Water Pollution and Shortages in Israel

Jul 23, 2019 | 0 comments

Jul 23, 2019 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

The History of Israel

Fig. 1. Israel

Israel is a country located in the Middle East to the North West of the Mediterranean Sea. Neighboring nations include Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, and the region West Bank and Gaza Strip (Blumberg 5). Regardless of its small size, Israel has a range of habitation to a variety of geographic features, beginning from the North whereby mountain ranges are found, the Negev desert located in the south, and the East whereby the Jordan Rift Valley is found. Blumberg states that Israel is a narrow small sized state with borders that are continually disputed (8). The state of Maryland and Israel has a comparable geographical size. Israel has amazing ranges of landscape, such as wide continuous mountains, fertile river valleys, and a desert.

The area of the Dead Sea that is covered by an area of 1300 feet and 400 metres below sea level is located in Israel and is the lowest part on earth.The country experiences a minimal amount of rainfall which is insufficient to give adequate amount of moisture required for the entire dry season ,thus insufficient water has always been an issue bearing in mind water pollution has raised at a high a rate. This has led to the development and implementation of alternative sophisticated irrigation methods to coup up with the situation. Walter et.al point out that despite the country being located in a semi-desert region it has managed to come up with enough productive arable (farmable) land to cultivate approximately all types of food enough for the citizens. (28).

Fig. 2. Israel geographical location on the World Map

The larger group of Israelites amounting to ninety per cent of the population lives in cities of Israel (Blumberg 22). According to Turpin, this group of people makes the highest percentage of activities that result to physical healthiness. For example, proper diet, ensuring that all meals are balanced and taking a lot of water usage and at the same time, they result in a high amount of water pollution (19). The rest of the ten per cent live in the communal farm Inkibutzim and Moshavimor in other small villages. Thousands of Bedouin Arabs over 110,000 have scattered all through the entire Negev desert. Nevertheless, pollutions mostly happen in large cities. Whereas, Jerusalem, Tel Aviv-Yafo and Haifa are the largest cities.

The current country of Israel was started in the year 1948 to be home for the Jews who had faced exile for nearly two thousand years. Most Jewish people coming from almost all nations of the world have moved back to Israel. According to Keremane, this has brought a society that is very different leading to the rapid population growth of Israel being greater than double the number in the last four years (32). Majority of the Jews from Western and Eastern Europe found their way in Israel to free themselves from persecution. Between the year 1989 and 1992, nearly five hundred thousand new immigrants flocked into the country. Alterman points out that these immigrants had a huge impact on the environment especially in the water sector (27). Most of these people were coming from the former Union of Soviet and almost the whole population of Jews who live in Ethiopia.

Apart from the Jews alone, Israel has a considerable number of non-Jews who fit in with the Israelites.Majority are Druze, Christian and Arabs—Muslim. The Baha’i faiths world centre is located in Israel .Also ,there is a small but important number of Bedouin who were formerly nomadic herders who are trying now to transit to a life that is settled.

Israel has been at war for many years and its Arab neighbors leading to tremendous losses and influence to the environment according to Miller et.al, Christian Arabs and Muslims feel that both of them have a claim to the land of Israel (32). It is the spiritual and historical centre of their religious beliefs. Therefore, this pushes both parties further to struggle year by year to perceive their land rights. This has put Arabic Israelites in a very difficult and confusing state resulting in high tensions within the society in Israeli. Miller et.al explains that the government has started all the necessary programs in attempt to bring a reduction in these growing tensions by clearly putting forth all their differences and improving their conditions of the disadvantaged minorities (39). Measures have also been put in place to improve encourage collaboration among the different departments and elements of the country’s population (Miller et.al. 41)

Possibly the most unique fact in the society of Israel in the present time is that, a new cohort of unique Jews is developing almost becoming a total majority in the country for the first time in nearly two thousand years (Blumberg 45). Identified as the Sabras Israeli native born, the new young generation has developed rapidly forming a very distinctive self-image. Blumberg expresses that, unlike their grandparents or parents, they have not had the experience of living at the verge of persecution being a minority group in the societies where they live (48).

Water Pollution and Shortages in Israel

In the near future, impact on our environment. Sometimes I find myself moving from the city and take a walk in the countryside where we have trees and fresh water pollution has been one of the focal phenomenons that have cost the country economically, politically and also socially. Water being the country’s backbone for food generation, Israel has experienced water pollution for many decades and this has resulted in too many challenges. According to Becker effects of company privatization in productivity growth and performance output. This article discusses about the water has been a national basic resource of significant importance for decades (24). organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water is necessary in ensuring that all the population’s welfare as well as the level of living quality and also the preservation of the rural based agricultural sector. For many decades Israel has over history endured a long-standing organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water shortage. However, In recent years, the situation has become chronic that it holds fear that by the time the coming summer approaches it may be critical to supply enough water to the municipal as well as household requirements. The ongoing cumulative shortage in Israel’s organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water resources that are renewable it accumulates to approximately two billion cubic meters, this is an amount almost equal in comparison to the annual usage by all State. The shortfall has also led to the quality deterioration of mobile aquifer-able organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water resources which have become saline and polluted over the years.

