Global Investment Analysis: The International Capital Asset Pricing Model


The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) was initially developed by Sharpe (1964) and Lintner (1965) which received a Nobel Prize in 1990. This model was built from the work of Harry Markowitz in 1952 where he wrote a “portfolio selection” article in which he included the analysis of the risks involved when choosing a portfolio. This model of the portfolio is also known as the “mean-variance model” (Elbannan, 2014, p.216). It mainly focuses on how investors choose portfolios based on variance and the expected returns. The framework developed by Markowitz has the assumption that investors are efficient, against risks and maximize their utility which is the reason why the portfolio selection highly depends on investors risk-return benefits function. This means that investors only choose a portfolio for a single investment which brings a return at that particular time (Sander, 2011, p.1).

International CAPM is the extension of the standard CAPM to international investments. The international CAPM mainly focus on international investments that incorporate foreign exchange risks. This means that it is the standard CAPM    with the addition of the premium risk of foreign exchange. Since International CAPM is an extension of the Standard CAPM, it is obvious that it faces the same problems and criticism just like the normal CAPM because it has the same theory assumptions. However, International CAPM takes into account other variables that have an effect on the expected return on assets at an international level.

Comparison of ICAPM to CAPM and its Assumptions

According to Pastor and Stambaugh (1999, p.68), the capital asset pricing model is an appealing theory because it is persuasive and powerful in giving predictions on how to come up with the risk involved in choosing a portfolio, plus the relationship between the return expected and the risk measured. Fama and French (2004, p.25) state that besides its attractive nature the model has poor verifiable records which invalidate its practical use. Due to its simplified assumptions in the financial market world, most financial managers use this model with other supporting techniques (Mullins, 1982, p.1). Despite the heated debate on the application of the capital asset theory model, most investment companies and corporate finance organization are benefiting from the use of this technique up to an international level (Roll, 1977, p.130-133). According to a survey done on the same matter, the capital market pricing model is the most used technique by financial professionals in estimating the return to be expected (Student Accountant, 2008, p.50).

It is due to these simplified and unrealistic assumptions of the theory that several other models have been expanded which include other added factors and have relaxed the assumption used in CAPM (Tobin, 1958, p. 65). When comparing CAPM to the international CAPM, ICAPM is more useful when used practically though it has its limitations. Even though ICAPM is aimed to improve on the application of the CAPM to the real market world through the addition of other factors, it has its assumptions in order for it to be a valid theoretical model. The International CAPM assumes a risk-free rate of borrowing and lending without any limits. Another key assumption for this model is that there is the incorporation of the international capital market. Failure to this assumption (meaning that the capital market disintegrates) will result to inefficient asset pricing.

ICAPM calculations

As stated earlier in the paper that ICAPM is an extension of the CAPM theory, investors are expected to be familiar with the domestic CAPM calculations in order to clearly understand the ICAPM calculations. The CAPM model which is built from the Markowitz (1959) model deals mainly with the risks and returns. The CAMP formula shows the linear relationship between the expected return on the asset and the systematic risk of return (Black, 1972, p.444; Black and Scholes 1974 p.20). This relationship is known as the security market line. In this formula, it is assumed that only systematic risk of the investor’s portfolio matters which is measured by beta (β). The expected return is equal to the risk-free rate plus the risk premium. In this model, the premium is calculated by multiplying beta and the expected return by subtracting the risk-free rate (Mullins, 1982, p.1). The security market line is illustrated graphically in figure 1 below.

E (Ri) = Rf +βi (E (Rm) – Rf )

E (Ri) is the expected return on asset i

β is market beta of asset i

Rf is the risk free rate of return

Rm is the market return

In the standard CAPM, investors are compensated for time value for money and the market risk they take. In addition, the international CAPM allows investors to be compensated for either direct or indirect foreign currency risk exposure. Foreign currency is an added variable is added to the CAPM equation to account for the sensitivity which is symbolized by beta (β), of the premium for foreign currency risk. Given the manner at which ICAPM reflects the today’s world characteristics, it is considered a superior tool of evaluation as compared to CAPM (Ejara et al, 2017, p.2; Blume 1970, p.152).

Expected return = Rfr + β(Rm – Rf) + (β*FCRPi)

Where, Rfr – domestic free rate, Rm – Rf  is the premium for global market risk measured in investors’ local currency, β*FCRPi is the foreign currency risk premium.

ICAPM Practical Uses

According to Ejara et al (2017, p.2), one of the interpreted approaches is involved in the practical application of the international CAPM. The first approach is the use of global CAPM which involves the use of global index while the second approach used the global market index and the currency index.  ICAPM plays a role in the global investment management mostly in the financial markets’ pricing and the estimation of the expected returns on funds borrowed or lend by the investors. The International CAPM is used in portfolio selection whereby the CAPM theory has an effect on (Banz 1981, p. 19). Application of the ICAPM will help the investors understand the currency movements in different companies globally which will be relevant in choosing assets of the same characteristics in different countries. This will enable investors to have knowledge of how the foreign currency will affect the expected return in the local currency.

Despite its existing limitations, it has continued to be used in the financial field more than anyone would have expected. Apart from the investment management, this model is as well applicable in the corporate finance (King, 2009, p.1). It is used in the corporate finance to define the cost of equity. It is not easy to measure the market expectations of the cost of equity since very few techniques are available (Mullins, 1982, p.1). According to Mullins (2004, p.1), the cost equity in the corporate finance is used for capital budgeting evaluation and valuations of acquisitions. It is also a component of investment evaluation. This is why financial manager use ICAPM due to the shortage of techniques for the task (Perold, 2004, p.18).

Advantages of Using ICAPM

According to Lessar (1979, p.159), the most important advantage that ICAPM has over the domestic CAPM is the ability to reduce the risk for expected returns on assets. Investment risk can be possibly reduced through international diversification since the national financial markets correlations are low. The exchange rate is, however, a limitation to international diversification but the good news is that the risk can be managed using various hedging strategies and currency derivatives as discussed later in the paper. According to an article by Ip (1991), International CAPM can help in reducing investment risk in terms of total and systematic risks. There are also other factors such as trading in the forward and future markets that help in risk reduction. He uses the empirical evidence on the monthly closing of major stock markets indices and exchange rates to calculate the local stock market returns and exchange rate changes. The table below shows the documentation of “the benefits of international diversification because of the low correlation between different stock markets” from 1985 to 1988 (Ip, 1991, p.164).

Another advantage is that the investors are paid for direct or indirect exposure to foreign currency. This is because the changes in currency have an effect on the returns either directly or indirectly. This means that ICAPM favors investors when it comes to maximizing their returns (Levy and Sarnat, 1970, p.98). When national markets are integrated, ICAPM can be used to value any security globally. A more realistic assumption added to CAPM to improve the theory to ICAPM which states that investors care more about their opportunities for investment and consumption over time serves as an advantage. This tool of portfolio selection put into consideration the future uncertainties whereby investors use the portfolios to protect themselves against risks such as the prices of goods and services.

Limitation of the International CAPM

Despite its superiority over the domestic CAPM, ICAPM has its limitations. The theory does not fully explain what should exactly be calculated when finding the asset prices. It is not specific to the additional factors and how they affect the assets prices. This aspect of ICAPM has left room for more research to be conducted in order to provide a more efficient evaluation tool (Harvey, 1991, p.111). There are three main limitations for the real world application of the international capital asset pricing model. They include segmentation, purchasing power parity and the exposure to foreign currency risk.

  • Failed Capital Market Integration (Segmentation)

Segmentation is the process of dividing the market into different parts which have growth potential and are profitable to the company. One of the key assumptions of the ICAPM is that the international capital markets are integrated, failure to which the international markets will be segmented leading to pricing discrepancies on assets, which will intern result to inefficiency in asset pricing. Adler and Dumas (1983, p. 964) confirm that international market segmentation will disturb global risk allocation. Segmentation disturbs the global market because the goods markets are a capital market. However, they say that capital market can be segmented along national lines but can only be inhibited by investors which can be as a result of lack of information by the investors or discriminatory taxation. Inhabitations of the capital segmentation can also be caused by official restrictions which limit foreigners from accessing capital markets. From these restrictions that nations have to investors, nations can be defined as the segments of the international capital market. Capital market segmentation will cause investors to make higher allocations of prices on assets in specific nations. Separation also causes a breakdown of the independence of capital budgeting and financing decisions for companies. At an international level, it is hard to assume that there is the integration of the capital market because every government tries to cushion its capital and goods market from other nations (Adler and Dumas, 1983, p.965).

Segmentation of stock markets enables home country firm purchase share in foreign firms which result in an indirect exposure to foreign currency risk. Lee and Sachdera pursued a point about the calculations of value maximizing foreign acquisition which was also done by Adler and Dumas and pointed out that, the assumption that home country companies had monopoly power in their countries capital market is what produced the results.

The extent of market integration for a nation can be assessed using the Capital Asset Pricing Model as an evaluation tool. Global market integration is the determining factor for the choice of the market portfolio for use in the global index. Integration is evident when a firm’s stockholder hold diversified portfolio internationally while segmentation is when stockholders invest in the home country. According to Stulz (1994) segmentation is a challenge to investors and is perceived to be a barrier to investment. Bruner et al (2008) conducted a study on the market integration in developed and emerging markets using evidence from the domestic CAPM. They present empirical observations and guidance to beta calculations on securities in various developed and emerging markets. The findings show that emerging markets do not show any improvement in their integration level. It also revealed that in developed markets global expected returns are lower compared to the local expected return.


  • Violation of Purchasing Power Parity

One of the assumptions of the international CAPM is that there is a violation of the purchasing power parity. According to Ejara (2017, p.2), real returns have been yield from different assets when the PPP does not hold according to investors realization. This explains the risk to exchange rate exposure changes. PPP is useful in the capital market theory and the international cooperate finance. It used in the capital market finance and international corporate finance in different countries to compare the consumption opportunities. It is also used as cash flow influence generated by production. Nations can be differentiated from another by deviations from PPP as survey reveals (Adler and Dumas, 1983, p.929).

