about digital technology This risk can lead the project towards an incomplete and unsuccessful outcome as the subordinates will be unable to gather proper information due to their lack of knowledge The actions are communicating with the suppliers and vendors about the necessities of Tesco Plc. To avoid this kind of risks in the future, the researcher should communicate with them regularly about the research topic
2 15th May 2018 The researcher and the project management team Data location risks 15th March 2017 The risks depict that as all the information will be based on secondary and primary data collection procedure so that they all need to be gathered on secondary storage and is that destroyed in any case then it can lead the research to an unsuccessful result Data loss has affected the processing of the project. Without essential information about customers and employees, the project management team was not able to develop its digital technologies To reduce this risk, the project management team made a backup to store the recovered data and information, If this kind of risks even happen in this research then the project management team should be prepared to extract information from the storage systems

2. 4 Implementation Plan

To make the implementation planning for the research based on the impact of digital technology on Tesco Plc, several steps are required to be implemented properly. Some several activities and factors are related to this project. A work-breakdown structure is required along with a Gantt Chart to make all the employees understand the requirements of this project. The work-breakdown structure along with the Gantt Chart can be described as follows:

Tasks Activities
Impact of Digital technology in Tesco Plc.
1 Identification of the aims and objectives for this research
1.1 Identify the Aims of this research
1.2 Identify the objectives of this research
1.3 Identification of the research questions and their purpose
2 Project management Planning
2.1 Identification of the scope for this project
2.2 Identification of the costing for this research
2.3 Quality Management
3 Data Analysis
3.1 Identification of the Data Analysis procedure
3.2 Application of Qualitative Analysis
3.3 Application of Quantitative Analysis
4 Preparation of the Final Report that needs to be presented to the senior management
4.1 Highlight the main impacts and problems that can be identified due to the research
4.2 Analysis of the recent procedure according to the obtained viewers
6 Submission of the Final Report to the Senior Management

Work breakdown structure including a timeline

Tasks Activities Starting Date Duration End Date
Impact of Digital technology in Tesco Plc. 4/1/2018 150 9/28/2018
1 Identification of the aims and objectives for this research 4/1/2018 30 5/1/2018
1.1 Identify the Aims of this research 4/1/2018 10 4/11/2018
1.2 Identify the objectives of this research 4/11/2018 10 4/21/2018
1.3 Identification of the research questions and their purpose 4/21/2018 10 5/1/2018
2 Project management Planning 5/1/2018 30 5/31/2018
2.1 Identification of the scope for this project 5/1/2018 20 5/21/2018
2.2 Identification of the costing for this research 5/21/2018 5 5/26/2018
2.3 Quality Management 5/26/2018 5 5/31/2018
3 Data Analysis 5/31/2018 30 6/30/2018
3.1 Identification of the Data Analysis procedure 5/31/2018 10 6/10/2018
3.2 Application of Qualitative Analysis 6/10/2018 10 6/20/2018
3.3 Application of Quantitative Analysis 6/20/2018 10 6/30/2018
4 Preparation of the Final Report that needs to be presented to the senior management 6/30/2018 30 7/30/2018
4.1 Highlight the main impacts and problems that can be identified due to the research 6/30/2018 10 7/10/2018
4.2 Analysis of the recent procedure according to the obtained viewers 7/10/2018 20 7/30/2018
5 Submission of the Final Report to the Senior Management 7/30/2018 30 8/29/2018

Table 3: Action plan and work break down the structure

(Source: Created by Author)

Gantt chart (Schedule chart)

2.5 Communication Plan

A proper communication system can be considered as the primary source to achieve information in any work. In the case of this project, the researcher needs to make proper planning in a communication system that there will be no interruption at any point in time. It is a crucial responsibility of the researcher to make proper communication with the employees of the organization, stakeholders of this research, and many others. The stakeholders need to be informed about the progress of this project as well. The research needs to provide proper training and knowledge to the subordinates of this project how can they help the researcher to collect the required data and information about the impact of the digital technology of Tesco Plc. The training procedure should be well organized so that the subordinates can understand the digital technologies and their application. In this way, they can do their best to gather all the necessary information from the employees and the managers of Tesco Plc. On the other hand, a properly planned project needs to have a good strategy and the following guidelines along with options are provided to provide the necessary support to the researcher to generate the communication planning:

What Who/Target Purpose When/Frequency Type/Method(s)
Initiation Meeting Stakeholders related to the project Gather information for the Initiation Plan FIRST

Before Project Start Date

Meeting or telecommunication
Distribute Project Initiation Plan Stakeholders Distribute Plan to alert stakeholders of project scope and to gain buy-in. Before Kick-Off Meeting

Before Project Start Date

A document distributed via hardcopy or electronically. May be posted on the project website or the OIT Blackboard site.

