How to begin a research paper

How to begin a research paper

Introduction to writing a research paper

Most students dread research paper assignments.

Yes, they can be quite challenging, but, after learning the basics, and practice, you will realize research papers are not that difficult.

One of the challenges you will face is how to begin writing your research paper, and that is the focus of this article.

Understand What The Assignment Is All About

You will not produce a high-quality paper if you do not understand it.

The first step, therefore, should be reading the instructions and making sure you understand them.

Remember, you will only get a good score if you follow the instructions.

Pay attention to the following details:

  • The subject of the paper – it will help you come up with a topic to discuss.
  • The timelines – when is the assignment due, when can you submit the first draft and so on.
  • The format, length, and other instructions relating to structure.

No matter how good of a paper you write, if it does not follow all instructions, you will fail.


Even after understanding the requirements of the paper, you are not yet ready to start writing.

You have to do some planning and organization.

Planning involves exploring the different approaches they can take to write the paper.

Read and reread the question or subject given and brainstorm some of the arguments, or ideas you can write about.

It is also at this stage that a student gathers resources to use as references to the paper.

Note that, time management is a priceless skill in research paper writing.

You have to dedicate enough time to each stage of writing, otherwise, you will have too much to do a few days before the deadline, and risk missing it altogether.

The point is, before you get down to business, set some timelines within which you are to complete different tasks.

Guidelines On How To Begin Your Research Paper

After understanding the instructions and planning, you can now get down to business.

As mentioned before, starting is the most challenging part.

From experience, we have come up with the following guidelines on how to begin your research paper.

  1. Identify a topic to discuss

The first step to writing a research paper is to identify a topic to discuss.

When choosing a topic, consider the following:

  • Instructions given: the topic you pick must follow the requirements of the assignment.
  • Relevance: choose a topic that is relevant to the subject and one that your audience can relate.
  • Interest: You will have an easier time writing about a topic you are enthusiastic about. You will easily come up with and read-worthy an interesting argument.
  • Comprehension: write about a topic you understand. Or, first, do research to understand the topic given.
  • Narrow down: If you write about a broad topic, you will have a problem picking your references, and, because of the word limit, your paper will miss some crucial points you intended to include.

2. Research

Lack of content is one of the reasons students struggle with research papers.

Before you start writing read as much material on your topic as possible.

Reading will help you have enough material to hit the word count and because it makes you understand the topic more, you will produce a high-quality paper.

As you gather material for your paper, consider all types of literature, new and old.

You want to gather enough facts around a given topic so you can develop a relevant and strong argument.

Some of the sources you can use for your research paper include:

  • Books
  • Expert interviews
  • Academic journals
  • Reputable newspapers and magazines
  • Reputable online sources such as government and university websites

As you conduct your research take short notes, so you will not forget some crucial information.

These short notes will also help you create an outline for your research paper.

Remember, you are required to write your sources at the end of the paper.

So, make sure you jot down the sources you get your main points from.

3. Develop a thesis statement

You cannot start writing without having developed a thesis statement.

The introduction of your research paper has to include a thesis statement for it to be any good.

A thesis, basically, is the main argument in a research paper.

  • A good thesis statement;
  • Indicates the theme of the paper
  • Outlines the focus of your paper; it informs readers what your central idea is and the purpose of your paper.
  • States facts

As a writer, the thesis statement ensures you remain on topic.

As for readers, it helps them understand what the paper is all about, your stand on the topic of discussion, and it gives them a summary of the main ideas in the paper.

It is advisable to develop several thesis statements as you do your research, and then settle on the one you think will be easier to write.

As you write your paper, you can always adjust the thesis statement as needed.

4. Come up with an outline for your research paper

At this point, you have a topic, you have gathered resources and done your research, and you have a thesis statement.

Still, you are not ready to start writing.

You need to create an outline for your paper.

This is where the short notes you took during research come in handy.

Basically, an outline is a map for your paper.

It highlights your main points and helps you organize your points in a flowing order.