The root of this entire crisis is both man-made and natural. Israel has been suffering for four continuous years of drought. There has been a continuous rise in demand for domestic utilization of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water in the country. This is due to the growing population each and every year and rising of the standard of living day in day out. Cumulated with the great need of water supply in line with international undertakings has resulted to over-utilization of water resources which are renewable. Besides, there have been policies in the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water sector, specifically in the past ten years, together with the constant absenteeism of sufficient effort facing the imminent water shortage situation, has contributed anonymously to the severity of the present adversity.

The agricultural sector has been the most affected part as a result of the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water crisis (Tal 44). Due to the shortage of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water, water allocation has drastically reduced leading to a decrease in the level of agricultural productivity. This present crisis has brought about to the realization of an active master plan for the policy. Operational as well as institutional changes have to be put in place to focus on the stabilization of the entire situation and to upgrade Israel’s organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water crisis with a long-lasting perspective. Moreover, the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water problem in the world is a result of several simultaneous factors such as increased population, reduced rainfall, as well as the rapid growth of unplanned communities have all gathered together to use the water amount that is available to the human species.

The Causes of Water Pollution and Water Shortages in Israel

The organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water crisis in Israel has been gradually been worsening up to date. There are diverse reasons explaining the causes of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water shortages. Israel is located in a region that is semi-arid and has minimal organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water sources; Israel’s population is rapidly growing; the living standards is gradually rising similarly with the water per capita consumption. There have been quite a number of succeeding years of drought in the past years.  Other than the above causes, there are many other ways in which organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water has been polluted in the country. Most of these reasons are as a result of human nature. Most people tend to assume the outcome but in the end, they are the same victim. Some of these mishaps are;

Firstly, the unsafe disposal of unsanitary sewage and garbage; the country is yet to come up with garbage and sewage systems that are sufficient enough for the whole population. The systems that are there are very old and were not purposed for such a large and increasing population. Until the present day, some areas in Israel have no facilities to treat sewage so all system just flows into the valleys and rivers. Much of wastes in Israel such as garbage or solid wastes are burned, buried, or abandoned in garbage dumps where it rots. The garbage’s are burned in open-air pits. Few amounts of the trash are recycled. The overall handling of garbage has great damage to Israel’s environments and its citizens in more ways. This adds up to the air and organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water bodies leading to pollution thus creates an environment to breed flies, mosquitoes and rats.

Fig.3. Unsafe disposal of garbage

Secondly, Industrialization is the major cause of pollution in Israel. The cities of Ashdod and Haifa had the biggest challenge because of its location near a chemical production plants, oil refinery and an Israel Electric Company. Thirdly, according to Gugger water pollution has greatly ruined some of the major meeting the consumer needs. In the case of the café, the consumers often need to eat, fresh and tastefully prepared food sources of Israel (54). Chemical waste Sewage and polluted organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water are continuously being dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each and every year. In some cases such as in Haifa harbor, fish have been regarded inconsumable due to the high presence of mercury found in the fish.

Fourthly, the lacking garbage systems and sewage have caused damage to the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water supply in Israel. These have led the sewage to end up in valleys, rivers, and also sometimes into the sea. The organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water underground also contaminates with the water underground. There has been a case whereby a heap of garbage got collapsed on the Ayalon River. This led to blocking the flow of the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water completely and also contamination of large mass of water.

Water pollution and shortages have brought about quite a significant impact over the entire nation of Israel, these impacts range from social impacts on economic impacts and even to political impacts.

Social Impacts

Firstly, due to this organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water contamination, Israel is running into a point where a minimal amount of water will be available for drinking. This situation of insufficient organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water is only going to get worse over the years. Ben-Shaul in his book, the mega life, in an article discussion on organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water pollution in Israel, Ben referred a time when a footbridge in Israel collapsed into the Yarkon River and a group of many people ended up drowning in the water. Some of the victims got sick due to drinking water contaminated with chemicals while others died from the same. Secondly, this became so that it was dramatically highlighted for many months. Most of the people who suffered were Australian athletes who were taking part in the Maccabi Games competitions until they are tragically thrown into the river below which was highly polluted by chemical contamination. Those who died subsequently was not due to consuming a lot of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water but basically from the insidious level of poisoning due to the exposure they had from the toxic chemicals.

