How To Write An Informative Essay Outline

How To Write An Informative Essay Outline

How To Write An Informative Essay Outline

Are you skilled in writing informative essays?

You should be because such essays are very common in middle school through to college.

In an informative essay, you are required to inform and educate your reader on a given topic.

These essays focus on providing factual information on a topic, as opposed to providing your personal opinion around the topic.

An excellent informative essay provides a reader with new information on the topic of discussion.

In some cases, your instructor will provide the topic, while in other cases, you are supposed to pick your topic.

Either way, it is always advisable to write about something you are familiar with.

Even with a good topic, you need to think before you write, which means creating an essay outline.

That is the focus of this article: How to create an outline for an informative essay.

Informative Essay Structure

You will not create a good essay outline if you do not know the structure.

Like most other essays, the structure of an informative essay includes:

  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion

So, your outline, which basically is a rough draft of the essay you will write, should have these three sections.

Tips On Writing The Introduction

The introduction should capture the attention of the reader enough to make them want to read the rest of the paper.

In an informative essay, start your introduction with a lead-in, then write your thesis, which should be followed by a summary of the main points in your paper.

  • Lead-in

A good lead-in serves two purposes:

  • It introduces the topic of discussion
  • It captures the attention of the reader.

In other quarters, a lead-in is referred to as the hook.

It could be a rhetorical question, a lesser-known fact, a piece of statistic, or a quote that is related to the topic.

Whatever you choose as your lead-in, make sure it perfectly paves the way for you to state your thesis.

The thesis is the main argument your paper focuses on.

In an informative paper, the thesis statement is what you are going to explain and educate your reader about.

A good thesis statement is clear and concise – avoid vagueness and ambiguity.

  • Proof points

The proof points are the arguments or ideas that you are going to use to support your thesis.

Briefly highlight them after the thesis so that the reader can know what to expect in your paper.

Emphasis on briefly – you do not want to spill everything in the introduction.

Just state your proof points in a way that will inspire the reader to read the rest of your paper.

Tips On how to Write An Informative Essay Outline Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs, which in most cases are the three paragraphs following the introduction, should support the thesis statement.

So, you should have three points or arguments to support your thesis, where each point is in its own paragraph.

You should begin each paragraph with a topic sentence.

The purpose of a topic sentence is to provide a summary of the main idea in the paragraph.

You should organize your point from strongest to weakest.

Validate your points using references from books, journals, and other authoritative sources.

References make your work credible and show your readers you took your time to research your work.

Finish each paragraph with a statement that gives a general idea of the argument you have just presented.

The purpose of this concluding sentence is to remind your reader what your point was and to show that your argument is the correct one.

Tips On Writing The Conclusion

In your informative essay conclusion, restate the thesis statement (do not repeat it exactly the way it is in the introduction).

Then, restate your main points in a way that they perfectly blend together with the thesis statement.

You should also explain to the reader the significance of your argument and how it relates to the real world.

Informative essay outline Example

The following is a sample of an informative essay outline on the topic of alcohol abuse.

Alcohol abuse

  • Introduction
  • Start by giving starts on the prevalence of alcohol abuse or the effects of alcohol.
  • Write your thesis statement – focus on the effects of alcohol on one’s health.
  • Body paragraphs
  • Paragraph 1 (Point #1): Alcohol and liver damage
  • Paragraph 2 (Point #2): Alcohol causes heart disease
  • Paragraph 3 (Point #3): Alcohol affects the central nervous system, including the brain.
  • Conclusion
  • Rephrase the thesis, and relate it to the main points. Then explain the significance of your research.

Final thoughts

An informative essay outline helps you be better prepared before you start writing.

With an outline, you know which point comes first, the reference for each of your points, and the supporting ideas for each of your points.

Therefore, you will not get stuck or have to start rereading your sources for more insight.

An outline in an informative essay is especially important because you are not supposed to write your personal opinions – every assertion you make should be objective and backed up with facts.

What Everybody Ought To Know About Social Responsibility in 2019

What Is Social Responsibility?

What Is Social Responsibility?

How do companies carry out social responsibility?

That is a common essay question.

To effectively write an essay on social responsibility, first, you have to understand what it is.

The term is coined from two words: social and responsibility.

Social refers to society, while responsibility refers to accountability.

Therefore, social responsibility looks into what a company does to be accountable for society.

Social responsibility requires a company to prioritize the needs of society before their own.

How Do Companies Carry Out Social Responsibility?

Examples of social responsibility include:

1. Donations

Organizations all over the world fulfill social responsibility through philanthropy.

Philanthropy, in most cases, involves providing financial aid to those who need it.

Also, providing products and services for free counts as philanthropy.

One organization that can be referenced for its philanthropic acts is the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

The organization funds millions of dollars annually towards charitable courses such as promoting better healthcare and providing education to the less fortunate in Africa, the Middle East, and South America.

Another example of philanthropic social responsibility is Warren Buffets vow to contribute 85% of his wealth to charitable courses.

Google Corporation also donates in an effort to fulfill social responsibility: in 2017, the tech giant set aside a $1 billion grant to fund non-profit innovations aimed at solving global challenges.

2. Environmental conservation

Global warming and adverse climate change are universal calamities that need to be solved if the world is to survive another millennium.

So, it makes sense that organizations use environmental conservation as a way of fulfilling their social responsibility obligation.

An example is the Coca-Cola company, which has launched water projects in more than 80 countries.

Providing access to clean drinking water and improved sanitation are some of the goals of these water projects.

Google Corporation’s commitment to society also includes environmental conservation.

The company has the Green Initiative, which promotes the efficient use of natural resources and encourages the use of renewable energy.

Protection of water catchment areas, irrigation projects, and promoting the awareness on climate change are some other conservation-related ways companies can fulfill social responsibility.

3. Providing goods and services for free

What other easier way to satisfy the social responsibility obligation than to offer the company’s products or services for free?

In the medical world, this is the go-to option for social responsibility.

Hospitals provide free medical camps, medical institutions provide medical personnel or free medical awareness seminars on prevalent diseases, while pharmaceutical companies provide free drugs.

4.  Fair treatment of employees

The workforce of any organization belongs to the society.

Therefore, a good way of fulfilling social responsibility is treating employees fairly.

Fair treatment of employees includes offering good wages, providing a conducive working environment and initiating policies that help employees expand their careers and take better care of their loved ones.

What Are The Advantages Of Social Responsibility?

You could include the benefits of social responsibility in your essay, which include:

1. Good social standing

Organizations and individuals that prioritize the society have a better social status.

This good social standing is even globally recognized through prestigious awards such as the Nobel Peace Prize.

So, fulfilling social responsibility not only benefits the society but also has personal benefits.

The society endears companies that show selflessness towards humanity.

2. Boosts profits

By giving back to society, an organization also advertises itself.

Social responsibility activities expose an organization – more people get to know about the company and the products and services it offers.

Additionally, when the government recognizes the social responsibility efforts of an organization, it will reward such a company through tax incentives and even favor the company’s products.

3. Improved productivity of employees

In most cases, you will find that employees of companies that fulfill their social responsibility mandate are productive.

Why? These employees feel that the work they are doing serves the purpose of making the world a better place.

Naturally, human beings gain gratification in knowing they are helping other human beings: It is not always about working for money.

Challenges In Fulfilling Social Responsibility

Social responsibility, clearly, has benefits any organization would want to salvage.

Still, most companies ignore their social responsibility mandate.

However, inhumanity or lack of compassion is not the reasons most companies do not fulfill their social responsibility mandate.

Social responsibility has its obstacles, which include:

  • Insufficient funds. Social responsibility requires funding. Remember, it is a venture that is not supposed to yield profits. That is why most small businesses and startups cannot afford to give back to society.
  • Insufficient staff. Without enough manpower, a company will find it challenging to focus on social responsibility.
  • The dilemma of choosing a social responsibility objective. There are so many options of giving back to the society that some companies find it difficult to focus on one. For some companies, such as those in the field of medicine and environment, the choice is simple since the work they do already involves society. But for most organizations, the choice is not crystal clear.

Conclusion

Organizations should be accountable to society.

After all, it is the society that sustains them.

Furthermore, done right, it benefits not only the society but also the organization that decides to fulfill it.

In this article, we have tackled some of the things you can include in a social responsibility essay.

All, you have to do is to find sources and examples in the real world.

Good luck with your social responsibility essay.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is Social Responsibility?

The term is coined from two words: social and responsibility. Social refers to society, while responsibility refers to accountability. Therefore, social responsibility looks into what a company does to be accountable for society. 

What are some examples of social responsibility?

(1) Donations (2) Environmental conservation (3) Providing goods and services for free (4) Fair treatment of employees

How Do Companies Carry Out Social Responsibility?

(1) Donations (2) Environmental conservation (3) Providing goods and services for free (4) Fair treatment of employees

What Are The Advantages Of Social Responsibility?

(1) Good social standing (2) Boosts profits (3) Improved productivity of employees

Challenges in Fulfilling Social Responsibility

Insufficient funds, insufficient staff, and the dilemma of choosing a social responsibility objective

How To Write A Lab Report

How To Write A Lab Report in 2019

How To Write An Excellent Lab Report in 2019

Assignment to Write a Lab report is is common in science subjects and courses.

In fact, these reports account for 25% of science courses.

That is a significant percentage, yet students do not pay enough attention when writing lab reports.

Another problem is lab reports do not have standard requirements; different teachers have different expectations from their students’ lab reports.

That said, all lab reports serve the same purpose, which is to report the findings of the experiment and explain the importance of the findings.

All lab reports have key elements such as data, list of materials, and the hypothesis.

You will only write a good lab report after you understand all the essential elements you have to include.

If you know the structure, you can write a lab report to match the requirements and expectations of your professor.

Requirements of a lab report

A lab report should:

  • Clearly, present data from the experiment.
  • Show your understanding of the concept behind the data.
  • Explain why and how any variances happened.
  • Explain why the variances affected the experiment.
  • Present your understanding of the concept the research was supposed to examine.

The point is, it is not enough to understand the format of a lab report: You have to organize your ideas and thoughts carefully and coherently.

Structure of a lab report

The format you use for your lab report should take into account the instructions from your instructor.

However, generally, a lab report has the following sections:

Title

The title tells the reader the focus of the experiment.

The title is a brief way of telling the reader what the experiment is about and what the report includes.

It may or may not indicate the conclusion.

The following is an example of a good lab report title:

An experiment to determine chemical equilibrium using Le Chatellier’s Principle.

In your title, be precise (avoid wordiness) and do not use abbreviations.

The title, normally, appears in the title page.

But, some instructors will tell you not to include a title page.

If a title page is a requirement, it should be a single page with the following information:

  • The name (title) of the experiment.
  • Your name, and the name of other students you conducted the experiment with.
  • The instructor’s name.
  • The date.

Of course, the title page structure might be determined by the academic paper format specified.

However, do not include a title page if it is not included in the instructions.

Abstract

An abstract is a summary of the report.

The length of the abstract should be 10% of the whole report.

Therefore, a 500-word lab report should have an abstract of about 50 words.

Still, an abstract should not exceed 250 words or one page.

The abstract should contain the results, your interpretation, and a brief explanation of the methods.

From the abstract, your reader should be able to tell what the report is all about and if it is relevant to their own research.

The abstract should be just one paragraph; therefore, it should not be detailed or contain too many technical terms.

In simpler terms, an abstract is the short version of your lab report.

Introduction

The introduction of a lab report serves to inform the reader of the relevance of the experiment.

Therefore, the first thing you do in your introduction is background information relating to the experiment.

You are providing this background information so that the reader can understand the hypothesis.

A hypothesis is an answer your experiment offers.

An example of a hypothesis is: Temperature affects the rate of diffusion.

To have an easier time creating a hypothesis, ask yourself how the theory you are trying to prove connects to your experiment.

Also, in the introduction, show how your experiment solves real-world problems.

As much as you should include all relevant background information, do not get carried away and state the results of the experiment and the materials and methods used.

Materials and methods

In this section, list the materials used.

Then, outline the methods used to gather the data clearly and chronologically.

The idea is to help the reader understand how the experiment was conducted.

However, do not provide a step-by-step process of the experiment; that information is included in the lab manual.

Include information about any special apparatus or techniques used in the experiment.

Do not be too detailed or copy the experiment procedure from the lab manual.

Results

Under the results section, summarize your data.

Your results should appear in a logical and chronological order.

You can present your data in tables and graphs.

The important thing is to label everything correctly and clearly, making sure you indicate all the measuring units.

There are two different kinds of data you should record; quantitative and qualitative.

Quantitative data is observable and measurable in units such as grams, millimetres, and degrees.

On the other hand, qualitative data is unmeasurable observable data.

It includes things you observe with your senses, such as smell and color.

Do not discuss if the results were what you expected or compare your results with those of other researchers.

Discussion

The discussion is an essential section of the lab report as it demonstrates your ability to interpret the data and results of the experiment.

You should discuss whether or not the results support your hypothesis.

It is also in this section that you compare your work to those of other scientists: Were your results consistent with those of other scientists?

However, do not discuss human errors.

Therefore, do not report that you accidentally used the wrong chemical at some point in your experiment.

References

When providing background information in your introduction, or supporting your results in the discussion, you may have to cite works of other scientists or refer to your lab manual.

All external sources should be properly cited, and these citations will be included under the references section.

The academic referencing style specified will determine the format of the citations.

Most instructors prefer APA and CSE for lab reports.

However, do not assume; confirm with your professor the formatting style required.

Conclusion

In the conclusion, write what you learned from the experiment.

Discuss the lesson learned regardless of whether the results supported your hypothesis or not.

The point is to demonstrate to the reader that the experiment was successful.

So, instead of summarizing the results, explain the meaning of the results.

Appendices

An appendix is a piece of information that does not have to be included in the lab report but could help a reader who wants to learn more about the experiment or the theory the experiment attempted to prove.

Note that, if you include appendices, you should refer to them in the lab report.

Things that can be included in the appendices section include:

  • Photographs of the experiment, which may help the reader better understand the findings.
  • Calculations that provide a better understanding of the methodology section.

Each unique item should be a separate appendix.

Additional tips on how to write a lab report

  • Proofread your paper at least two times. When proofreading, check the flow of the content and confirm you have followed all the instructions.
  • Check that there is no plagiarism.
  • Use the past tense when discussing methodology and findings.

Conclusion

A lab report provides useful information about an experiment.

It is an important assignment that contributes a significant percentage to your grade.

All you have to do to write a lab report excellently is to follow the format and tips discussed above and the instructions from your teacher.

Top 10 Free Online Plagiarism Checkers For Students and Instructors

Top 10 Free Online Plagiarism Checkers For Students and Instructors

Top 10 Free Online Plagiarism Checkers For Students and Instructors

As a good student, you do everything to make sure you submit original work.

However, you will often find yourself second-guessing yourself:

‘I did do the assignment myself. But what if some other student somewhere had the same idea? What if I did not do a good job of paraphrasing my sources?’

You have two options:

Submit the work and hope for the best.

Or, be sure your work has the required amount of uniqueness using a plagiarism checker.

That you are on this page, means you are considering the second option.

Unfortunately, you might not know which sites to use to check for plagiarism, or are not ready to spend on plagiarism checking software.

Read on to find out more about the best free online plagiarism checkers.

What Is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is copying the idea of another person and present it as your own without giving the owner the credit they deserve.

Unlike copyright infringement, plagiarism is not punishable by law: Plagiarism is more of an ethical offense.

However, universities do punish students for plagiarism.

Plagiarized content in your academic paper can result in rejection of your work, low grades, or even discontinuation.

Types Of Plagiarism

Plagiarism can be classified into the following categories:

  • Direct plagiarism: refers to copying another person’s published work word for word without giving them credit.
  • Accidental plagiarism: refers to forgetting to provide a citation for another person’s work unintentionally.
  • Self-plagiarism: this type of plagiarism is when you copy your own previous work or produce work influenced by your previous work.
  • Outsourcing: paying someone else to do work for you and present it as your own.

How To Avoid Plagiarism

The following are some tips on how to avoid plagiarism:

  • Paraphrase

You have found the perfect material for your paper.

The next step is to read and understand it, then write what you have understood in your own words.

Do not copy word for word.

In fact, you should not lift more than three consecutive words from your sources.

  • Read more than one source

If you use only one source for your assignment, you are likely going to copy information from that source intentionally or unintentionally.

To avoid that, read multiple sources, and remember to cite and reference the ones with the most relevant information.

  • In-text citations

If you have to quote directly from your source, use in-text citations.

Aside from helping you avoid plagiarism, in-text citations improve the credibility of your work by showing your reader that you actually conducted research.

Remember to use the citation guidelines of the academic writing format (MLA, APA, Vancouver, Harvard, etc.) specified for your paper.

  • Referencing

Another way to avoid plagiarism, especially if you have used direct quotes from your sources, is through referencing.

Actually, the referencing section, or bibliography, is compulsory in most academic papers.

Just like citations, the academic format dictates the referencing guidelines.

Top 10 Free Plagiarism Tools

The following are the best free plagiarism checkers for students and teachers.

  1. Plagscan

Plagsacan is a highly accurate plagiarism detector trusted by many students and teachers.

Pros

  • Allows you to upload documents, or copy and paste the text.
  • The plagiarism report includes percentage, a list of the sources of the plagiarized text, an overview highlighting the copied content.

Cons

  • You can only scan the first 2,000 words for free.

2. Quetext

Quetext is a free plagiarism checker that not only highlights plagiarized content but also provides the percentage of plagiarism.

Pros

  • Generates an easy-to-understand plagiarism report.
  • Features a built-in citation tool

Cons

  • The trial version only allows three checks of 500 words each.

3. Viper

Viper is a free plagiarism checker dedicated to academic papers (claims to be a free Turnitin alternative).

Pros

  • Compares your text against many sources, including online content, books, and journals
  • Specially designed for educational purposes.

Cons

  • Not as effective as premium plagiarism checkers such as Turnitin and Grammarly.

4. Plagiarisma

Plagiarisma is a multipurpose tool that scans for duplicate content, rewrites the text, and highlights grammar errors.

Pros

  • Upload files or copy and paste the text
  • Supports more than 190 languages
  • Checks grammar.

Cons

  • Slower scanning compared to other sites
  • Limited free scans

5. Plagiarismchecker.com

This plagiarism checker is user-friendly and completely free.

Pros

  • Provides an easy-to-understand step-by-step approach
  • It is entirely online; no download is required
  • Has a ‘for author’s’ section that you can use to check if someone else has published your work

Cons

  • Only available in Google and Yahoo browsers.

6. Copyleaks

Copyleaks is a plagiarism detection tool that also has a copyright protection feature.

Pros

  • Check for duplicate content in your work and also check if your work has been used by someone else
  • Has a bulk search feature for teachers that allows scanning up to 100 papers simultaneously.
  • Has a mobile app

Cons

  • The free version allows scanning only 2,500 words per month.

7. Unicheck

This website is a premium plagiarism checker with some a free trial version.

Pros

  • Compares your work against 16 billion sources
  • It allows you to upload a document or copy and paste
  • The software supports different file formats, such as .doc, .txt, .pdf, and .zip
  • Supports multiple languages, including English, French, Greek, German, and Russian

Cons

  • The free trial offers a limited number of scans.
  • Using the free version, you can only scan 500 words at a time.

8. Duplichecker

Duplichecker is an entirely free plagiarism checking tool.

Pros

  • You can upload a word document or copy and paste the text.
  • You can scan more than 50 documents in a day, a feature that makes it convenient for teachers as they have to scan multiple papers at a time.

Cons

  • A scan has a 1000-word limit.
  • To scan more than once a day, you have to create a free account.

9. SmallSEOTools Plagiarism Checker

SmallSEOTools features, among other tools, a completely free plagiarism checker.

Pros

  • Has other tools to help students and teachers such as spell checker.
  • It is fast – generates a plagiarism report in seconds.
  • Allows you to upload documents from cloud storage such as Google Drive and DropBox.

Cons

  • Has a limit of 100 words per search

10. PaperRater

PaperRater is a plagiarism detection tool that offers a free trial version.

Pros

  • Multipurpose; check for duplicate content, grammar, and build your vocabulary
  • Fast; provides an accurate plagiarism report in seconds
  • Designed by industry experts

Cons

  • You can only scan five pages for free.

When To Use Free Plagiarism Checkers?

Most free plagiarism checkers do not detect all plagiarism.

That said the free trial versions of the premium plagiarism checkers are more accurate.