An outline guides you on the content to include, and where to put it.

5. Create a captivating introduction

The introduction of your paper serves two main purposes:

Informing the reader what the paper is all about

Interesting the reader enough for them to read the rest of the paper

The latter is very important since most people assume because the introduction is good, the rest of the paper is good too.

Of course, the opposite can be true: a good essay could have a very bad introduction.

So, make sure you write a good introduction so you do not bore a reader even before they get into the details of your paper.


Perfecting your writing skills start with knowing how to begin writing the research paper.

As discussed, understanding the topic and planning are the first steps.

Then, you identify a topic to discuss, conduct research, develop a thesis statement, and create an outline for the paper, before working on the introduction.

If you need professional help with your research paper, contact us now.

Otherwise, all the best in your research paper!

How To Write An Abortion Essay – With Thesis Statement Examples

How To Write An Abortion Essay – With Thesis Statement Examples

Introduction to How To Write An Abortion Essay 

Abortion is a controversial social issue.

People often debate whether it should be legal or not.

In most religions and cultures, abortion is an abomination; it is perceived as murder.

However, certain medical and health circumstances warrant the legal practice of abortion.

The difference in opinion on this subject makes it a suitable topic for research papers and academic essays.

The purpose of this article is to help students with abortion essays.

Before Writing An Abortion Thesis Statement

Before writing anything, you should first understand the topic by gathering as much information as possible.

Understanding the topic will help:

  • Develop a strong and unique thesis statement
  • Produce quality work
  • Avoid plagiarism

Then, reread the instructions given by the teacher and make sure you understand everything.

Instructions to pay attention to include:

  • The format specified
  • The word limit

How to write an abortion essay

The abortion essay will be divided into three sections; introduction, body, and conclusion.


A good introduction should be interesting so that a reader can be curious enough to finish the entire essay.

The first sentence should be some kind of hook.

You could start with a question, a quote, or a fascinating fact about abortion.

Then, introduce the topic to let a reader know what exactly you are talking about.

You can introduce an abortion essay by defining abortion.

You will find very many definitions of abortions, one example being the Oxford English Dictionary, which defines abortion as the deliberate termination of pregnancy, mostly done in the first 7 months of the gestation period.

It is also in the introduction that you write your thesis statement, which informs the reader your stand on the topic and what they should expect in the essay.


When writing the body of an abortion paper, you should consider these two main things:

  1. Coming up with strong arguments

In most cases, your argument will be against abortion.

Therefore, a good approach will be to introduce a cause and describe its consequences before going to the next cause.

Consider the following are a few anti-abortion arguments you can develop a thesis statement from:

  • Abortion damages a woman’s reproductive system
  • It goes against the principles of feminism
  • It does not free a woman, instead, it enslaves her to guilt
  • It can be perceived as a way for men to escape responsibility

Consider the following pro-life abortion thesis statements:

  • Abortion is a procedure that comes with severe risks, which include; damage to the reproductive system, infertility, and excessive bleeding.
  • Depression is a possible consequence of abortion since the procedure weighs heavily on a woman’s conscience. Regretting going through with the procedure causes depression, and in some cases, the depression is so severe that it causes mental illness.
  • There are many individuals and couples that are unable to conceive and get children. Therefore, instead of aborting, a woman should consider going the full term of the pregnancy and giving up the baby for adoption.
  • The leading cause of abortion is unwanted pregnancies. Yet, a woman can just choose to use contraceptives which have mild consequences and are cheap compared to abortion.
  • The fetus inside a woman’s womb is living. Therefore, abortion is murder, and killing a living being is immoral and a crime worth punishment.
  • Abortion is painful not just for the mother, but also for the baby. Doctors cannot find a consensus as to what stage a baby starts feeling pain in the womb. But, of course, when it is aborted late, it definitely feels pain.
  • Most religions teach that abortion is a sin. But, using religion to justify anti-abortion is an argument that will not work on atheists. Still, the evidence religious teachings use to be against abortion is very strong.