Thirdly, one notable consequence of the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water shortage in Israel is the Dead Sea’s rapid level of shrinking. Jordan River is the main source of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water for the dead sea. Today, the river has once become contaminated as organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water is diverted for domestic and agricultural uses. This has created large sinkholes in the sea as the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water disappears and make it be really hazardous to be close the sea in particular areas. In addition, in recent time Israel is facing crisis as a result of the rise in large mass of garbage as well as solid-wastes while the country has inadequate land resource. Wachs in his research states that the groundwater, soil and air in the country have greatly been damaged by Solid-waste disposal beyond irreversible (62). In the year 2000, then-Israeli Minister Environmental Mr.Dalia Itzik identified garbage disposal in Israel’s as the leading environmental problem.

Lastly, Israel’s key organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water sources are predicted to continue to constantly decline, thus becoming an endangerment of the quality drinking-water, and thus raising the specter level that it will soon not be possible to supply adequate drinking water.

Political Impacts

Rouyer points out that water shortages will sooner result to an increased level political instability, political unrest, war as well as more likely displacement of high population (160). This will mainly be due to little capital for individuals to venture into the grocery vending business using carts as advised by Michimi & Wimberl (2010). They would aid bring healthy food providence by the government due to less amount of manufactured food in local food industries. Therefore the majority of the people in Israel live a lowly life.

Economic Impacts

First of all, organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water pollution in Israel has Threatened Extinction of plants and Animal Species. organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water pollution in Israel has had a destructive influence on the animals more so the birds. The number of cormorants, pelicans and starlings in Israel has been reducing mainly because most of the crops and water sources have been ruined.

Fig.4. Endangered animals

Moreover, most of the pollution from urban areas and tourist who visits the country all lead to this serious environmental concern. Numerous corals reefs of Eilat are on the high end of local extinction. This has led to less land hence affecting migrating birds which scouts annually along their migrations in such for new pasture and capital for individuals to venture into the grocery vending business using carts as advised by Michimi & Wimberl (2010). They would aid bring healthy food. Also, diverse animal species are on intimidate of extinction as their habitations are being replaced by highways, housing and other projects.

Thirdly, half of the drinking water and boreholes facilities in Israel have been closed in less than two decades due to the high level of contamination, a report conducted by the Water Authority. Figures also show that during this period, other important facilities were also at risk of closure. Between the year 1998 and 2015; about 40 % of the drilling sites were literally closed due to pollution from local industries and factories. Numerous of them were located on the coastal aquifer one of Israel’s two leading aquifers. During the end of the 1990s, nearly all drilling facilities were also shut down because of pollution (water) from fertilizers used in agriculture or caused by penetrating sea water to fresh water aquifers. In the immense majority of cases, the focal motive of contamination were majorly the factories connected to the security industry. These have since been closed.

Fig.5. Drilling site for water extraction

Besides, the shutdown of the affected drilling sites restrains the extraction of more than one hundred and one million cubic meters of water in a year, an amount equal to the production of a larger desalination plant with more ability.

Solution and Recommendations

The only way to find water and make proper use of it is to ensure efficient utilization and good storage systems. To make sure distribution is always ahead of demand, a discussion is needed to find out where to get water, use it and what to do with it afterwards. We require procurement methods for usable water, not only from rivers and lakes as well as the rain but moreover from the seas and our own domestic wastes. We urgently need efficient methods of farming that are modified to use much and less amounts of water, together with better ways to reduce contamination and leakages. Policies are needed which encourage good disposal of waste products without hindering our lifestyle and economic growth.

Israel is one of the countries that has put in place the greatest resources, cultural attention and innovations to the menace of water scarcity. Israel is founded on a dryer stripped land than New Hampshire, occupied with absorption of huge numbers of immigrants, therefore the country has been in difficult point worrying year by year about water over many years. Today the country is,

Leading others on ways of solving different types of problems such as farming efficiency, water distribution and supply, efforts to curb with water leakage, desalination, recycling of waste products, pricing policies, and providing educations. This has led to water revolution unlike any other place in the continent; a revolution which is not only for technology but also for culture, thoughts and policy. Due to these reasons, Israelis is at the heart of position more than any other country to tackle most of the water crisis globally.

Efforts Made By Israel to Tackle the Crisis

There is an established division head of water authorities with a conference on how to manage water pollution and environmental ground at the Eretz located in Israel Museum in Tel Aviv. The Institute of Energy and Environmental organization in Israel together with water cooperation Authority have come up with other Environmental Protection Ministries. Secondly, the increase in industrial pollution in recent years has become critical. A number of security factories have come up with operations in the areas vacated. Moreover, the Water Authority has also increased its surveillance to the factories.

In addition, the Water Authority of Israel has come up with a system of around one thousand three hundred drilling sites along the risk of contamination from the waste sites, fuel facilities and industrial areas can be located in advance.

Not to mention that the state has recently come up with advancing programs on how to manage the aquifers and ground contaminated groundwater in order to gate away with the obstacles to implementing house construction proposals. As per Rouyer, amongst other ways, sooner the contaminated aquifers alongside the boundaries of Givatayim and Tel Aviv, whereby the pollution had been caused by the military companies that were operating around the area (85). The reformation project will give room for the erection of one thousand housing subdivisions in the area if it was to be treated earnestly.

Fig.6. River Rehabilitation

Nevertheless, due to water shortage in Israel, alternative sources of water including the surface water sources and underground water surfaces. Water is grouped into three alternative sources: floodwater purified Sewage water for irrigating crops trapped in dams and desalinated seawater (Tal 66). Tal elaborates that there is numerous amount of floodwater, sewage water, saline and salt water within Israel which are not being perfectly utilized (66). Setting aside this water as well as modify its quality with the most appropriate technology will impressively increase the volume of available water.

The Negev Desert in Israel is a nice example of how water reservoirs create a real change in the quality of people’s lives to the local residents. As a result of forty per cent cut in water distribution over the past recent years, majority of the farmers had been obligated to stop working theirs on fields. It is a terrible sight to drive along the Negev desert and see the renounced fields that have no farms anymore (Laster, Richard & Dan 75). The re-used water creates a possibility for these farms to once again become productive, along with other fields that were not previously cultivated. This contribution is not only to Israel’s water development but also is the best way to discharge valuable freshwater for domestic and drinking rather than in agricultural use. Laster, Richard and Dan indicate that the recycled water is lesser by 50% less than the fresh water, which helps farmers in the Negev desert to make a living out of their dry land.

Six new reservoirs have been constructed in the Negev desert for storing clean effluents from the area Beersheba and the nearby villages, together with sewage from the Republic of Palestinian Authority around the Hebron regions. Together With the help of these water reservoirs, all Ofakim’s and Beersheba sewage will be reused for agricultural purposes, hence contributing both to the agricultural sector and also in protecting the water nature in the aquifers that were the source of water for drinking. In his words, Dror Karvina a director in the Unit for Economic Development in the Shimon Bnei Regional Council said The water reservoirs will enable the possibility of increasing agricultural areas, administering a source of means for hundreds of people and their families in the Negev, including manufacturers and farmers agricultural supplements.

In conclusion, Most of the rivers especially those that flow through sparse areas which are highly more polluted when put in comparison with rivers in the United States of America and Europe. This proves that Israel has serious water pollution that needs to be addressed.

Works Cited

Alterman, Rachelle. Planning in the Face of Crisis: Land Use, Housing and Mass Immigration in Israel. London: Routledge, 2002. Internet resource.

Becker, Nir. Water Policy in Israel: Context, Issues and Options. Dordrecht: Springer, 2013. Internet resource.

Blumberg, Arnold. The History of Israel. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1998. Intervention Programs. BioMed Central Ltd, 2012. Internet resource.

Breckle, Siegmar-W, MaikVeste, and Walter Wucherer. Sustainable Land Use in Deserts. Berlin: Springer, 2001. Print.

Gugger, Harry. Israel Lessons: Industrial Arcadia. , 2017. Print

Keremane, Ganesh. Governance of Urban Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture: A Framework for Understanding and Action in Metropolitan Regions. , 2017. Intervention Programs. BioMed Central Ltd, 2012. Internet resource.

Laster, Richard, and Dan Livney. Environmental Law in Israel. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2011. Print.

Miller, Char, Alon Tal, and Daniel E. Orenstein. Between Ruin and Restoration: An Environmental History of Israel. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2013. marketing strategies developed in Phase I. Identify and pursue additional guest markets, i.e. Internet resource.

Rouyer, Alwyn R. Turning Water into Politics: The Water Issue in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict. Houndmills [England: Macmillan Press, 2000. Print.

Tal, Alon. Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 2002. marketing strategies developed in Phase I. Identify and pursue additional guest markets, i.e. Internet resource.

Turpin, L. The Environment in Israel. Jerusalem: Ministry of the interior, 1979. Print.

Wachs, A M. Water Quality Research in Israel. Jerusalem: National Council for Research and Development, 1972. Print.

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