Project Snapshot or “Lite” Initiation Plan

Project Kick-Off All stakeholders* Communicate plans and stakeholder roles/responsibilities.

Encourage communication among stakeholders.

At or near Project Start Date Meeting
Status Reports All stakeholders and Project Office Update stakeholders on the progress of the project. Regularly Scheduled.

Monthly is recommended for large/midsize projects.

Distribute electronically and post via web/OIT Blackboard site.

Status Report

Team Meetings Entire Project Team

Individual meetings for sub-teams, technical team, and functional teams as appropriate

To review detailed plans (tasks, assignments, and action items). Regularly Scheduled.

Weekly is recommended for the entire team. Weekly or bi-weekly for sub-teams as appropriate.

Meeting

Detailed Plan

Project Advisory Group Meetings

(this may apply only to larger projects)

Project Advisory Group and Project Manager Update Project Advisory Group on the status and discuss critical issues. Work through issues and change requests here before escalating to the Sponsor(s). Regularly Scheduled

Monthly is recommended

Meeting
Sponsor Meetings Sponsor(s) and Project Manager Update Sponsor(s) on the status and discuss critical issues. Seek approval for changes to Project Plan. Regularly scheduled

Recommended biweekly or monthly and also as needed when issues cannot be resolved or changes need to be made to Project Plan.

Meeting
Executive Sponsor Meetings

(this may apply only to larger projects)

Executive Sponsor(s) and Project Manager Update Sponsor(s) on the status and discuss critical issues. Seek approval for changes to Project Plan. Not regularly scheduled.

As needed when issues cannot be resolved or changes need to be made to Project Plan.

Meeting
Project Audit/Review Project Office, Project Manager, select stakeholders, and possibly Sponsor(s) if necessary. Review status reports, issues, and risks. To identify and communicate potential risks and issues that may affect the schedule, budget, or deliverables. Monthly

Scheduled by the Project Office

Meeting/Report

Project Office will produce reports using their template.

Post-Project Review Project Office, Project Manager, key stakeholders, and sponsor(s). Identify improvement plans, lessons learned, what worked, and what could have gone better. Review accomplishments. End of Project or end of a major phase Meeting/Report

Project Office will produce the report.

Quarterly Project Review Project Office, Project Manager, and key stakeholders. Review the overall health of the project and highlight areas that need action. Quarterly depending on the size and criticality of the project.

Scheduled by the Project Office

Meeting/Report

Project Office will produce reports using an internal template.

Presentations to Special Interest Groups Examples:

PMT (Project Managers Team), OIT Leadership Group, AIS Quarterly Review, AMG (Academic Managers Group), etc.

To update external groups to promote communication a create awareness of project interdependencies. At project milestones to communicate with other interested parties of changes that will be introduced outside of the Project Team. Presentation/Demonstration
Document Sharing Site Project Team Members Central location to house Status Reports, meeting minutes, Project description, and Project Plan. For any communications that can be shared with all staff. Update monthly with Status Reports; otherwise, as necessary Electronic Communications Venue
Periodic Demos and Target Presentations Specific Focus Groups or End Users

Examples:

AMG (Academic Managers Group), Students, Power Users, Help Desk, Dept Mgrs., etc

To gain input from special groups and keep them abreast of the Project’s status Once the product has enough to “show” As you complete critical phrases or make major enhancements. Presentation/Discussion
Others To be determined by the Project Team General communications As needed PAW, PWB, Lunch n Learns, email lists, PU home page announcements, etc.