You could also discuss the medical procedures used and the possible effects of each procedure.

If you choose this approach, explain each procedure, by outlining what the procedure entails, what a patient can expect during and after the procedure, and the risks.

If you choose this approach, emphasize more on pre-abortion procedures, which involve counselling to help the pregnant woman to decide whether they still want to continue with the procedure or they will consider other solutions such as giving up the child for adoption.

Alternatively, you can use medical evidence to develop pro-abortion arguments.

This approach mainly focuses on justifiable personal and medical reasons for abortion.

Personal reasons for abortion include the physiological effects of pregnancy, financial problems, relationship issues, unreadiness to be a parent, and pregnancies as a result of rape.

Medical reasons include the psychological effects of pregnancy, especially on minors, and health issues of the mother that might result in miscarriage or threaten the life of the mother.

It is advisable to make a reader understand the difference between personal and medical reasons, and that abortion is legal for certain health situations.

Consider the following pro-abortion thesis statements:

  • Unwanted pregnancies have psychological and physiological medical dangers, which are the reasons for the existence of abortion facilities and should be grounds for its legalization.
  • Sometimes, the psychological effects and medical emergencies associated with early pregnancies necessitate abortion. Still, the consent of a parent or guardian should be mandatory before the procedure is carried out on a minor.
  • There is a need to analyze the debate on abortion without factoring in the religious objections if there is to be consensus over the legal and ethical existence of the practice. Aren’t therapeutic abortions pro-life?
  1. Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism is copying other people work without their consent.

It is highly penalized in academic papers.

In the body of your abortion essay, you will have to include facts and arguments drawn from the sources of your research.

You will have to paraphrase any information you draw from your sources, which means writing what you have read or the putting across a point in your own words.

You can also avoid plagiarism by quoting or citing your sources.

Sources of information on abortion can be books, authoritative websites, published medical journals, and other published research papers on the topic.

After presenting a fact in your paper, use an in-citation to indicate the book or source the information is coming from.

The format of the in-citations is dependent on the format used to write the paper; APA, Chicago, MLA, etc.

Your paper will also have a references section.

Ensure all the sources you have used in the body of the paper appear in the references section.

Remember there are different guidelines for writing the different types of reference; the format for a book reference is different from a journal reference.

After finishing your paper, use an anti-plagiarism tool to check the percentage of plagiarism in your paper.

Often, your lecturer will set an allowable amount of plagiarism, which is commonly set at below 5%.

Conclusion – summarizing your essay

The conclusion, of course, is the summary of the entire essay.

It is where you restate your thesis, briefly remind the reader your papers main points, and answer the ‘so what’ question.

You can start your conclusion with a rhetorical statement or question.

For instance, if your essay was anti-abortion, you could start your conclusion by asking; Isn’t abortion a form of murder?

Similarly, if your essay was pro-abortion you could start your conclusion by asking; Is it not barbaric to force a woman to carry a pregnancy that might risk their lives.

After the rhetoric device, you can go ahead and rephrase the thesis statement you wrote in the introduction.

Make sure you relate your thesis to your main points.

Additionally, your conclusion should offer solutions and recommendations to the problem you discussed in the paper.


An abortion essay is a relatively easy assignment, considering it is a social issue with numerous published information.

However, due to the popularity of the issue, you have to come up with a strong and unique argument if you are to wow your lecturer or instructor.

Adhere to the guidelines shared above and you will develop a good abortion thesis statement and a read-worthy essay.

If you need professional help with your abortion essay assignment, contact us now.

How to Write a Literature Review

Literature Review Examples

Introduction to Literature Review Writing

A literature review provides the current and complete state of knowledge on a given topic as published in academic journals and books. Scholars usually write literature reviews on topics with limited information.

Basically, it is a summary of the references to a given topic. However, you are required to synthesize the sources you choose.

For instance, a student might be asked to provide a new interpretation of old sources or to provide an interpretation that combines old and new references.

Why Are Literature Reviews Important?

A literature review provides a useful guide towards a certain topic that has limited sources. Therefore, it comes in handy when you do not have enough time to conduct thorough research.

Things To Do Before Beginning Your Literature Review

Before beginning your literature review:

Seek clarity from the lecturer

Confirm from your lecturer:

  • The number and types of sources to include
  • If you need to evaluate the sources
  • And, if subheadings and additional information is mandatory

Revise other reviews

Look at other literature reviews in our field or course. Going through such reviews will give you a clearer idea of how to write your review. Furthermore, these previous reviews in your field will have references that will be a good place to start your research.

Narrow down the scope of your research

Some topics have many sources. And, your lecturer probably does not expect you to include all of them in your review. Therefore, you need to narrow your topic so you can reduce the material you have to go through.

Consider the date of your sources

Let’s say you are composing a literature review about the treatment of a certain medical condition. Medical procedures change regularly to accommodate current studies. So, when writing a review you need updated sources as references that are even a year old could be out-of-date.

On the contrary, if you are writing a review in social sciences, the review might require you to assess how things have changed over time. In such cases, old sources should be included.

Literature Review Writing Tactics

The following are some tactics of writing a review:

Focus on an idea

A good literature review focuses on an idea. That is to say, you need to read and understand your sources, and then find a central idea that connects them.

For instance, you could focus on:

  • How well your sources present a given topic
  • A trend your sources reveal
  • Something that is missing from all your sources

Have a statement

The typical literature review does not have a thesis statement. However, it is advisable to tell the reader the idea, concept, or principle, behind the compilation of the review. In other words, try and inform a reader what they should expect.

The following are two samples of excerpts from reviews:

  1. The contemporary treatment for kidney failure is a combination of medicine and surgery.
  2. Should social media be considered in courses in the field of society and culture?

Pick an organizational format for your sources

This is a question of how you will present your review. What topics or subheadings will you include and how will you arrange them?

A literature review has three basic sections:

  • Introduction
  • Body (the section that lists and discusses different sources)
  • Recommendations or conclusion

Before writing the body of the review, you need to consider how you will organize the sources. The following are the methods you can use to organize your sources:

  1. Chronological – in a chronological organization, you arrange your sources according to their date of publication. In a literature review, you start with the earliest source and end with the latest source.
  2. Trend or theme – you can identify a trend or theme in your topic and organize your sources according to it. For instance, let’s say your review’s topic is cervical cancer treatment. You could use a thematic organization to organize your sources to types of cervical cancer. Therefore, you will have a section of sources covering squamous cell carcinomas and another on adenocarcinomas.
  3. Methodological – this approach focuses on the methods of the writers not the content of the sources. The method of the writer affects how they discuss a topic. For instance, when looking at women’s rights, you could focus on the cultural differences on the perception of women’s rights in Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and America. Writers from these different regions will discuss women’s rights differently due to cultural bias.

Once you pick an organizational structure, it will be easy to deduce the segments you need to include in the body of your literature review.

At times your study requires additional information that you cannot incorporate in the organizational approach you picked. Such segments include:

  • History: this segment explains the chronological progression of the field or the sources included in the review. It can also explain something that is necessary to understand the review. This segment is mostly included if the organizational approach is not chronological.
  • Methods or standards: include this statement t explain the criterion you used to choose sources for your review. For example, you could use this subheading to explain to your readers that your review only includes only peer-reviewed journals.
  • Questions for further research: if your review sparks questions or a need for further research, include this segment.
  • Current situation: this section includes information that a reader requires to understand the idea behind your review.

The Dos And Don’ts Of Literature Review Writing

At this point you have decided on a focus for your review, you have your sources, and you have decided on an organizational structure and the additional segments to include. The next step is to start writing your review.

When writing your review, consider the following guidelines.

The Dos

  1. Back up your content with evidence

Whatever you are writing in your literature review has to be legitimate. Therefore, like any other academic paper, the content of your literature review has to be backed up with evidence. That is especially true when making a point or elucidating an argument in your introduction.

  1. Include only important points

From your sources, you can deduce very many points. But, you only need to include the points that are relevant to the focus of your review.

  1. Summarize and synthesize your sources

Take the important points from a source and summarize them. Then, include information on how the texts change your thinking and its significance to your research. The point is to connect your sources to the focus of your review.

  1. Limit the use of direct quotes

A literature review looks into several sources. Therefore, it does not accommodate the detailed discussion of quotes from a single source. So, it makes more sense to rephrase what the writer said, rather than including a direct quote.

  1. Be careful when paraphrasing

Often, you will have to paraphrase. But, when rewording, your final phrase should represent the writer’s idea accurately. To have an easy time when paraphrasing, in your text, refer to the writer of the source.

  1. Revise

After finishing your work, go through it. Check that:

  • You have followed all the instructions from your lecturer
  • You have used language that is easy for your readers to understand
  • There are no grammar and typing errors
  • Your sources are documented
  • There is no jargon and fluff
  • Your sentences and ideas flow smoothly

The Don’ts of literature review writing

When writing your literature review, don’t:

  • Include sources whose research are based on assumptions and disregard or contradict the findings of your review.
  • Leave out a segment explaining the search criteria used in picking your sources.
  • Write isolated research that is not based on the focus of your review


The above guide will help you write a better literature review. You can also sharpen your review writing skills by going through other reviews; there are free samples on our website. Reading review examples will help you to better understand what the literature of your field requires.

How to write a lab report abstract

How to write a lab report abstract

How to write a lab report abstract

Writing academic papers such as lab report abstract is part of learning. However, writing tends to scare most individuals, be they students or not. But, you cannot survive school life without writing skills.

The first step in acquiring writing skills is learning the basics. After that, you need to practice to perfect the skill.

Writing begins as early as kindergarten where we learn the basics of reading and writing. In elementary school, we learn the different kinds of writing, which include a lab report.

A lab report, like any other academic paper, requires an abstract. However, due to its complexity, an abstract is not required for lab reports in lower levels of learning such as elementary school.

An abstract to an academic paper, not just a lab report, is important as it is usually the first thing teachers and instructors read. So, you have to learn how to write a good abstract.

The following is a guide on how to write a lab report abstract.

What is an abstract?

As mentioned earlier, academic papers require an abstract. The focus of this article is a lab report abstract. Therefore, let us first look at the outline of a lab report.

  1. The title of the abstract
  2. Abstract
  3. Materials and Methods
  4. Procedure
  5. Outcome
  6. Discussion
  7. Inference or conclusion
  8. References
  9. Appendices

Simply put, an abstract is a summary of your paper. A lab report abstract should mention the following:

  • The aim of the experiment
  • The procedure used to perform the experiment
  • The findings
  • The conclusion

The Abstract is the first section in your lab report. However, it is advisable to write it last. The idea is to write it when you have completely understood the lab report. Remember, since the abstract is the introduction to your report, it will influence someone’s interest in reading your paper.

Types of abstracts

There are two types of lab reports:

  • Informational abstracts
  • Descriptive abstracts

The kind of paper you are writing dictates the type of abstract you write. Sometimes, the lecturer specifies the abstract format he wants. If the lecturer does not specify the format, then you have the freedom to choose between the two types of abstracts.

Informational abstracts

An informational abstract:

  • Provides a summary of all the sections in the lab report. Generally, an informational abstract will have a two-sentence summary of all the sections of a lab report except the appendices, references, and bibliography. Also, the abstract does not include illustrations, images, or graphs.
  • Has a length of approximately 10% of the whole report.

In essence, an informational abstract outlines the details of the lab report. Sometimes, the experiment does not go as planned, or you will make a discovery in the process. Such information has to be highlighted in the abstract.

You can use the format below to write an accurate informational abstract.

Purpose: Explain why the experiment is important. Also, state the reasons why anyone should be interested in the experiment.

  • Hypothesis: State your hypothesis of the experiment. Explain the problem the experiment solves or is intended to solve.
  • Materials and Methods: explain the steps or procedure used to conduct the experiment.
  • Outcome: Briefly state the results of the test or experiment. Indicate whether the findings support the hypothesis. Also, highlight whether or not the findings were as expected.
  • Conclusion: Summarize your findings and explain their significance. Explain your findings’ contribution to the advancement of knowledge or their contribution to society.

Descriptive abstract

A descriptive abstract is brief compared to an informational abstract. It is a very brief summary of the lab report. Still, in those few words, it should give the reader an idea of what the lab report entails.

A descriptive abstract:

  • Has a maximum of 100 words (one paragraph)
  • States the aim of the experiment and the procedure used to conduct the experiment.

Because it is brief, a descriptive abstract does not discuss the outcome, the findings, and the conclusion of the experiment.

Tips for writing a good lab report abstract

The following are some useful tips when writing a lab report abstract.

  1. Consider the length

If the instructor or lecturer does not specify the length and format, it is advisable to write a short abstract. Write an abstract of about 200 words or a maximum of two paragraphs.

However, when writing an informational abstract, the length of the lab report dictates the length of the abstract. Sometimes, it can go up to two pages.

  1. Write the abstract last

The abstract comes just after the title. However, it should be written last.

Remember, the abstract is a summary of the lab report. By the time you are done writing the rest of the report, you have a very clear idea of what it is all about.

  1. Third person point of view

A lab report abstract should be written in the third person point of view. Do not use words such as ‘I’, ‘We’, or ‘Us’. Instead, use ‘it’, ‘this’, and ‘that’.

  1. Do not include information, not in the lab report

As mentioned earlier, the abstract is the last section of the lab report to write. As such it is possible to remember a new piece of information when writing it. However, remember that an abstract is a summary of the report. Therefore, do not include any information that is not in the lab report no matter how essential it is.

  1. Proof your abstract

The abstract is a brief section of the lab report. And, it comes last. For these two reasons, students tend to rush over it, which is wrong.

Again, remember the abstract is the first section of the report. Therefore it needs to interest a reader. So, before submitting the report, ensure that the abstract does not have grammatical errors, it has a flow, and it makes sense.

  1. Consider keywords

In today’s online world, when doing any kind of writing, it is important to consider keywords. In your abstract, consider the search phrase one would use to find your work. Add these phrases where you deem them relevant, not only in your abstract but also in other sections of the lab report. These phrases allow people to easily find your work online. You never know if your work will get published online.


A lab report is a paper you will have to write more than once in your school life. Therefore, as a student, it is important that you learn the art of writing a good lab report abstract. The guide provided in this article will help you learn how to write a good abstract for your next lab report.


Table of Contents


Facts surrounding the case. 2

Identification of key issues. 2

Possible courses of action. 2

Evaluation of the alternatives. 3

Conclusion. 3



Facts surrounding the case

For a long time, Chris has headed a team that has continually provided exciting and challenging opportunities for her. Through the team, she has managed to develop a new product for which she believes would catapult DSS into the future of information technology and management. This is a matter that has not only drawn her interest but has in fact generated so much hype in her team that it has been the center of her focus. During the next meeting, she hopes to gain the financing that is an insight into the budget and scheduling for the new product release. However, the changes she anticipates are completely interrupted when the company denies the possibility of moving into the production phase of the product. In addition, the team’s objective which has previously been product development has been altered completely so that the team is now currently focusing on simple support for current existing products. Chris is now faced with a tough career choice as her plans are put in complete disarray.

Identification of key issues

DSS is operating in a world that is constantly changing and there is a need to continually develop new products which are in line with the changing tastes and preferences of the market.  This is what attracted Chris to the company and especially to the south Western team whose main focus was on developing new competitive products. It is to be noted that Chris enjoys and thrives in the challenging environment of product development.