There are conditions required for PPP to hold which include:

“Sufficient conditions include homothetic preferences, commodity price parity (CPP) respect to every good included in the index; and in addition, identical tastes to guarantee that the composition of different nations indices will be identical” (Adler and Dumas, 1983, p.930).

The PPP deviations are important in international finance because they show how investors compute the real returns from their investment in a given security. Considering the conditions required for PPP to hold, the returns of two investors; one investing in a foreign country and the other from a home country with the price indices in line with the exchange rate, the real return for the two investors will be similar. The real returns will only differ if the price indices differ whereby the PPP will have been violated which represent the application of the International CAPM. Adler and Dumas (1983, p.931) clarify that the existence of the PPP does not eliminate or raise the risk of foreign currency exchange. Figure 1 below illustrates the empirical records of PPP deviations.


  • Investment Exchange Rate Risk

This is the uncertainty of the value of different currencies whereby its change affects the investment value or the expected returns of the investment made by an investor. Currency risk exposure is also known as the foreign exchange risk. These risks are caused by the fluctuation in the exchange rates in different countries which cause direct or indirect effects of the expected returns to investors. It is referred to as a risk because in most cases it is known to have a negative effect on the investments i.e. losses and also the expected future cash flow of the firm may be affected (Viswanathan and Menon, 2005, p.57). However, the International CAPM allows investors to be compensated for currency risk exposure which is a factor that makes it an ideal evaluation tool for investors in portfolio selection.

Foreign exchange risks have three types of exposure namely economic, translation and the contingent exposure. Economic exposure is when the firm’s market value is affected by the currency volatility and is hard to identify where a translation is a fluctuation in the foreign exchange rate. Contingent exposure mostly affects firms which are interested in projects and investments in foreign countries (Dhanani, 2000, p.30).

ICAPM comes in handy for individuals or group of investors who invest internationally when faced by foreign exchange risk. The foreign currency exposure is also applicable for investors engaged in exporting and importing of products.  Investors have to change currency in order to import products from another country; this exchange rate may differ between the home currency and the foreign currency where they want to invest. This can affect the investment value and the expected returns in general. Most contracts signed between parties are specific on how the exchange rate will affect the transactions; it can be either during the signing of the contract or according to the fluctuation of the exchange rate.

Foreign currency risk cannot be avoided or assumed in the international market; however, it can be managed in several ways despite being a limitation to the practical application of the International CAPM. This risk can be managed by using currency derivatives “such as forward and option contracts as well as currency swaps” (Makar and Huffman, 1997, pp. 73- 86). Studies conducted have shown that many firms are using the currency derivatives in managing the foreign currency risk. A study conducted by Viswanathan and Menon (2005) has confirmed this since its findings state that the use of currency derivatives positively affect a firm’s level of foreign currency risk exposure.


ICAPM is the extended and improved version of the domestic CAPM which was initially developed by Sharpe and Lintner in 1964. The international CAPM is considered superior because it has additional factors and has relaxed some assumptions from the standard CAPM. However, ICAPM has its limitations because it also has its own assumptions hence facing criticism for the same. When comparing international CAPM and the domestic CAPM the former has more advantages and favors investors as compared to the later. It is because of these additional variables to the CAPM model that makes the international CAPM attractive. Despite its attractiveness, this theoretical model has little practice because of its risk of foreign currency exposure that cannot be avoided but can be managed using currency deviation.








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Early Pentecostal Pneumatology


Many people fail to understand who the Holy Spirit is. When Jesus rose from the dead, he promised his followers that He will not leave them as orphans but he will bring a helper that will be with them forever. Jesus was referring to the Holy Spirit in John 14:16 (Every Student, 2018). The Holy Spirit represents God. Whoever Believes in God would be filled with the Holy Spirit and Portray Gods character in his life. Oort (2011) refers the Holy Spirit as God’s given gift and also as a God’s being mode. It is a gift to the church from God the Father through His son Jesus Christ (Oort, 2011).
The Holy Spirit is further considered as the third member of Gods head, when referring to Gods the Father, Gods the son and God the Holy Spirit. In Christians lives, the Holy Spirit represents God in many ways. He tells the truth of Jesus and act as a teacher for Christians, as we can see in John 14:26 Jesus tells His disciples, “But the counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you”. He reveals Gods will in Christians lives and show people the right path to righteousness (Every Student, 2018). Not only do the wholly spirit dwell in the Christ’s believers but also the non believers. It reminds people about Gods truth and Mercy and that He can forgive sins and make them new.
The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit
There are individuals who do not believe in empty words, empty promises of the Holy Spirit. God illustrate the work of the Holy Spirit using symbols. This enhances the understanding of the doctrine as opposed to using empty words. The symbols are;
• Fire- it is compared to fire because the holy spirit is bold, it spreads and purifies like fire, Isaiah 4:4
• Wind-this symbolizes the mysterious work of the holy spirit, john 3:8
• Water – from the scriptures in John 7:38, “whoever believes in me as the scriptures has said, streams of the living water will flow from within him.” The fountain of the living water is compared to the Holy Spirit because of its purity, water restores cleanliness.
• A seal- a seal is a symbol of belonging, once the Holy Spirit dwells in a person you are Gods property Eph 1:13
• Oil – oil is compared to the Holy Spirit because it lubricates heals and soothes the skin. This is the most common used symbol of the Holy Spirit Even in today’s church.
• The Dove – a dove is pure, lovely innocent and patient. These character traits best describes the Holy Spirit Gen 1:2.

The Holy Spirit has been present from the early days of the Old Testament. God gave to Adam the gift of the Holy Spirit before it was withdrawn from him after he sinned (McMahon, 2011). The role of the Holy Spirit throughout the time has been to portray the glory of God. It worked in different ways, but most of all it manifested itself through the people who believed in God and passed message to the non believers or to strengthen the believers faith. The prophets from the Old Testament greatly depended on the Holy Spirit to fulfill their duties and to poses the wisdom in writing the scriptures (McMahon, 2011). According to Pearlman the Holy Spirit has several titles and one of them is the Spirit of truth. To understand Jesus Christ more we need the Holy Spirit to interpret to us through the prophets such as Elijah from the Old Testament (Pearlman, 1937). Other prophets such as Hosea, Isaiah, Joel, Ezekiel, among others were being controlled by the divine power of the Holy Spirit and demonstrated supernatural ways of doing their work (McMahon, 2011).
The Holy Spirit can also be characterized by the breath. In genesis 2:7, when Adam was created he was given the breath of life and he became a living being. This shows that it is the Holy Spirit that sustains a man whether he serves God or not (Pearlman, 1937). This characteristic of the Holy Spirit is categorized as the Creative Spirit in the Old Testament (Pearlman, 1937). Another category is the Dynamic spirit. This is when the Holy Spirit manifest through the speakers of God and who receive messages from God to the people. The third category is the regenerative spirit, this means that in the Old Testament the Holy spirits work was recorded and his presence felt but it was not emphasized. The Holy Spirit was being viewed as a preparation for the coming of the Messiah.
The work of the Holy Spirit was vividly seen through Jesus Christ whose coming was foreseen and announced by John the Baptist (McMahon 2011, Pearlman 1937). Jesus was always associated with the Holy Spirit throughout his life on earth; from his birth, to his baptism, his ministry, crucifixion, resurrection and his ascension. Through the sprit, Jesus was omnipresent (Pearlman, 1937).
The Holy Spirit as a Person
According to Walvoord (2008), the Holy Spirit is a person because it is one of the three Godhead members. The first one, The Father is a person, the Second one the son is a person so definitely the Holy Spirit as the third member is a person. He goes ahead and explains that the Holy Spirit is a person through the attributes of intelligence, knowledge and its normal functions. The Holy Spirit fulfills Gods will through people and according to Torey (2005), whether there is a body or not, any being that feels and wills is a person. The Holy Spirit is considered knowledgeable because it knows about God and passes that information to man. In Romans 8:2, it confirms that the Spirit has life according to human level, life and personality work together; personality cannot exist without the possession of life (Walvoord, 2008).
The personality of the Holy Spirit can also be affirmed by its doing. We have learned earlier that the Holy Spirit is a teacher, gives guidance makes people aware of the sin. All these work can only be connected to a personality. These doings of the Holy Spirit are supported by the scripture. When we look at John 16:13; it talks about the guidance of the Holy Spirit (Walvoord, 2008). In 1 Cor 12:11, it explains that it is the Gods will through the Holy Spirit that is done in our lives. This means that the Holy Spirit uses us according to his will, also proves that only a person can take ownership of a property , we Gods property through the holy spirit.
The apostolic epistles acknowledge the person in the Holy Spirit as seen in Romans 8:11. They do refer to him as the spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead. Apostle John also refers to the spirit as “the spirit of truth, the one who abides in us” (McMahon, 2011). In Romans 8:27 shows that the Holy Spirit has a mind, so it thoughtful, full of ideas and intelligent (Torrey, 2005). Walvoord (2008), points out that another assurance that the Holy Spirit is a person is seen in the use of personal pronouns in the scripture such as him.
The Holy Spirit and the Pentecostal Theology
Clerk (2000) explains that during the 19th century the believers did not have a theological understanding of the scriptures, they interpreted it according to their own explanations by asking the Lord to fill them with the Holy Spirit. They related their experiences in Christianity and the scriptures. Their theology was more of spirit led. In their experiences of speaking in tongues, the occurrences in the Bethel Bible institute, was linked to the scriptures. This was a Pentecostal revival (Clerk, 2000). There connection between the scriptures and their experiences also manifested when they could pray for the sick by faith and received healing. These actions strengthened their faith and increased their zeal to seek the Lord tirelessly in prayers.
From Clifton (2017) analysis of the biblical theology, he describes it as a task that that involves translation of the scriptures according to Christian tradition to provide common understanding among the Pentecostals when communicating the bible message. He goes ahead and suggests that the Pentecostals should seek other methods of doing theology from different traditions in order to reach a wider population. However the Pentecostals hold their believe that human knowing is not deliberate but is guided by the Holy Spirit through worship that transform a believers emotional desire (Clifton, 2017).
The Pentecostals understood the scripture by the help of the Holy Spirit. Clifton (2017) article identifies this as pnematology theology. This study of the Holy Spirit can be clearly without contradiction be associated with the Pentecostal movement because they relied heavily on the Holy Spirit to have its way in their lives. Understanding the Holy Spirit empowers people and breaks any present barrier such as culture and gender and gives us the ability to speak and listen in tongue. The Holy Spirit also helps people to understand the work of the Lord and that its presence signifies the presence of the Lord and understands that the work of the Holy Spirit is different from the work of man (Clifton, 2017).
Apart from the experiences they had as a result of being filled by the Holy Spirit, their main goal was to take the gospel to every part of the world before the end comes (Clerk, 2000). The Pentecostal movement challenged the traditional Christian church believes and culture, this resulted in rejection from all the denominations hence it largely grew up in isolation. In the following years however the, the Pentecostals embraced the study of the principles and methods of interpreting the bible and also interacted with the Christian groups.
They borrowed their methods of study from evangelical Christianity because as Pentecostals they did not initially concentrate with theology. During the early years of assimilating into theology, the Pentecostals did not have a systematic theological structure. They relied on the Christian groups for provision of materials for bible school students and pastors. It is currently evident that the Pentecostal movement has largely grown numerically. However the struggle in the theological stability is putting more stress on the Pentecostal churches (Clerk, 2000).
The Split of the Early Church
The first split of the early church happened during the 18th century. The reason behind it was the political and corrupt nature among the members. The Pentecostal church underwent reforms and as a result the movement spread all over the world. The Pentecostal movement has a variety of denominations and independent churches all over (Rowland, 2018). In the 20th century after World War II, there was a religious movement that believed in baptism with the Holy Spirit. The movement was known as Pentecostalism which gave rise to several protestant churches. The establishment of these churches continued spreading to a number of countries globally during the 20th century (Melton, 2014). Speaking in unknown language also known as Glossalalia was believed by the Pentecostals to be a gift of the Holy Spirit after baptism. They believed to receive supernatural abilities such as being able to prophesy and power to heal (Kay, 2013). During the early years of Pentecostalism the people who believed in baptism of the Holy Spirit were being viewed as psychopath and they were being studied to how possible this was.
The doctrine of baptism led to a second major fallout of the Pentecostal church from 1901 to 1916. They disagreed on the formula to be used during Baptism, some were for the in the name of “Jesus Christ formula” while others were for the Trinitarian way. This led to a formation of a group of churches known as ‘Jesus Name’ (World Council of Churches, 2018).
The doctrine of the Holy Spirit gives a clear description of who the Holy Spirit is and how his effect to the church. The Holy Spirit has been Present from the beginning because he represents God and God is the beginning. During the Old Testament as we have seen in the research, the Holy Spirit was present and functional but his doings were not emphasized. A clear indication of the work of the Holy Spirit is seen in the New Testament through Jesus Christ and His ministry. The Holy Spirit will continue to live amongst us because he was sent by Jesus to be our helper and comforter.