P4. Qualitative and Quantitative research methods theory

The present project involves a methodology section as it helps in guiding the process of gathering and collecting information. The researcher chose the positivism philosophy as it helps in analyzing the real facts, data and information gathered from the market. Taking a cue from the philosophy chosen, the researcher has opted for the deductive approach as it allows analysis of the existing theories, models, and journals and their findings to deduce information. Moreover, the explanatory purpose of research has been chosen as it helps in determining the link between the research parameters by establishing a direct cause and effect relationship.

As per the choices of the methods above, the primary research methodology has been adopted. The primary research methodology involves gathering data directly from the primary sources by the researcher himself. This method involves two techniques – qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative technique is used to gather information by conducting interviews and discussions. On the other hand, the quantitative technique involves gathering information from surveys and focus groups and deals with numerical and statistical data.

For this research, both quantitative and qualitative techniques of research have been used. About the quantitative technique, the researcher has interviewed 50 employees from the administrative department of Tesco and a questionnaire containing four questions were circulated among them. The survey responses have been presented in terms of numerical data and statistical figures. On the other hand, about the qualitative technique of data collection, the researcher has interviewed three managers of the organization who have been interviewed by asking everyone two questions each.

To determine a proper outcome and present it in form of a formal report to the senior management, sampling techniques have also been used. The probability technique of sampling has been used for the quantitative data and the non-probability technique has been used for the qualitative data.

While executing the various stages of the project, the researcher has adhered to all the ethical considerations. The survey was kept unanimous and the employees were not forced to share their personal and professionals credentials and details. Similarly, the responses were not revealed in the open and the confidential data shared by the managers was protected as per the provisions of the Data Protection Act.

Part 3 (P5, P6, P7)

Performance Review

Analysis

To conduct the research both probability and non-probability techniques have been used. In addition to this, 50 employees have been selected for the quantitative data collection and the qualitative question; three managers of Tesco have been selected.

Quantitative analysis

1. What is your age?

Figure 4: Age of respondents

Findings and analysis: From the above data, it can be stated that the among 50 respondents, nine respondent belongs to the age group of 22 years to 25 years, 11 belongs to the age group of 26 to 29 years. In addition to this, 12 respondents belong to the age group of 29 to 32 years and the rest of the respondents are 32 years and above.

Stating the information gathered in terms of percentage – 18% employees fall under the age category of 22-25; 22% in 26-29; 245 in 29-32 and lastly, 36% in the age category of 33 and above. As per the data gathered, it can be analyzed that Tesco has managed to attract young talent in their company.

2. Please specify your gender.

Figures 5: Gender of respondents

Findings and analysis: From the above data, it can be stated that among 50 respondents, 32 respondents are male whereas the rest of the respondents are female. From the data gathered above, it can be seen that 64% of the employees are male and 36% are female. Hence, the company employees people of both genders however, the majority of it is the male population.

3. How far do you agree that Digital Technology has helped in providing better customer services?

Figure 6: Benefits of Digital Technology in customer services

Findings and analysis: From the above analysis among the 50 participants, 40% of them believe that digital technology will help the organization to be more efficient and effective for its production and consumer services. On the other hand, 14% of the participants believe that the use of digital technology hurts the working environment of Tesco Plc. As all the managers and employees will be dependent on the usage of modern technology, their self-working efficiency will be reduced as well. 4% of the participants remain neutral as they still do not know about the application and usage of digital technology in the working environment. Moreover, 12% of the participants do not agree with the usage of digital technology as their concept about digital technology is not clear properly.

As per the data presentation, it can be stated that the employees of the organization include a mix-up reaction about the use of this specific technology. On the contrary, some employees are unable to identify the difference between the pre and post usage of digital technology. However, the researcher needs to make the participants properly understand all the positive and negative impacts of the usage of digital technology through this research.

4. What kind of digital technologies Tesco is using?

Figure 7: Different digital technologies used by Tesco Plc.

Finding and Analysis: From the above analysis, it can be described that among 50 participants of the research survey, 50% of them believe that Tesco Plc. is using CCTV as digital technology and 30% of them believe that Tesco is using a self-checkout system. On the other hand, 12% and 8% of the total participants believe that Tesco is using the sales-website and Presentation website as digital technology. However, in reality as a renowned organization Tesco Plc. is using all the above-mentioned technology but the analysis depicts that the people still do not know all about the use and details of digital technology.