Secondly, for a long time, the team has continually worked on the development of the new product. They have researched the market and identified the need for the product with the aim of catapulting DSS to the front of the market. However, the large districts are not in favour of the product has not seen the value that it will add to the company despite the research presented to them by the team.

Because of the lack of support for the product, the company has not only chosen to do away with the product but in addition to scrap off the main objectives of the southwestern team, so that it will now focus on providing support for already existing products.

Possible courses of action

There are only three available courses of action for Chris:

The first course of action is to remain as the head of the southwestern team. The team itself is expected to remain intact and rather than focusing on the challenging and quite difficult aspects of product development, the team will now focus on providing support for existing DSS products. As indicated by Meg, the company already enjoys a variety of products each with its own advantage and strengths. This will be the focus of the southwestern team. It is important to note that the team will be made up of either the original members or members which Chris is free to select for purposes of meeting the company objective.

The second course of action involves returning to the previous specialist position. This may mean losing the team but will allow Chris to focus on product support and development. The team allows for access to various aspects of the company as well as offers a challenge for the mind. This is a team which Chris has worked with before and she will be returning to a position which she previously enjoyed even though this may mean not heading a team.

Finally, the third alternative is for Chris to seek employment elsewhere. It is vital to note that the product she presented was one which she believes would put the company at the forefront of the Information technology game. However, the company based on a decision of individuals who have not understood the market either the need for presenting new products has completely shut off all channels of negotiation. There are many competitors and individual companies who may not only be interested in pursuing the idea but that would also provide Chris with the opportunity to be as creative as she desires.

Evaluation of the alternatives

Remain in the southwestern team: this alternative offers the disadvantage of working with a team that Chris has individually selected and trained. There are higher chances of success even with the change in objectives and this will, in turn, open possible doors for career progress and growth which is vital in the ever-changing information technology industry (Lam et al. 2002). Further based on the success of the team in carrying out the mandate, there is the possibility of opening negotiation with management to alter the main objective of the team and return to previous objectives that are, product development. Perhaps the most vital advantage of this alternative is that it allows Chris to maintain her managerial position as the team leader of the South Western region.

Return to: this alternative provides an ideal opportunity to continue honing her creative skills. While working with the southwestern team, she has developed a strong desire to creatively develop new products. With the current changes, she will not be able to focus on new products and instead will be forced to work with already existing DSS products. However, it is important to note that this alternative also means that she will have to give up the position of leadership and instead take up a lower position working in a team headed by another individual. According to Jones (2001), this path also offers a high chance of career development in the future.

Find new employer: with all the above alternatives, Chris is stuck working with the same employer, who seems not to appreciate the need for change and the effort that teams put in creating new products. For the IT industry changes occur overnight in every sector. There is the possibility that because of the rigidity of DSS, the company will be overtaken by competitors and the career advancement she has been looking forward to will not be available. According to Cervone et al. (1991), personal ambitions and goals, in this case, are not in line with company goals and business prospects. Therefore, there is a need to consider the possibility of moving to a new employer.


All the above alternatives offer a distinct advantage. However, the only alternative with several strong advantages is remaining with the couth western team. Although the position does not call for the development of new products, providing support for existing products also means working towards their improvement. With an ideal team, as Edelenbos and Klijin (2007) indicate this is not only an easy task but one which also allows Chris to enjoy making use of her creativity. The tasks are likely to take a shorter time, but will still provide an ideal level of challenge. Finally, this alternative allows Chris to continue heading her own team and puts her on the fast track to career growth within the company.


Cervone, D., Jiwani, N., & Wood, R. (1991). Goal setting and the differential influence of self-regulatory processes on complex decision-making performance. Journal of personality and social psychology61(2), 257.

Edelenbos, J., & Klijn, E. H. (2007). Trust in complex decision-making networks: A theoretical and empirical exploration. Administration & Society39(1), 25-50.

Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issue-contingent model. Academy of management review16(2), 366-395.

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