Clark, Matthew. “Frontiers in Theology: Issues at the Close of the First Pentecostal Century” Australasian Pentecostal Studies [Online], Number — (1 March 2000)
Clifton, Shane. “Editorial: Identity and the Shape of Pentecostal Theology” Australasian Pentecostal Studies[Online], Volume 19(15 June 2017)
Every Student. 2018. “Who Is The Holy Spirit?”. Everystudent.Com.
Kay, William K. “3. The Dynamics of the Growth of Pentecostal Churches: Evidence from Key Asian Centres” Australasian Pentecostal Studies [Online], Number — (31 January 2013)
McMahaon, Matthew. 2011. “A Summary Of The Doctrine Of The Holy Spirit – By Dr. C. Matthew Mcmahon | A Puritan’s Mind”. Apuritansmind.Com.
Melton, J.Gordon. “Pentecostalism”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Last modified 2014. Accessed May 14, 2018.
Pearlman, Myer. 1937. Knowing The Doctrines Of The Bible. Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House.
Rowland, Margaret. 2018. “The Early Church”. United Church Of Christ.
Torrey, R. A. 2005. “The Personality Of The Holy Spirit”. Wholesomewords.Org.
Van Oort, Johannes. 2011. “The Holy Spirit And The Early Church: Doctrine &Amp; Confession”. Scielo.Org.Za.
Walvoord, John. 2008. “1. The Person Of The Holy Spirit”. Bible.Org.
World Council of Churches. 2018. “Pentecostal Churches — World Council Of Churches”. Oikoumene.Org.

Critically Reflect on Forms of Relationship in The Therapeutic Encounter and The Challenges of Identifying and Working with These Relationship Processes


The relationship between the client and the counsellor is an elusive and mystical sometimes, debated frequently and is always a psychotherapy enterprise aspect that is interesting. Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) indicated that the global definition of relationship as all the behaviours, attitudes and feelings, conscious and unconscious that occur between two people, where one between them is a help-giver who has been sanctioned professionally, and the other is a patient or a client. However, given that the definition is broad, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) proposed a narrower definition of relationship as the attitudes and feelings that counselling participants have toward each other and the manner in which these get expressed. In this narrower definition, the procedures and techniques applied by the therapist that are wedded to the theory from which he or she is operating may reflect the issues of relationship, but do not provide relationship definition. There exists six forms or modalities of relationship in a therapeutic setting, and they include; (1) working alliance, (2) transference-countertransference, (3) reparative/ developmentally deeded, (4) person-person, and (5) transpersonal modalities (Clarkson, 2014, p.113). In this essay, I am going to discuss the forms of relationship in the therapeutic encounter and the challenges of identifying and working with these relationship processes. Lastly, I will reflect on how I have experienced two of these forms/modalities in therapy drawn on my own experiences in illuminating these issues.

According to Clarkson (2014, pp. 8), all the six modes interlink and overlap.  Working alliance is the part of the therapist/client relationship enabling the therapist and the client to work together even when any of them do not wish to work together. The aspects of working alliance include the bond, goals, tasks, the ability of the client to form relationships, and significant early work stages. In transference-countertransference relationship, modality is the experience of working alliance distortion by the experiences, fears and wishes from the past carried over into the therapeutic relationship. This is also known as the therapist/client bias (Culley & Bond, 2011, p. 22).

On the other hand, reparative/ developmentally deeded relationship modality is the intentional provision by the therapist for replenishing, reparative or corrective relationship or action where the previous experiences or original parenting was overprotective or abusive or deficient. This relationship modality sometimes is known as a maturational response or corrective emotional experience (Clarkson, 2014, p. 13). This modality focuses on re-instating the healthy development process or repairing previous damage. This implies that the relationship aspects that were traumatic or have been absent for client at his childhood parts are repaired or supplied by the therapist. In essence, emphatic reflection’s person-centred responses are reparative.

In person-person (real) relationship modality is the core relationship or dialogic relationship that concerns the authentic humanness shared by the therapist and the client. This modality has also been referred to as the real therapeutic relationship dimension (Clarkson, 2014, p. 16). It is here and now an existential meeting between two individuals and requires mutual recognition and participation that each gets changed by the other. The real person of the therapist cannot be entirely being excluded from interactional therapy matrix. Moreover, this relationship modality does not involve changing the therapeutic relationship into a social relationship or trying to seek personal gratification by dialoguing with the client. However, it includes confirmation of client as deserving respect. Psychoanalysis recognises real relationship as significant deeply and potentially profound force of healing (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.56).

Transpersonal relationship modality according to Clarkson (2014, p. 20) is the timeless psychotherapeutic relationship facet, that is impossible to describe but refers to the mysterious, spiritual or currently inexplicable dimension of the healing relationship. This relationship modality also acknowledges the influence of the qualities that presently transcend the limits of humans understanding. It is difficult to express it as its rare and is also not accessible easily to the descriptions that are used in discussing other relationship forms. Clarkson (2014, p. 22) also indicated that it lets go of skills, experience, knowledge, the desire to health, preconceptions to be present. It also allows receptiveness and passivity, hard to prepare and cannot be made to happen. It can only prepare conditions that are conducive to the spiritual activity. This relationship modality is also characterized by intuition to know facts, intent and feeling of the client without evidence to come to these conclusions. This relationship modality also flourishes more when the therapist dissolves their ego and allows insight and wisdom to emerge (Wallin, 2015, p.33).


1)    The Working Alliance

Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggested that working alliance is the alignment that takes place between the client and the counsellor, and more precisely, between the counsellor’s therapizing or working side and the client’s reasonable side (the reasonable or the observing ego). It is helpful at this point to think of two disparate ingredients or qualities of personality. One of these allows for objectivity and reason in observing situations and more so on the individuals. The second is the one which does not observe but instead experiences and feels unreflectively. This is referred to as a split in the ego by the psychoanalysts, and for expressive therapy or for successful analysis to occur, the client must have the ability for oscillating between these two sides. He or she must have the ability of rationally experiencing the feelings and observing those feelings.

In the working alliance, the reasonable side of the client aligns with the working side of the counsellor (which is also his or her reasonable side). This allows the client to experience negative feelings towards the counsellor without work disruption. Therefore, the reasonable side of the client, which gets aligned with the counsellor, permits the client to look at these negative feelings and try grasping their source. Also, it is the working alliance, and more importantly, that creates the sense that the counselling relationship participants are joined together in a shared enterprise, with each contributing to the work (Gelso & Carter, 1985, p. 155-194).

Bordin (1975, p. 252-260) conceptualized the working alliances as comprising of three parts: emotional bond existing between the participants, agreement on the task of the work, and an agreement about the goals. Therefore, there exists a positive attachment between the participants and an explicit or implicit view that the explicitly or implicitly desired goas of the work are very much appropriate for both the client and the counsellor. Moreover, again either explicitly or implicitly, the participants agree on what extra and in-therapy behaviour (tasks) will be helpful in achieving the goals agreed upon.

Extending the Bordin’s formulation, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggests that the working alliance is an emotional alliance that is both fed and fostered by the emotional bond, agreement on tasks and agreement on goals. This contrasts the definition Bordin proposed for the alliance as agreements and bonds. Despite the disagreement on the definition, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) shared the hypothesis by Bordin that the working alliance strength is a primary contributor to the helping relationship’s outcome.

The side of the counsellor in the relationship, it is suggested that the professional compassion and concern and the abiding willingness of helping the client in facing his or her problems, contribute to the alliance between the participants. The well-understood client-centred conditions of respect, genuineness and empathy are possibly central in developing the alliance, and it may be that these conditions do have their key effect through the alliance they establish.  Just like the working alliance necessitates the client to be making use of his or her observing, reasonable side, the therapist, also must utilize this part of herself or himself in facilitating a sound alliance. In most instances, therapists experience very strong reactions towards their clients. In these instances, the job of the therapists is to understand these feelings, and then make appropriate responses to the client with the aim of fostering an understanding and change of behaviour. Therefore, there must be constancy and consistency in the stance of the counsellor toward the client. The relationship is for the client’s therapeutic benefit, and the observing side of the counsellor is dominant in getting to understand his or her feelings, and disallowing these feelings to be used in ways that are antitherapeutic.

From the side of the client, he or she needs to be having some trust capacity for the healthy bonding to take place. Relatedly, it also follows that the client must have the ability to form attachments to people, to invest caring and energy in relationships. Moreover, probably the client needs to be having a similar worldview to the theoretical stance of the therapist that the task and goals of the counselling make sense to him or her. For all people, probably, their worldviews would be incompatible simply with the operations of particular counselling forms. This aspect addresses an issue of fit more than just the factor of the client. If the client cannot appreciate or understand what is to be offered by the therapist, one cannot expect working alliance that is sound to develop (Gelso & Carter, 1985, p. 155-194).


2)    The Real Relationship

Historically, the notion of real relationship has been rooted in humanistic conceptions of therapy and counselling. Additionally, the increasing emphasis in the therapies of learning on issues of relationship appears, in part, to be representing a focus on the real relationship. It appears that the humanistic therapies tend to equate the real relationship with the therapist’s authenticity, genuineness, opened and congruence. A real relationship, in effect, exists to the extent that the therapist is able and willing to be genuine and open about her or his feelings in the relationship. This seems to be particularly clear from recent presentations of what is today known as a person-centred approach (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.36). Also, it seems true of the gestalt therapy which is considered essentially humanistic though to a lesser extent as elaborated by Simkin and Yontef (1984, pp. 279-319). The approaches to learning, to the degree, that they are describing these phenomena, seems to be equating a real relationship with the openness of the counsellor, despite the fact that they do not view the real relationship as vital to positive outcomes almost to the extent that is done by the humanistic approaches.

Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggested that equating the genuineness and openness of the counsellor with a real relationship is misleading and incomplete for two reasons. First, by doing so it leaves out the client from the equation, or it gives the client a minor role. The impression that will be gotten by an individual from the humanistic literature, for instance, is that the therapist is offering a set of behaviours prescribed, such as the behaviours that reflect openness, and this facilitates the movement of the client in certain directions, including increased openness. On the other hand, real relationship implies at least a two-party interchange, whereby each is involved with the others in a developing a process. A real relationship according to Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) is something that develops and exists between a client and the counsellor as a result of the actions, attitudes, perceptions and feelings of each towards and with the other.

It may well appear that the major focus is on the counsellor, and that essentially the contribution of the client to the real relationship has been ignored partly, at least because of the role expectations of the counsellor are in a way contradictory and confusing, whereas the role expectations of the client are clearer. Therefore, it is an expectation from the client to try to be genuine and open at all times, despite the fact that at times it is not expected of them to succeed. On the other hand, the expectation to the counsellor is to be genuine and open and at the same time be working. By working means observing an individual’s communications and behaviours, and keeping them under some form of rational control. In many ways, this appears to be contradicting the dictates that state that the counsellor should be genuine and open. Such kind of contradictory expectations are evident and can see, for instance, in the prescription for experiential therapy by Mahrer (1983, p.45). These complexities, in effect, have created the need for more discussion of the contribution of the counsellor to the real relationship than the contribution of the client. Be it like that, the inattention of the contribution of the client and to the reciprocal influence of the counsellor and the client in fostering real relationship here is seen as a serious deficit.

There exists a second and perhaps even more serious problem in the tendency of equating a real relationship with the genuineness and openness of the counsellor. Greenson (1971, pp. 213-232) underscored that a real relationship comprises of the realistic and genuine reactions and perceptions of the participants to each other. Realistic reactions and perceptions are reality oriented, undistorted and appropriate. They have not been contaminated by the distortions of the transference. On the other hand, genuine reactions and perceptions reflect truthfulness, authenticity and honesty, as opposed to synthenticness and artificiality. While the component of transference of the relationship is genuine, by definition, it is never genuine.  In other words, when enacting transference and when involved in, honestly the client does experience these feelings., and in most instanced they are intensely experienced. However, they are the therapist’s distortions, misperceptions based on relationships and experiences from another place and time. A differentiation between interpretations and attributions on the one hand, and on the other and are the feeling reactions may help in clarifying how a person may be genuine within the unreal relationship. This implies that any interaction may be seen as comprising of four steps that are sequential. That is, (1) an individual perceives a behaviour (2) an individual makes interpretations or attributions about that behaviour (3) one reacts internally, that is having feelings about the behaviour (4) an individual emits some response.

In their article, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) proposed a position that the real relationship exists in all therapies, and it does so intermingled and also alongside the transference or unreal relationship. Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) indicated that in a real relationship, an individual’s interpretations and perceptions of another’s behaviour are realistic and appropriate, the behaviour is congruent and the feelings are genuine. The real relationship may possess two parts, that is the nonintimate or impersonal, and more personal and intimate. Both of these parts are significant and should be attended to and appropriately used. The more non-intimate real relationship part would entail chatty interactions, which may paradoxically convey a very human form of respect. On the other hand, the more intimate interactions entail feelingful and personalized messages. Therefore, the real relationship has a significant effect on the outcome and processes of every form of counselling (Culley & Bond, 2011, p.25).

3) Developmentally needed/reparative relationship.

This is the intentional provision by the corrective/reparative psychotherapist or parental relationship replenishing where the original parenting was deficient, overprotective or abusive. This relationship mode refers to the relationship aspects which may have been traumatic or absent for the client at certain periods of his or her childhood and which the psychotherapist repairs or supplies, normally in a contracted form during the psychotherapy. That is on request from the patient with an agreement. Ferenczi Sandor, one of the early followers of Freud attempted this by departing from impassivity and neutrality in favour of offering nursing care, management of regression or friendly hugs to very sick patients, day or night, including those he saw anytime as well as taking them on holidays. According to Ferenczi, thee needed to be a contrast between original infancy trauma and the analytical situation so that it can be facilitative in remembering rather than patient’s renewed trauma remembering (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.62).

A reflection on how I have experienced two of these forms/modalities in therapy

In this section, I am going to offer a reflection on how I have experienced two of these modalities of relationship in therapy. Specifically, I will focus on working alliance and Reparative / Developmentally Needed modality.

To begin, during my therapy session, I often had a rupture with my therapist who was always showing up late for our appointments. Based on the working alliance modal, we were able to establish a relationship and work together. We were able to apply the principles of working alliance mode to repair the rupture and regain the trust again. In working alliance, the first stage is all about building a shared foundation and an understanding. Therefore, if the relation falters on the first stage, both parties can go back to the contract and repair the therapeutic alliance (Wallin, 2015, p. 49). The working alliance is the basis of the therapist-client relationship that enables both the therapist and the client to work together and would include things like presenting issues. Therefore, we were able to sit down with my therapist, discuss the lateness to appointment issue and came to an agreement that she will always try to send an apology if she will be late or engaged somewhere.

One of the problems why I had therapy sessions for counselling the trauma that I had when I was a child. When I was a child, my mother was an alcoholic, and this was traumatic for me when I was growing up. Attachment theory according to Fonagy (2018, p.1) is all about the nature of children’s early experiences and the impact of the experiences on the characteristics of later functioning of specific relevance to disorder of personality. The theory address how deprivation, particularly early trauma, will come to affect a person’s propensity to personality disorder. Moreover, it also concerns with how these adverse consequences can be avoided. The key assumption in this theory is that the social behavior of an individual may be understood in terms of social relationships generic mental models constructed by an individual (Fonagy, 2018, p.1).

Based on the Reparative / Developmentally Needed modality, we were able to see improvement in my counselling sessions. As a client to my therapist, I came to see her as the better alternative at some level, I emotionally took on my therapist as a parent figure to support me in my personal growth which takes place when I am with her during her sessions. Given that my mother was an alcoholic during my childhood and was traumatic for me, my therapist asked me to imagine that my daughter was experiencing what I did as a teenager. Would I have more compassion and understanding for myself when I could mentalize that trauma happening to my daughter?  With those thoughts and mentalizing my daughter growing up with an alcoholic parent, I began having compassion and trusting my judgement. I also began using the therapist as emotional support, and this helped in relieving off the emotional burden that I have been carrying since childhood.