However, the main responsibility of the researcher is to find out the main reason for the issues that the researcher will face during the research. To overcome the problems, the researcher needs to be more efficient and effective in his operations and provide the essential details to Tesco Plc. about the impact of digital technology in its working environment. . From the above data analysis, it can be identified that digital technology includes several problems which are described before, and it can be recommended that Tesco Plc. needs to hire more professionals along with providing proper training to its employees about the usage of digital technologies such as CCTV, self-checkout, sales websites, and many others. It can also be recommended from the above discussion of the managers that some of the challenges about digital technology can be overcome very easily by providing proper instructions and guidelines to the employees of the organization.

5. What are the challenges that can be faced while using digital technology?

Figure 8: Challenges faced by using digital technology

Findings and analysis: From the above chart it can be described that among the 50 participants, 14 of them believe that digital technology has a proper impact on the working environment of Tesco Plc. Moreover, 12 of them believe that the challenges, which the researcher will face during this project, are including a security issue. When the research will move forward to the digital technology, that will be entirely dependent on the service provider, as they are required to maintain the equipment of the digital technology such as CCTV, self-checkout, sales websites, and many others. In the time of using digital technologies, the researcher and the organization need to provide a proper guideline about the application of this and they need to verify the SaaS provider to mitigate the problems of security such as hacking, data manipulation, and others. The organization needs to make sure that the procedure of the project research is following the terms and conditions of the project or not.

In the case of the above chart, it can be stated that among the participants 28% of them believe that there will be a performance problem that can be faced by the researcher while making the research on the impact of digital technology of Tesco Plc. 24% of them think that the issue will be related to the security purpose as well as 16% of the believes that there will be a shortage of necessary resources for conducting the research. 32% of the participants think that governance and control need to be related to this research. However, the main responsibility of the researcher is to find out the main reason for the issues that the researcher will face during the research. To overcome the problems, the researcher needs to be more efficient and effective in his operations and provide the essential details to Tesco Plc. about the impact of digital technology in its working environment.

Qualitative analysis

FOR ALL 3 objectives

Q1. How has Digital technology helped Tesco plc?

Manager 1: As per Manager 1, the usage of digital technology helped the organization greatly. Digital technology helps an organization to be more efficient and effective in its production rate as well as its customer services. Moreover, with the help of digital technology the organization may include a proper management system that will be capable of controlling the productivity and operations of the company. For example, by using CCTV, the management can monitor all the activities and operations happening within the organization.

Manager 2: According to Manager 2, digital technology will help the researcher and organization to develop its operations for the business. For example, by using the presentation website the authority of the organization can communicate with their employees and can provide the necessary guidelines to make a project more efficient. In the case of researching this project, the usage of digital technology can also be very effective as the researcher can communicate with his subordinates to know the progress report and can provide them some necessary information as well.

Manager 3: In the case of Manager 3, he stated that digital technology could help Tesco Plc. for its business purpose. For example, through an online website, the organization can able to get the consumer’s feedback much faster and can develop their products as per the feedback and the requirements of the customer.

Q2. Did you face any problems and challenges in using digital technology?

Manager 1: In the context of Manager 1, the main issue of digital technology is maintenance. For example, if the main control of the organization like CCTV surveillance room is totally dependent on digital technology then there may be several problems arise. Such as: if the server of the control room fails for a certain time then it will be impossible to monitor the organizational activities at that time which can lead the organization towards some serious troubles.

Manager 2: As per Manager 2, the main issues will be security-related. For example, in the time using digital technology like online websites to provide essential documents and guidelines to the subordinates or an important client, there will be a massive chance that the website can be hacked by other rival organizations or any other person who can manipulate the information.

Manager 3: In case of the Manager 3, the issue of using digital technology is very minor such as in the time using self-checkout, if the checking system gets fail then there will be a chance for the employees to bunk the office. They can come to the office lately as well as can get out without notifying the seniors.