Free plagiarism checkers are convenient when:

Checking plagiarism in short documents, i.e., 1 to 3 pages.

You want to test the tool before purchasing the premium version.

You are confident you did not plagiarize any content but want to be sure.

Conclusion

Academic institutions are now stricter about plagiarism.

Therefore, it is in your best interest to run your work through a plagiarism checker before submitting.

You can use any of the free plagiarism checkers listed in this article.

It is always safe to avoid plagiarism in the first place by following the anti-plagiarism tips shared at the beginning of this article.

Persuasive Speech Outline

How to Write Persuasive Speech Outline Excellently in 2019

How to Write Amazing Persuasive Speech Outline

The ability to present a good speech seems more like a talent that a skill that you can learn.

The fact of the matter is there are some people with seamless public speaking ability.

When such people start talking, people just find themselves listening keenly.

Nonetheless, even without inborn public speaking ability, you can write and deliver a good persuasive speech.

Persuasive speeches involve, first, informing your audience of your main idea, and then breaking it down in a way that is easy to understand.

The following is a persuasive speech outline that will help you develop a good persuasive speech.

Introduction: Engage Your Audience And Stir Curiosity

The first step of a persuasive speech is to draw the attention of the audience and make them interested in what you are about to say.

Therefore, the introduction of your speech has to be engaging and exciting enough to make your audience curious about the information you are about to deliver.

You can make your intro enjoyable by telling a short story, for example:

Have you ever made a friend in the park?

Well, I recently did. I was taking a walk in the park when this stranger started following me.

And, no, I didn’t feel unsafe or uncomfortable since it was a dog, and I love dogs.

Seeing it was not giving up on following me, yet I was not paying much attention, I decided to take it to an animal shelter.

That is how I found out there are no animal shelters in my neighborhood.

To cut the story short, I now have a beautiful Staffordshire terrier to take morning and evening walks with – I have a friend.

Or, begin with an astonishing fact, for example:

The population of the USA is about 5% of the global population, yet we produce 30% of the world’s waste and deplete about 25% of the global natural resources.

Or, a rhetorical question, such as:

How many trees have you planted this year? Leave that alone – how many trees have you planted in your lifetime?

Or even a joke. Jokes break the ice; they warm up the audience, and boost your confidence, especially if the audience laughs.

However, do not make a lame or generalized joke, or a joke that offends someone else.

Jokes that tend to work well are those that are personal and tend to insult you, the speaker.

The introduction should also provide a summary of what you are going to talk about.

Reveal The Problem in your Persuasive speech Outline

After breaking the ice, and giving your audience a general idea of what you are going to talk about, reveal the problem you want to address.

Remember, the purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your audience that there is a problem that needs to be solved.

You can reveal the problem in one or more of the following ways:

  • Explain the issue using real-life examples and illustrations.
  • Use statistics and data to prove there actually is a problem.
  • Demonstrate to the audience why they should be concerned and the likely results of continuing to ignore the problem.

When revealing the problem, do not provide solutions.

You want to create anticipation in your audience.

Therefore, you should not reveal all your cards in one go.

Solve The Problem

This section is the most important in a persuasive speech.

The solutions to the problem, ought to be well-explained; in a manner that your listeners can understand, relate, and apply.

Your audience needs to see that, by following your solutions and recommendations, they are actually going to make a difference.

To be more persuasive, consider:

  • Giving direct instructions.
  • Proving your points are utterly right by providing counter-arguments to opposing views.
  • Avoiding vagueness, ambiguity, and the use of equivocal phrases.

Offer Perspective

Your solutions should make a difference, right?

Demonstrate that to your audience.

In fact, tell them what might or will happen if they do not consider your solutions.

Provide perspective by:

  • Comparing the future of those who follow your solutions and those who do not.
  • Illustrate the effects of the lack of action towards the problem.
  • Explain and demonstrate the positive effects of taking action.

Conclusion: A Call-to-action

In this section, provide a sense of urgency for taking action – a persuasive speech should be a call for quick action.

At this point, you are finalizing your speech.

It is your last chance to convince the audience that they need not hesitate in taking action.

However, do not introduce a new idea in your conclusion.

That is the persuasive speech outline.

Follow it for a persuasive speech that will ring in the minds of your audience for a long time.