In conclusion, the paper Critically reflected on forms of relationship in the therapeutic encounter and the challenges of identifying and working with these relationship processes. It also drew on my own experiences in illuminating these issues. Going forward, I will work with the three relationship modalities; Working Alliance, Real Relationship (Humanistic person-centred) and Developmentally needed/reparative perspectives in various ways. I will apply working alliance modality by aligning the reasonable side of the client with my working side as a therapist. This will create the sense for us (client and therapist) in the counselling relationship get joined together in a shared enterprise with each of us contributing to the work. I will also apply Developmentally needed/reparative perspectives modality on clients which had overprotective, abusive or deficient original parenting to replenish relationship. Lastly, will use Real Relationship modality in creating some genuineness and opened with my clients. 


Bordin, E.S. (1975). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research And Practice, 16, 252-260

Clarkson, P. (2014). The therapeutic relationship. London: Whurr.

Culley, S., & Bond, T. (2011). Integrative counselling skills in action. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Fonagy, P. (2018). PSYCHOMEDIA – Peter Fonagy, ‘Attachment, the development of the self, and its pathology in personality disorders’. Retrieved 26 February 2018, from

Gelso, C. J., & Carter, J. A. (April 01, 1985). The Relationship in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Components, Consequences, and Theoretical Antecedents. Counseling Psychologist, 13, 2, 155-94.

Gilbert, M., & Orlans, V. (2011). Integrative therapy: 100 key points & techniques. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.

Greenson, R.R (1971). The “real” relationship between the patient and the psychoanalyst. In M. Kanzer (Ed.), The unconscious today: essays in honor of Max Schur (pp. 213-232). New York: International Universities Press

Mahrer, A.R (1983). Experiential psychotherapy: Basic Practices. New York: Brunner/Mazel

Simkin, J. S., & Yontef, G.M (1984) Gestalt therapy. In R.J Corsini (Ed), Current psychotherapies (3rd Ed.,pp. 279-319). Itasca, IL: Peacock

Wallin, D. J. (2015). Attachment in psychotherapy.

Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty

Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty


Stephens et al (2002) defines poverty as a physical state where a person lacks money or material possession of a certain amount. Destitution or extreme poverty refers to the state a person is deprived of the basic human needs that commonly includes water, food, clothing, sanitation, healthcare, shelter and education. On the other hand, Stephens et al (2002) defines relative poverty as economic inequality in a society or a location where people live. Furthermore, he elaborates that the homeless people include the young and the adult people in insecure and fragile accommodation, and not necessarily the roofless population. Accommodation that is insecure damages both physical and mental health while housing that is improved improves the population health (Stephens et al, 2002). According to Conron et al (2010), homelessness impeded social capital acquisition, job opportunities and undermines the sense of identity of the young people exposing them to wide range of stressors and dangers.

Conron et al (2010) did a population based research on gender differences and sexual orientation identity in adult health. The study used multivariable logistic regression in examining self reported health patterns by gender and sexual orientation. From the study, the results was that sexual minorities such as the gay and the lesbians, bisexuals compared with the heterosexuals were more likely to show limitation of activity, worry or tension, drug abuse, smoking, asthma, HIV testing and lifetime sexual victimization but did not show any difference in Papanicolaou tests for three years, diabetes, lifetime mammography or heart diseases (Conron et al, 2002).

Furthermore Conron et al (2010) points out that in comparison with the heterosexuals, the bisexuals  reported  more health care barriers, suicidal ideation of past year, current sadness and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the gay men had less likelihood of becoming obese or overweight and to obtain the tests for antigen that is prostate-specific, while lesbians had more likelihood of becoming overweight to report many risks of cardiovascular diseases. From the findings, it comes out clearly that disparities in sexual orientation in risks of chronic diseases, access to health care, victimization, smoking and mental health merit some attention.

According to Stephens et al (2002), statistics shows that a third of global deaths which translates to 50,000 daily deaths or 18 million dying annually are poverty related. Therefore, since 1990, about 270 million people have died due to poverty and most of them are children and women (Stephens et al, 2002). Furthermore, those under the poverty condition currently suffer from diseases, starvation and hunger disproportionately (Stephens et al, 2002). Conron et al (2010) observe that those living under poverty conditions suffer from low life expectancy. World Health Organization further states that malnutrition and hunger are single threats that are grave to the public health globally. Moreover, malnutrition currently is the leading cause of child mortality among all the causes. Among 90% of child birth maternal deaths occur in sub- Sahara Africa and Asia, compared to the less than 1% found in the developed nations (Stephens et al, 2002).

Those who are homeless or are destitute have also been shown to be likely of incurring or having disability during their lifetime. Additionally, infectious diseases like tuberculosis and malaria can increase poverty by diverting economic resources and health from productivity and investments. In some developing nations, malaria decreases their GDP growth by 1.3% while AIDS reduces the growth of Africa annually by 0.3 to 1.5 % (Stephens et al, 2002).

Health needs of the homeless and those living in extreme poverty

            1) Poor mental health-it is high for the people living in rough conditions compared to the population in general.

            2) Poor physical health-the homeless population suffer from same physical problems like the general population but more severe and more often because of the limited access to the basic commodities.

            3) Risk taking behavior-self harming and sexual risk behavior is common among the homeless population, and suicide is the biggest death cause among the homeless people in the streets. Moreover, substance use and criminal activity are inevitable among the insecure homeless domicile (Conron et al, 2010).

The usefulness of the information to the human/social services career

The information in this essay will help in learning more about the homeless and their strategies for surviving and coping. It also provides more information on health needs support networks and examples of good practice of the poor and the homeless on health issues. Furthermore, it provides different aspects of health from mental and physical health among the people living in poverty for future studies to be done on these health issues. 


Conron, K. J., Mimiaga, M. J., & Landers, S. J. (January 01, 2010). A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of     Public Health, 100, 10, 1953-60.

Stephens, J., & Mental Health Foundation (London, England). (2002). The mental health needs    of homeless young people: Bright futures : working with vulnerable young people : a    report commissioned by The Mental Health Foundation. London: The Mental Health      Foundation.





PR manager to create awareness of a new product

PR manager to create awareness of a new product

DQ2: the CEO of your company has asked you, her PR manager to create awareness of a new product it is launching.  This is the first you’re hearing of the new product. According to your text and other research, Discuss the steps you would take in terms of  1) internal communication with management; 2) research; and, 3) contacting the media.  In your discussion, include the PR tools and strategies you would choose in each of the steps, and explain why you chose them.

Communication with CEO and Management

During the internal communication, I will sell the concepts of the new product to the senior management to get their commitment for the resources during the launch. Additionally, I will ensure I win the support of many departments to form part of the process of the product launch. For instance, designing, manufacturing, development, research, marketing and distribution (Cutlip et al, 2005)

Research Steps

  • Internal Company Research

During the internal communication research, I will do communication planning which entails gathering of information and analyzing the company and the situation. This will enable me draw the needed information for the product that will drive the decisions that may come later in the process of planning.

  1. Step1-I will do analysis of the situation to ensure all stakeholders of the new product are in agreement.
  2. Step 2-I will conduct analysis of the company. This will include the company’s internal environment, the public perception and the external environment
  3. Step 3-I will conduct analysis of the key publics which interacts with the company (Morley, 2008).
  • External Media Vehicles Research

I conducting the research on the external media vehicle, we will ensure the most popular media vehicles that reach many people, that is cheap cost wise and uses minimal staff of the company. The most popular media vehicles include the broadcast, the print media and the online media.

Communication with the Media

  • Do’s and Don’ts with the media.


  1. Develop many newsworthy scenarios to showcase the message
  2. Build a good working relationship with the media
  3. Have a good kit for press like timely information on the company,management and sales figures
  4. Use every effort in spreading the word in all media rooms
  5. Keep promises especially on scheduled interviews


  1. Do not decide on the story the reporter should write even before getting the show
  2. Do not snub the little guys
  3. Do not pad the press kit with exaggerated information or gimmicks
  4. Do not hold a press conference with nothing newsworthy
  5. Do not make assumptions that the reporter knows everything of the company (McQuail, 2002).

What PR tools and strategies you’d use

  • Building awareness

Creation of awareness will make the potential market be interested in purchasing the new products. I will use the following tools in strengthening my efforts; press releases, press outreach, website updates, twitter announcements, endorsements and advertisements.

  • Building demand

I will use the following tools to create demand for the new product; email campaigns, referrals and tradeshows.

Media vehicles you would select and why

  • Online advertisement

Online advertisement will place adverts of the new product in the internet. With the large traffic number of the internet users, many will get to see our product and buy it online (McQuail, 2002).

  • Broadcast

Broadcast will entail radio and TV broadcast that reaches many viewers across a wide regional area. This will make the product popular in the area.

  • Print

The print media that will be used include the popular magazines, news papers and the Dailies. This will enable the information of the product to reach many people (McQuail, 2002).


Cutlip, S. M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (2005). Effective public relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Morley, J. (2008). Launching a new product. London: Business Books.

McQuail, D. (2002). Media performance: Mass communication and the public interest. London: Sage Publications.





Global, political, social and economic development has in recent years distressed the relations amongst European, western and Islamic cultures strongly.[1] With time now, there has been unsettling changes worldwide since Non-Muslims and Muslims became preys of violence and terror by persons pretending to act in the title of Islam. As a result there occurred an increased misunderstanding and prejudice against Muslims in the media by the sophisticated media this era wars begin, continue and end with media.[2] The Media shapes the peoples opinion and reports by their censorship hence can be used as an important weapon. The media forms how we see the world.

It is common that emergencies often determines the policy making process of the public. These reveal journalists’ vital role in communicating the information. But choosing destructive and alarming names for groups that influential policymakers distaste, are all parts of tricks in the media.[3]

In this day and age, several media campaigns are going against Muslim and the Islam culture. A lot of Western media with large financial assets and several channels show rough images of Islam to their communities. [4]The Muslim groups at the same time are trying to convey positive messages through their media, however their efforts are not fruitful due to the global saturation of the western media.

The World Trade Centre attacks of September 11, 2001 are still felt and the deeply affected is the American Muslim group. Since the attacks Muslims in the US have been violated economically, politically and socially, amidst these this discriminations are clear misunderstandings about Islam hence development of Islamophobia (deep social anxiety towards Islam).[5]Polls directed between 2001- 2009 show American misunderstandings concerning Islam. Almost 45 percent of Americans assumed that Islam is more likely to inspire violence among its followers than other religions; also 36 percent of Americans did not recall any beliefs of the Islam faith .The two most publicized images in the media are of the Muslim male who is a terrorist and the veiled woman. [6]Most media, use these images to portray the male as being fundamentalists and the female as being subjugated by her religion.

As a result of the attacks, the government of America modified and added on immigration policies and security measures. These joint enactments of the CLEAR Act and Patriot Act culminated in increased tailing of Muslims. Muslims were and are still being denied formal charges and council while being held for long periods of time. Scrutiny of Muslims is constant in mosques, library records, bank accounts, and places of work and on the Internet.[7] A year after the 9/11 events ,the Attorney General broadcasted the introduction of the National Security Exit Entry Registration System (NSEERS).this  The program was functional to men from Muslim countries living in the United States. They were expected to report for multi-phase registration .This program proved futile in two ways. Firstly, they did not put clear information regarding the requirements and secondly, the program used inhumane detention methods on Muslims resulting to violation of human rights and mistreatment.

The U.S. CLEAR Act and Patriot Act negatively influences the civil rights of Muslim minority groups and have resulted in the devastation of Muslim community and the U.S. Government relations. In addition, use of racial profiling has encouraged media stereotyping.[8]

Muslims face social discrimination and physical abuses U.S. Department of Justice report allegations of abuse that include:  internet, telephone, threats, assaults, vandalism and bombings of houses, companies, and mosques.[9] These assaults generate fear throughout the Muslim community are as targeted in safe places such as their homes and the mosque, ten years after World Trade Centre attacks a debate has rose in the mainstream media outlets against building of mosques around the nation.[10]

Muslim professionals have stated that they have been discriminated against when it comes to employment. They report being called names by co-workers, like terrorist or Osama, and protest that their bosses do not allow wearing the headscarves or partaking in prayer times.[11] The wide spread nature of this hatred perpetrated by the media can be seen in the comments of well-known public figures, for instance Franklin Graham a Christian evangelist said during an interview in one of the western medias that the God of Islam is not the Sovereign God plus he is not the God of the Christian faith and that he firmly believes that it is a different God concluding that Islam is a very wicked and evil religion. Pope Benedict XVI also referred to Muhammad’s offerings as inhuman and evil. Mary Jo O’Neill, advocate of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission said, there has been a level of spite and hostility that is appalling.[12]

Even before the World Trade Centre attacks the views of Muslims in the United States had already been tarnished this can be traced to intentional myth making by film and media, coming up with images categorizing the unwanted ‘other’ in its midst. A few days after 9/11 attacks almost all news channels were showing images of what the hijackers looked like resulting to Americans turning their fright and hatred on to anyone who resembled the faces of the suspects. The media only served to fuel the hatred.[13] Ever since 9/11 the media has continuously depicted the Middle East as unappreciative for the assistance that the United States has purportedly brought. Complete with dishonest lies and reporting part of the stories, it is not a surprise that 600,000 dead Iraqis were never named or counted.[14]

Media outlets in the U.S. do not report facts about the war in Iraq it only tells a side of the story. These media represent Islam as fundamentalism, extremism and radicalism. Definitely, in the current world where the role of media is vital, the image of authenticity can be worked to distort the actual facts. The media have tried to depict Muslims as terrorists posing a threat to the security to the western nations. By this, they try to justify the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the recent years, this method has led to the advent of Islamophobia. Diminutive efforts have been made to answer to these negative campaigns. On the contrary, the actions of terrorist sets that kill people, aid their media to show that they are mutually preys of terrorism.

The consciousness raising of  experts, scholars and media analysts after the 9/11 period  through the media has created a problem for legislators and the public as they look for answers to queries like: What are the reasons of radicalism and anti-Americanism?, Why do they dislike us?, What do Muslim women think about their position in Islam? , Is Islam harmonious with democracy? What are the origins of global terrorism? And many more. Consequently, a reader is trapped between the opposing positions of superficially competent experts as well as a new force of Islamophobic authors who participate in a heretical reading of Islam and Islamic history.[15]

The logic of threat to the Muslim cultural uniqueness is heightened by a predominant feeling that a powerful and secular West inflicts its ideals upon the Muslim world. For instance ,When asked a question like ,what do they dislike most about the West in their own words?, the most recurrent answer across all Islamic countries for both political  and moderate radicals was sexual and cultural promiscuity then; ethical and moral corruption and finally hatred of Muslims.[16] Another source of hatred comes from the representation of Muslims in the Western media.

A study by Jack Shaheen in his manuscript, Reel Bad Arabs- How Hollywood Vilifies a People, established that the huge majority of Arab characters in 900 American films were complete racist characters. Imageries of day to day life and usual Muslims in their nations are almost non-existent or one-sided in the western media.[17] Additionally, the western media which are widespread in the Muslim world boost imitation of Western style, behaviors and values.

Television news are the most significant source of public information about world events.[18] Just about 80 percent of people rely on it as their leading source of news, Western media with huge financial means try to show a bad picture of Islam to their public.

Selected scholars are certain that there is a direct association between modern global communication and terrorism. Their readings show that most terrorists’ actions are propaganda. Terrorism is a secondary psychological approach which avoids at all costs direct connection with opponents.[19] Thus, without media attention terrorism disappears. After the world trade Centre attacks, the word terrorism and Muslim or Islam became synonymous in western countries.

The illustration of Muslims in the media recounts to the lack of taking and accepting of differences, the media creates public fear around the terrorist menace. One scholar said terrorism war is a war of images and the ones that are most effective are those of victims of terrorism. On the flip side there is discrimination related with Islamophobia which tries to show that Muslims are a threat to safety. The emphasis on terrorism merges TV coverage of Muslim news and the central image is Islamic Terrorism.[20]

Due to frequent repetitive destructive propaganda by the numerous media sources, religious and cultural prejudices against the Muslims have gone round like wild fire. The media, is further interested in dramatic news than functional constructive news.[21] It is well known fact that Islam condemning goes on in the western media. Western countries like the USA majorly take up very hostile attitudes towards Islamic countries like Libya, Iran, and Iraq who challenge USA authorities. USA not only reprimands them brutally (as for instance bombings on Iraq and on pharmaceutical factory in Sudan) but also starts publicity warfare against Islamic countries and its people in their media.

Out of frustration, some militant youth carried out ferocious attacks on some American establishments (for instance, bombings on the World Trade Centre). As a consequence of this a regular American has a very bad prejudice toward Islam and Muslims as it is thought to be a religion of violence and fanaticism.[22] In the same way the internal radical violence in Algeria has spread over to France. The Algerian radicals carried out bombing occurrences in Paris too as it believes the French Government collaborates with the Algerian authorities in eliminating Muslim militants, hence this leading to strong prejudices against Islam among the French.

During the development of history there have been journeys from one country to another and from one region within a country to other regions. These conflicts are not new. Muslims and Christians fought on the query of control over Palestine and these historical wars are known as the crusades.[23] The enthusiasm with which these wars were battled between Muslims and Christians made crusade synonymous with fanaticism and thus a new phrase crusading spirit came into reality. It was the crusades that instigated great deal of confusion about Islam in western countries through the medieval period.

The image of Muslims’ holy book in one hand, and blade in the other, was the conception of these crusades.[24] Likewise, the Muslim conquests on North India led to image of Islam as vicious religion in the thoughts of many Hindus (though just a few Hindus were partners in these attacks). All of These images are being recovered in the modern settings to work for present-day political interests. Nevertheless, due to propaganda buildup an average Hindu thinks of a Muslims as violent and fanatic. The media again plays a significant role in spreading such images and ideas.[25]

According to several studies, Muslim Australians normally experience discrimination, racial slander, actual violence and threats of violence. Others observed that a general inconsiderateness towards Muslim cultural practices like refusal to allow prayer breaks and negative judgments about their dressing and names.[26] The studies in their conclusion stated that Muslim Australians were highly experiencing discrimination along the theme that Muslim Australians are possible terrorists, that there was no home in Australia for Muslims and that Muslims should reject their cultural practices and integrate .Muslim children and women were specifically defenseless in Australia and reported sentiments of fear of attack or cruelty at home and even in public places. Muslim Women recounted being verbally and physically abused on a daily basis with intimidations such as I am going to tear that scarf off your head and crash your bag over the top of your head and smash it in, as described in when cultures disagree.

Development for the public longitudinal needs of Muslim women in Sydney, Muslim and Arab Australians gave detailed accounts of their kids undergoing intimidation and bullying in institutions, thus many parents resort to admitting that they have no other choice but to send their children to Islam schools, not essentially for the education, but for their security and safety.[27]

Concern has been amplified in Australia since the Bali bombings and the responsiveness given to the controversial readings. Some analysts speak about the Muslim issues and the need for Muslim Australians to integrate, while on the other side others maintain that the Australian people should continue to embracing multiculturalism.


It is clear that the Muslim who is citizen or non-citizen in westernized countries continuously face difficult and extreme challenges from social, political, economic and institutional discrimination. The people are pursued in order to be influenced by political interests.[28] This manipulation is eased by the power of mass media and which now the media is not only print but also in electronic form. These media play great roles in spreading inter-cultural and inter-religious prejudices. The pictures about some culture and religion fabricated by media may not be factual but can play complete mess by distributing strong prejudices against specific groups. The media’ responsibility has become very crucial in this modern time. Electronic media even more so.[29]

But the media can take part in positive contributions as we have to exhaust every possible way to promote the dialogical life-force among the disagreeing groups.[30] There are also clear strategies that can assist in alleviating some of the misunderstanding and hatred of Islam and Muslims. Islamic establishments and societies can provide a platform for education on Islam and offer outside members to Islamic seminars and get-togethers to cultivate better relationships with the outside community.[31] Also an American chronicles of Islam can be created, comparable to the African-American narratives. These can assist to expand the average American’s understanding of Islam and its basic code of beliefs. With increased knowledge, abuses and discrimination are more likely to be done away with ultimately.

The image of Islam and Muslim in the western media has to transform for the better and Inter-culturalism has to substitute Islamophobia.


Benazir Bhutto .Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[1] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[2] Ibid.,34

[3] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[4] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008

[5]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[6] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

[7] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[8]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[9]  Ibid.,6

[10] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012

[11] Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[12] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007

[13] Ibid,.66

[14] Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

[15] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[16] Ibid.,71

[17] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London;  New York, 2007.

[18]  Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[19] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[20]  Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[21] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[22] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[23] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[24] Ibid.,12

[25] Ibid.,29

[26] Ibid.,33

[27] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[28] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[29] Ibid.,46

[30] Ibid.,48

[31] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Newly graduated nurses

Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Nursing Training

Nursing is a type of health provision that looks into the management, coordination and delivery of care services using different programs within the domain of patient-care. Nurses use the nursing process to provide care for individual patients or defined population in different health facilities or hospitals. Nursing education begins with student have to either cover different levels in nursing education that starts from a Diploma, Degree and finally Baccalaureate degree in nursing. A diploma courses are is trained in hospital that offers sponsorship training programs just within the facility and in other cases a student works as an attaché. Baccalaureate students are well placed to receive advanced working positions such as tutoring diploma students, health-care administration and patient-care.

Nursing Action

Graduate nurses are usually ready to take up different challenges in health care whereby they can work in any department such as emergency rooms or administration. New RN graduates finds themselves getting direct employment without necessarily need for orientation to different working positions. Hence, nurses need to be competent with enough knowledge to assist then in using healthcare system whereby a nurse need to think about how to use then while administering to patients needs.

Role of Residency Programs in Promoting Nursing Competency

The residency programs has been helpful in promoting health in emergency departments as it highlights importance of creating a healthy public policy ,strengthening of nursing actions, development of personal skills and reorientation of health services (Nelson et al,. 2001). Graduate nurses in a public setting or in a community they are likely to promote health through mobilizing the communities, training on health related and environmental aspects that affects health and health policies. The promotion of nurses education is an important component of health practice in form of care is the ability to physically provide diagnostic services.

Retention of graduate nurses in the health facility not addressed the shortage of staff in hospitals and health centers dealing with facing different complications. Graduate specialists such as psychiatrists and nurses are often few in numbers compared to the population that requires their services in an emergency room. Therefore, many need to be trained for NLN competency to be able to handle different challenges in emergency rooms which are currently originating from lack of adequate personnel (Happel K, 2007). There is need for reform on fundamentals health system through education and change of governance in order to be in a position to offer better services. This way, practitioners will be able to address the aspect of changing service delivery in the health sector by making integrated care more accessible to the patients. Moreover, there is the need to improve the infrastructure in hospitals by hiring competent nurses to handle these facilities (Brady, 2009). More information should be given to trainees as it is believed that the stigma surrounding health is a cause for low level of health practitioners’ interested professional fields. With an adequate working force, the health system would be better equipped to deal with the emergency crisis. 


Brady. W. (2009). Comparison of traditional and nontraditional new Graduate RN’s in a NICU (1st ed.)

Happell . K. (2007). Employment through residency program: A strategy to address the workforce crisis in Psychiatric Nursing. Psychiatric Nursing Archives, 21(3), 126-131.

Nelson. M. Olson & Yougn, L. Kleinsasser. A. (2001). Nursing Student Residency Program: a model for seamless transition from Nursing Student to R.N. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(1), 40-48.

Price Waterhouse Coopers

Price waterhouse coopers

Price Waterhouse Coopers


Price Waterhouse Coopers is privately owned organization with headquarters in London, United Kingdom. It was formed in 1998 through a merger between Price Waterhouse and Coopers and Lybrand. It deals with professional services and it is the second largest professional services firm. It is a multinational organization and has offices in one hundred and fifty nine countries across the world. It faces competition from KPMG, Deloitte, and Ernst & Young. It was rebranded in 2010 in light of competition and the need to attain competitive advantage.

Leadership and Management Style

Price water house coopers apply change leadership style and interactive management style. The company is a global corporate with decentralized leadership and management in specific countries. They execute their duties by empowering the organization to accomplish the company’s strategic objectives. The process is systematic and requires leaders to identify precisely and focus narrowly on the most impacting goals, concentrate the efforts of the team and employees on actions of high impact, share transparently the real time results, make course corrections timely and lastly ensure mutual members accountability (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.64).

The effective leadership and management styles in Price Waterhouse Coopers is grounded on principles of commitment, clarity, translation of the companies goals to daily goals, synergistic teamwork, enabling sponsorship and accountability.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.109) observed that the principles of focused leadership and management include clarity, commitment where the members of the company believe in the company’s goals to be achieved, translation to action which means the ability of the management to know what to do to achieve their goals, enabling sponsorship, accountability and synergy.

Organizational Culture

The organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water House Coopers Company, the people form the heart f their success and strategy. They focus on equal opportunity for employment, inclusion and diversity in the process of recruitment and ensure they attract many candidates from various backgrounds, non traditional and traditional. The company provides people with different types of tools to enrich them in daily coaching, professional experience and have productive feedback. The organizational culture of Price Water House Coopers has four dimensions; professional development, life or work flexibility and quality, commitments to the communities, the Price Water House Coopers family and support to the working parents (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.331).

  • Professional development

According to Evan & Chan-Gon (2010p.97), Price Water House Coopers emphasize on significance of the real time feedback to make them enhance their brand and improve on professional skills. The company also offers training and opportunities for development to stay relevant

  • Life/work flexibility and quality

The company understands that to perform maximally, people need to be flexible. Their holiday and vacation policy supports the company’s commitment.

  • Commitment to the communities

Price Water House Coopers is committed to transparency and trust in the markets, development of responsible community and leaders that flourish and managing the company’s environmental impact (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.87).

  1. Support the working parents

Price Water House Coopers programs, resources and benefits are designed to assist the working parents meet their career and family demands. The culture of the firm acknowledges the challenges and therefore provides the flexibility and career options.

  • The Price Water House Coopers family

a person is considered a family of Price Water House Coopers  when they come on board as professionals. Even after choosing to depart, the company stays connected to them through the community network of the alumni (Deiser, 2009p.34).

Corporate Values and Norms

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.57) pointed out that Price Waterhouse Coopers corporate values are in form of three pillars; teamwork, excellence and leadership. The company believes that under teamwork, best solutions come from the clients and colleagues working together. Effective teamwork needs sharing, respect and relationship. Under excellence, the company believes in delivering of what was promised and adding more value beyond what was expected (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.335). Excellence is achieved in Price Waterhouse Coopers through agility, learning and innovation. Finally, under leadership, the company believes in leading with clients, people and leadership thought. Leadership demand integrity, vision and courage (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.336).

In corporate norms, Price Waterhouse Coopers conduct businesses within applicable framework of professional law, standards and regulations in addition to the company’s policies and standards. Price Waterhouse Coopers has code of conduct for all its firms and people based on the company’s values.

Every member is obligated to understand and know the codes guidelines and values they are based. Furthermore, they are obligated to comply with the spirit and letter of the code and assist others comply too (Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.102).

PricewaterhouseCoopers (2005p.221) observed that some of the corporate norms of Price Waterhouse Coopers include upholding the name of Price Waterhouse Coopers, the company’s core values, respecting others, behaving professionally, corporate responsibility, performing their responsibility and ethical decision making

Teams and Employee Empowerment

  1. Volunteer continuum

Price Waterhouse Coopers Company has established structures of employee and team empowerments. Some of the employee empowerment is engaging the Price Waterhouse Coopers employees in community experiences that are meaningful that help them build their capabilities. Through this initiative, the company deepened the understanding of their employees in issues related to nonprofit sector through the company’s volunteering continuum, a strategy that helps the company guide its work in the community (Deiser, 2009p119).

According to Leadership Development Strategy in PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.88), team empowerment in the Price Waterhouse Coopers company is enhanced through volunteering. During the financial year of 2013, about 2300 staff members participated in the 313 company led team volunteering initiatives. This is translated to about 17,200 volunteering hours to the community (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.340). The company uses the volunteer continuum to assist expand and deepen the firms ways of volunteer programs enhance the leadership skills, while at the same time maximizing on their commitment and effective level within the charitable sector.

According to Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.105), the company formalized the skills based volunteering definition across the Price Waterhouse Coopers global network. Skilled volunteering incorporates use of professional skills of an individual but in the informal way that does not include service deliver for the Company will be liable. These include to coaching, mentorship and training on financial literacy

  1. Environmental stewardship

To further empower the employees and teams, Price Waterhouse Coopers environmental network empowers the employees. The network is led by employees who are enthusiastic who also strive to be change catalysts. The environmental committees within the firm provide opportunities for the staff members who are passionate about stewardship of environment to connect with others and exchange ideas. The members of the committees drive change both within the Price Waterhouse Coopers and out into the larger community, raising some awareness among some clients and colleagues and building skills as leaders who are responsible (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005).

  1. Diversity and inclusion of people

Price Waterhouse Coopers invest in their employees and teams at every career steps to help them achieve their personal and professional goals. Everything in the company is done based on collaboration and teamwork. These may include submission of proposal to clients, learning experiences and ideas from others and engaging in volunteering activities with fellow colleagues (Deiser, 2009p.138). This way the empower the employees and create culture and high performance where everybody supports and challenges each other and members can play their role as individuals for collective success.

The Price Waterhouse Coopers company also continues to help their employees to develop new skills through working practices which are enhanced, inclusion of initiatives, diversity, supporting life or work flexibility, coaching which are enhanced. The company also encourages the development of a strong mindset of responsibility by engaging employees in conversations that are related to both marketplace and environmental initiatives. Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.54) observed that by the company giving employees the right tools; they are able to understand the impact of their doings on others and the society interconnectedness


In conclusion, Price Waterhouse Coopers is well established and functions effectively. The management and leaders are of high integrity and good values. The company has corporate culture of good moral values compounded by the culture which enhance employee development professionally. The organization also invest some of their profits through charity work and assistance to the community through corporate social responsibility, volunteering and environmental stewardship.


PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2005). 8th annual global CEO survey: Bold ambitions, careful choices / PricewaterhouseCoopers. New York: PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007). S.l.: American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC.

Deiser, R. (2009). Designing the smart organization: How breakthrough corporate learning initiatives drive strategic change and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bowen, R. M., Rajgopal, S., & Venkatachalam, M. (September 06, 2008). Accounting Discretion, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance*. Contemporary Accounting Research, 25, 2, 351-405.

Evan, M. B., & Chan-Gon, K. (June 01, 2010). Creativity Management in Public Organizations. Public Performance & Management Review, 33, 4, 619-652.






Law and Constitution in Canada the Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

Description of the Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

The subject of abortion for some time has troubled the Canadian society. This is because it is an issue that involved widely varying and deeply held viewpoints about rights of an individual, women’s role, moral norms, and the societal responsibilities (Dunsmuir, 1). The issue of abortion in the Canadian constitutional law is potentially disruptive and divisive issue. The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the provisions of the criminal code that governs the procedures of abortion in early 1988. Moreover, a new bill for abortion (Bill C-43) was introduced late in 1989 in parliament with the belief that a negotiated legislation would offer solution to the discussion of abortion at the federal level. However, in 1991, the bill was overwhelmed by unprecedented tied in the senate (Dunsmuir, 1).

The attitudes towards the issue of abortion throughout history have been influenced by social mores, religious principles, and attitudes towards family and the women. Of late, the attitudes towards abortion have increasingly been influenced by advances in the technology as well as, including safer and simpler techniques of abortion, and improved techniques for understanding development of the fetus (Dunsmuir, 1).

In the constitutional law, the abortion issue has elicited considerable discussion over the limits  of the responsibilities of the federal government, or their jurisdiction over abortion. This is for the reason that abortion is a health issue and needs a medical procedure. If to the desirable extent to ban abortions, or create the situations under which abortions cannot be done, then the federal government will have the jurisdiction, since moral reasons or prohibition of action of health is constitutional linked to criminalization. However, if the desirable extent for abortion regulation, or the conditions under which abortion regulations can be performed, then the government shall have the jurisdiction and the duty and right to regulate such issues of health (Dunsmuir, 1).



Principles of Fundamental Justice as the basis for assessing the abortion issue

principles of fundamental justice, according to CCLN, refers to the principles against which the laws that are potentially infringing must be measured if they are in compliance with section 7 of the charter. This section is concerned with the security, liberty and life of a person. It states that everyone has the right to security, liberty and life as well as the right not to be deprived of these rights in line with the fundamental justice principles (1).

The enumerated rights under section 7 of the charter can be compromised in the cases where the laws regarded as infringing are in accordance with the fundamental justice principles (Canlii – 1988 Canlii 90 (SCC)). This implies that within the justice system, there are core values that must prevail over these rights for the society’s greater good. These include substantive guarantees and natural justice (Re B.C. Motor Vehicle Act, [1985]).

In 1983, Dr. Henry Morgentaler with other two physicians were charged for procuring miscarriages illegally. When the case reached the supreme court, several legal matters had been reduced effectively as whether the criminal code’s abortion requirements, in an way that is not justified, infringed on the woman’s right to security, liberty and life as guaranteed under section 7 of the charter (Dunsmuir, 1). In their decision, all the judges agreed that section 251 (now 287) of the criminal code infringed on the right to security of the woman. Also, the processes by which a woman was deprived of this right was not in accordance to the fundamental justice. These decisions echo a finding by Wilson J. who in 1969 found that abortion law was in accord with the fundamental justice principles (Dunsmuir, 1).

Political implications

Abortion laws in Canada has for many years been controversial and sensitive politically. With removal of some unconstitutional provisions in the criminal code, this may elicit anti-abortion movements sentiments as well as those opposed to abortion laws. Back then and today, the issue of abortion has remained political and divisive and condemned by both sides, that is the pro-life and the pro-choice camps. The pro-choice camp consider abortion as a individual issue that should be decided by the expectant woman and not by the state (Long, 1). Throughout 1970s and 1980s, the pro-choice (those looking for abortion legalization and its funding by the public) and the pro-life camp (those seeking abortion law that is stricter) organized huge rallies and demonstrations.

However, since the ruling of 1988, abortion issue has continued being a hot political issue. As a result, the governments and the federal political parties since 1990 have avoided the topic of abortion in their legislative debate, favoring the supreme court to have the final word instead of enacting new legislation that would either make the present system formal, or in some way change it. Some individual members of parliament on many occasions have brought to the floor private member bills in the past decades (both sides of the debate on abortion). However, none of these bills have passed the House of Commons and so none has become a law (Long, 1).

Should constitutional or legal rules relating to the abortion issue be changed?

This paper is of the opinion that the legal or constitutional rules relating to the abortion issue should be changed. This view is also supported by the federal government in Canada since they have started the processes of stripping sections of the Canada’s criminal code that are outdated. In landmark Supreme Court ruling in 1988 that favored Dr. Henry Morgentaler, the court found the prohibition against abortion to be unconstitutional. However, the text that outlawed forced miscarriage was never expunged from the books (Harris, 1).

Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould earlier this year stated that if the government is going to remove the provisions of the abortion from the criminal code or making a link to the discussion of abortion, the Canadian government without equivocation acknowledges and recognizes the women’s constitutional rights and taking the courageous steps to make sure it expunges the section from the criminal code (Harris, 1).

Harris also pointed out that the experts in criminal justice have been calling on the government to enact reforms on the code which they state that is composed of laws that are outdated, inconsistent language and duplications (1). For instance, Stephen Coughlan, a law professor at Dalhousie University indicated that a wider overhaul is needed

Lastly, the paper is also of the opinion that the enforcement system/ penalty system for the rules be changed to increase compliance with the rules. This is because this provisions in the criminal code criminalizes the conscience and a moral decision of whether or not to terminate pregnancy. This violates the freedoms of conscience that is protected by section 2(a) of the charter, and is not in accord with the fundamental justice (Dunsmuir, 1).

Work cited

“Canlii – 1988 Canlii 90 (SCC).” N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <>

CCLN. “Principles Of Fundamental Justice – Canadian Criminal Law Notebook.” N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

Dunsmuir, Mollie. “Abortion: Constitutional And Legal Developments (89-10E).” N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <>

Harris, Kathleen. “Government Moves To Strip Abortion Law From Criminal Code.” CBC News. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <>

Long, Linda. “Abortion In Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <>

Re B.C. Motor Vehicle Act, [1985] 2 SCR 486, 1985 CanLII 81 (SCC), <>, retrieved on 2017-10-06

A List of Causal Essay Topics to Write

A List of Causal Essay Topics to Write

A List of Causal Essay Topics to Write

The causal essay is much like a cause and effect essay, but there’s a subtle difference in the minds of some instructors. The causal essay could address more complicated topics, whilst the cause and effect essay might address smaller or more straightforward topics. Your aim within a causal essay assignment is straightforward! you have to put together a listing of events or factors which bring about a certain outcome.

You have to make a connection between every cause and the ultimate effect. The most typical difficulty students face in writing a causal essay is operating from causes to chat about. Be sure to sketch out an outline before you start writing the first draft of your outline. Your essay should include a strong introduction, very good transition words, and a nicely worded conclusion.

You should use a subject from this list, or use the list as an inspiration for your very own idea.

  • What conditions and events led to the Great Depression?
  • What stimulates a change in fashion trends?
  • Why do some persons fear darkness?
  • How were footprints left by some dinosaurs?
  • What causes criminal behavior?
  • What causes individuals to rebel against authority?
  • What conditions lead to a powerful storm?
  • What developments have led to regional accents in the USA?
  • Do good students become truant?
  • What causes war?
  • What factors can lead to birth defects?
  • How are insurance premiums determined?
  • What factors can lead to obesity?
  • What can lead to evolution to occur?
  • does unemployment increase?
  • do some people develop several personalities?
  • How does the construction of the earth change?
  • What factors can lead to bulimia nervosa? What makes a marriage fail?
  • What developments and conditions have led to the Declaration of Independence?
  • What led to the decrease of the automobile industry?
  • What factors led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
  • Did the Grand Canyon form?
  • Did slavery replace servitude from the American colonies?
  • How has popular music been affected by technology?
  • How has racial tolerance changed over time?
  • What led to the Dot Com bubble burst
  • What makes the stock market to collapse?
  • How does scarring occur?
  • How does soap work?
  • What causes a surge in nationalism?
  • do a little bridges collapse?
  • was Abraham Lincoln assassinated?
  • How can we receive the numerous variations of the Bible?
  • What factors contributed to unionization?
  • How does a tsunami form?
  • What events and factors contributed to women’s suffrage
  • Did electrical automobiles neglect initially?
  • How do animals become extinct?
  • Some tornadoes are more destructive than others?
  • What factors led to the conclusion of feudalism?
  • What led to the Martian Stress from the 1930 s?
  • How did medicine change in the nineteenth century?
  • How does gene therapy work?
  • What factors can lead to famine?
  • What factors led to the rise of governments that are democratic in the 18th century?
  • How did baseball become a national pastime in the USA?
  • What was the effect of Jim Crow legislation on black citizens in the USA?
  • What factors have led to the increase of imperialism?
  • Did the Salem witch trials take place?
  • How did Adolf Hitler come to power?