Recommendations:

The researcher can offer better service to the readers with the help of this research based on the impact of digital technology in Tesco Plc. Therefore, the researcher needs to gather more data and accurate information to satisfy the requirements of the readers, as well as the researcher, needs to provide some recommendations related to the topic that everyone can understand about the application and details of the digital technology. From the above data analysis, it can be identified that digital technology includes several problems which are described before, and it can be recommended that Tesco Plc. needs to hire more professionals along with providing proper training to its employees about the usage of digital technologies such as CCTV, self-checkout, sales websites, and many others. It can also be recommended from the above discussion of the managers that some of the challenges about digital technology can be overcome very easily by providing proper instructions and guidelines to the employees of the organization. From the above discussion, it can also be identified that about the online website there is a chance of hacking the essential information of the company so the organization needs to hire some experienced IT professionals to prevent hacking.

It can also be recommended based on the discussion that the organization needs to take care of all the essential and important documents properly and the authorities need to check all the digital systems properly that there is any chance of the system to get failure in the working time or not. If there is a chance then they need to take another step to overcome the problem. For example, if the self-checking system gets failure then the organization can arrange a team immediately to monitor the attendance of the employees manually by using pen and paper. The process will be time-consuming but for a certain time, it will help the organization to be independent of digital technology. It can be stated at last that the application of digital technology is very good but to be over-dependent on this is not necessary for a renowned organization like Tesco Plc.

Reflection

Competency How I have developed this area What I need to do to develop further in this area
Analytical Skill I have developed analytical skills with understanding the concept of digital technology. Before being indulged in work, I will have to maintain the framework. In addition to this, I will have to evaluate the skills that will be necessary for the project.
Research Skills I have developed my research skills through research on the internet and reading wide articles. I was also engaged in the data collection process. By going through different books and journals about digital technology will further help in developing my research skills.
strategic skills I have developed my strategic organization by working in this field and by interacting with experienced employees. To develop my strategic skills, I should focus on the benefits and challenges of digital technology and should connect to the organization.
Communication skills My communication skill has been developed by conducting an interview and by surveying with different age groups. In the future, my communication will be improved by engaging more with employees.
Project planning My skill for project planning has been developed by suggesting different employees. The skills of project planning can be further improved by working more on this project.
Report writing With the help of the documentation of the results of the projects, I have improved my report writing skills. I could practice writing while conducting the project, which will help in improving my report writing skills.
Negotiation I have developed my negotiation skills by communicating with different groups of people. In the future, to improve my negotiation skills, I should communicate more with people.
Team building My team-building skills are developed by working in teams during the project, which has helped in getting the desired outcomes. Team building skills can be improved with proper coordination and effective communication.
Delegation Delegation skills can be developed by performance observation techniques. In the future, I can improve this skill by working in the organization and gaining Practical experience.
Budget planning My budget planning skills are developed with experience in the finance team. In the future, my skills in budget planning can be improved by getting knowledge about the cost that is involved in different departments.
Risk assessment Risk assessment skills have been developed by identifying risk in the project. Risk assessment skills can be improved by analyzing the present risk with past risk. After analyzing the risk, proper solutions should be provided.
Progress monitoring Progress monitoring skills have been developed by monitoring all the steps that were involved in the completion of the project. In the future, I could develop a time frame to measure the progress of the project.

Reference list

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning

Walker, A., 2015. Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

Tesco.com (2018). Tesco – Online Groceries, Homeware, Electricals & Clothing. [online] Tesco.com.

Appendix1

Quantitative analysis

1. What is your age?

Options Responses Percentage of responses Total responses
22-25 09 18% 50
26-29 11 22% 50
29-32 12 24% 50
33 and above 18 36% 50

2. Please specify your gender.

Options Responses Percentage of responses Total responses
Male 32 64% 50
Female 18 36% 50

3. How far do you agree that digital technology has helped in providing better customer services?

Options Responses Percentage Total responses
Strongly agree 15 30% 50
Agree 20 40% 50
Neutral 2 4% 50
Disagree 6 12% 50
Strongly Disagree 7 14% 50

4. What kind of digital technologies Tesco is using?

Responses Percentage Total Responses
CCTV 25 50% 50
Self-Checkout 15 30% 50
Sales Website 6 12% 50
Presentation Website 4 8% 50

5. What are the challenges that can be faced while using digital technology?

Options Responses Percentage of responses Total responses
Performance 14 28% 50
Security issue 12 24% 50
Lack of resources 08 16% 50
Governance / Control 16 32% 50

Appendix 2

Project Logbook for the chosen organization:
Name of the learner: Name of the Supervisor:
Project Title: Literacy Programme Date:
Week 1
Update of weekly research/ tasks achieved (Account for a minimum of six weeks with dates)
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Comments
  • This assignment is based on a literature review
  • All the requirements are completed by me
  • The task has been completed before the timeline
  • To conduct this assignment, the primary data collection method has been implemented.
  • The quality of the research outcome would be better with a range of secondary data.
Any risks and/or issues identified.
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
  • To improve communication skills, it is highly important to improve communication skills.
  • Time and budget are the two risk factors, which have been identified during this project.
Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
  • The selection of respondents was difficult in this project.
  • The respondents have provided consent in this case.
New Ideas and change of project direction In this task, there was no project statement.
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve on next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
Data collection, analysis, and discussion
Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) on
Supervisor comments to address
Week 2
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Comments
  • I have completed the entire research work along with objective and research questions.
  • Yes
  • I have completed the assignment within the given deadline
  • No
Any risks and/or issues identified?
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
  • Poor communication and lack of methodological knowledge
  • Poor time management skill and budget allocation
Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
  • Entry barriers
  • I have convinced the authority and obtained approval for the research.
New Ideas and change of project direction No changes required
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve on next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
  • In the beginning, it was difficult to establish proper communication with the employees due to rigidity that is a given coefficient. However, striking up friendly and matter-of-fact conversations helped the loosening of the tensile atmosphere.
  • Sure, I did.
  • I have performed with average merit.
  • Communication skills and semiotics
  • This would help in enhanced and better-structured premises in my next research.
Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
Data collection and evaluation.

Yes

Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) On
Supervisor comments to address
Signature of the Supervisor and date:
Signature of the Supervisor and date:
Week 3
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Dissertation

Yes

Yes

No

Any risks and/or issues identified?
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
Cost and time

No

Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
Entry barrier
I convinced the authorities into participation
New Ideas and change of project direction A secondary method would be helpful in the establishment of
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
I was timorous while conducting the research
Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
Data collection and interpretation

Yes. 10 days are required.

Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) On
Supervisor comments to address
Signature of the Supervisor and date:
Week 4
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Feedback and responses

Yes

Any risks and/or issues identified?
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
Random responses
Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
The confines of the Data Protection Act, 1998 made serious limitations to the conduction of my research resources.
New Ideas and changes of project direction None
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve on next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
Team-work was helpful
Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
The analysis is booked for the coming week.
Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) On
Supervisor comments to address
Signature of the Supervisor and date:
Week 5
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Data evaluation

Yes

Yes

No

Any risks and/or issues identified?
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
Data validation was dicey
Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
Lack of time

Implementation of time management strategies

New Ideas and change of project direction No new ideas required
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve on next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
I learned data evaluation techniques

Yes

Fairly well

Nothing

Research development skills

Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
The following requirements are drawing upon conclusion and recognition
  • Eight days
Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) On
Supervisor comments to address
Signature of the Supervisor and date:
Week 6
  • What have you completed?
  • Did you fulfill Task requirements?
  • Are you on track and within deadlines set?
  • Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?
Conclusion and recommendation

Yes

Yes

No

Any risks and/or issues identified?
  • Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research tasks?
  • Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?
No threats or risks were posed

No

Problems encountered
  • What barriers did you face?
  • How did you overcome them?
None

Inapplicable

New Ideas and change of project direction No new ideas required
What Have I learned about myself this week?
  • How did I feel when I had to deal with tasks/problems?
  • Did I find it useful to complete the tasks?
  • How well have I performed? What did I contribute?
  • What can I improve next week?
  • How might this learning apply in the future?
The experience garnered in the conduction of the research was very helpful since it helped the team brush up on our communication skills
Tasks planned for next week
  • Which tasks are priorities?
  • Have you set aside sufficient time for completion?
This was the last activity
Project plan status to date (on, ahead, behind) None
Supervisor comments to address
Signature of the Supervisor and date: