TELECOMMUNICATION MARKET IN UAE

Apr 12, 2017 | 0 comments

Apr 12, 2017 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

TELECOMMUNICATION MARKET IN UAE

RESEARCH QUESTION
To what extent does the existing duopoly in the telecommunications sector in the United Arab Emirates encumber the growth of the market and efficiency?
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Abstract

This research paper is about the telecommunication market in the UAE. The essay will address the research question which is “to what extent does the existing duopoly in the telecommunication sector in United Arab Emirates encumber growth of the market ad efficiency. “The essay used both primary and secondary methods of research. The survey was conducted as a primary source while journals, online information, financial reports of the companies provided secondary sources of information. The essay first analyzed the duopolistic theory assumptions and then investigated and compared the behaviors of the two firms in the industry to the features of a duopoly. Moreover, the research paper assessed the duopolistic market structure of the UAE telecommunication market on efficiency and growth by comparing it to the telecommunication market of the United Kingdom. The variables compared between the two firms included the number of firms, pricing, percentage of mobile phone internet users, and the regulation of the industry. The essay also found some unique features of this industry that make it have monopolistic tendencies as much as it is a duopoly. From the research, market assessment, and analysis of the results, the paper concluded that the structure of the United Arab Emirates telecommunications market hinders growth and expansion. The factors that hinder the growth of the market from the assessment include artificial entry barriers between the two firms, high prices for the services provided, weak regulations as the government controls the market, lack of competition. This is unlike the telecommunication market of the United Kingdom which is liberated, has many operators, and charges low

Word count 267

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

List of Figures 4

1.0 Introduction 5

1.1 Reason and importance for the choice of topic 6

2.0 Approach 6

3.0 Theory 7

3.1 Assumptions of theory 7

3.1.1 Number of Firms and Type of Product 7

3.1.2 Entry barriers 8

3.1.3 Interdependence 9

3.2 Effects of assumptions 10

3.2.1 Price 10

3.2.2 Profits 13

4.0 Analysis of Telecom market in UAE 14

4.1 Number of firms and type of product 14

4.2 Entry barriers 15

4.3 Interdependence 16

4.4 Pricing 17

4.5 Profit 18

5.0 Important and unique features of the Telecom Market in the UAE 19

6.0 Evaluation of the UAE Telecommunication market in comparison to the United Kingdom market 21

6.1 Number of firms 21

6.2 Prices 22

6.3 Percentage of Internet Cell Users 27

6.4 Regulation 28

7.0 Conclusion 28

8.0 Bibliography 30

9.0 Appendices 32

9.1 Appendix 1 32

List of Figures

Figure 1 10

Figure 2 11

Figure 3 13

Figure 4 16

Figure 5 16

Figure 6: Total revenue from the annual report of Du in AED millions 18

Figure 7 21

Figure 8 22

Figure 9 23

Figure 10 24

Figure 11 24

Figure 12 25

Figure 13 26

1.0 Introduction

The advancement in technology has revolutionized the telecommunication industry for the past half a century. Through advancement in the telecommunication system, people can communicate, interact online, or virtually without physically seeing each other or through personal contact. Therefore, as technology advances, the need for efficient telecommunication service is of great importance. Therefore, the providers of telecommunication services need to provide consumers efficient and affordable products and services to their clients. The telecommunication market in UAE is a vast industry with two big firms controlling it, are Etisalat and Du. The Telecommunication Regulation Authority is the government body that regulates the telecommunication market in the UAE. Located in the Middle East, the United Arab Emirates has a large market share in telecommunication with approximately 8.2 million subscribers.[1] As much as the market is very big and is controlled by two companies, many challenges hinder the growth and efficiency of the industry. The telecommunication industry has been under a monopoly for three decades with Etisalat as the only company providing the services. However, the entry of Du in 2007 changed the monopoly of one firm to a duopoly.[2] Despite the expansion of the market share of Du, the industry has faced many challenges that hinder efficiency and growth, hence the research question “To what extent does the existing duopoly in the telecommunications sector in the United Arab Emirates encumber growth of the market and efficiency?

1.1 Reason and importance for the choice of topic

My interest in this topic came about coming across an online forum where people were complaining about high rates in the telecommunication industry of UAE. Until then I did not realize that the telecommunication firms were charging high for their services. However, when I checked online about how other countries were being charged, I came to understand why many people were complaining. Another reason was the presence of only two firms in this big industry and yet other countries like the United States had over 300 telecommunication service providers.

The research on this topic is of great importance because of the global economic trends and the need to revolutionize the telecommunication industry globally. For instance, the European Union are in talks on how to merge all telecommunication service providers to provide quality, efficient, and affordable services to consumers. Furthermore, the projection telecom industry by 2017 is expected to grow by $2.7 trillion globally.[3] With the stagnant growth rate of the UAE industry, there is a need to pinpoint some of the issues that have hindered the growth and provision of efficient service in this market. With the projection, the UAE should embrace itself to expand and meet the demands of the consumers as well as position itself strategically for the expansion in the industry.

2.0 Approach

The paper will first discuss the duopoly theory, its assumptions, and its implications. Secondly, certain aspects of the two firms’ operation in the UAE telecommunication market (Etisalat and Du) will be examined, and their relation with the duopoly theory established. Furthermore, the essay will compare and contrast the extent to which this telecommunication market conforms to the duopoly theory.

Thirdly, the duopolistic market structure effect on efficiency and growth will be determined by making comparisons with the telecommunication market of UAE and that of the United Kingdom. Lastly, the assessment will be done on the UAE telecommunication market, and the essay summarized in the conclusion.

The research used both primary and secondary methods of data collection. The survey was used as the primary method where 100 adults were sampled and surveyed through a questionnaire. Purposive sampling was used where any adult who was willing to participate filled the questionnaire. The secondary method involved using financial information of Etisalat and du, online sources, journals, websites of telecommunication firms in the UAE and UK, and textbooks

3.0 Theory

According to economic theory, a duopoly is a market scenario where only two companies own nearly all or all of the market for a particular service or product. The impact of the duopoly on a market can be similar to that of a monopoly if the two companies collude on output and prices.

3.1 Assumptions of the theory

Some of the assumptions of the theory are discussed below

3.1.1 Number of Firms and Type of Product

The number of firms actually in a duopoly market is usually two and they have dominant market control for their services and products. There are two forms or models of duopoly; Cournot duopoly and Bertrand duopoly. In Cournot duopoly, there is a competition between the two industrial firms and is based on the supplied quantity of products. The members of the duopoly mutually agree to divide the market. Therefore, the price each of the two companies will receive for the supplied products is based on items quantity produced, and the two firms react to the product changes of each other until there is equilibrium.[4]

On the other hand, in the Bertrand duopoly, the two firms controlling the market compete based on price.[5] Given that the consumers will buy the cheapest product between two identical products, this results in zero profit price as the two companies try to attract and get more customers, more profits through the cutting of the prices. Price undercutting threats means that this form of duopoly profits and prices are lower generally and the quantities higher compared to Cournot duopolies.[6]

3.1.2 Entry barriers

Entry barriers are particular circumstances to an industry that creates a disadvantage to a potential or e new competitor entering the market.[7] The entry barriers for a firm in a particular market can be created by the firms or even natural. According to Aghion & Maria (2010),[8] entry barriers can also be economic, technological, governmental, and institutional restrictions to participants’ entry into an industry or market

The four main entry barriers relevant to a duopoly are government restrictions, large economies of scale, and high startup costs. These barriers are the main reason for inefficiency and market control by limiting the competitor’s number and hence substitutes availability. According to Nero (2013),[9] the barriers that limit or hinder entry into the market supply-side mean that the buyers have fewer alternatives to buying, and this gives the firms greater control of the market. However, the barriers that limit or hinder entry into the market demand side means that the duopoly firms fewer options for selling and this gives the buyers greater control of the market.

3.1.3 Interdependence

In a duopoly, interdependence is the companies’ awareness about their competition in an industry and is a very significant character in a duopoly. The game theory illustrates how companies’ choices in a duopoly affect the outcome of the market “game.” The game is applied in duopoly to illustrate the interdependent nature of duopoly firms in decision making. One firm arrives at a decision that is based on the expected decision from the other duopoly firm.[10]

Jun & Xavier (2001)[11] concluded that the analysis of the interdependent nature of duopoly firms is that companies make decisions that are “lesser of the two evils” or “second best.”

3.2 Effects of assumptions

3.2.1 Price

Price is the value of a good or a service that will purchase it.[12] Similarly, it can be defined as the quantity of compensation or payment given by one party (buyer) to another party (seller) in exchange for goods and services.

In a duopoly, the assumption is that each firm in the duopoly takes into account the output of its competitors and its own output affects the price and its own profits. Another firm’s output decision will automatically affect the profits of the other firm in the duopoly, and therefore they act strategically by looking at what the other thinks or is doing. The firms in a duopoly are interdependent and their price changes are illustrated in the figure below.

Where;

MC=the constant marginal cost

P1=price level of firm 1

P2=price level of firm 2

The PM= price level of monopoly

Figure 1

The optimum of Firm 1 depends on where the firm has a belief that firm 2 will place its prices. Setting the price below the competitor firm will result in market demand (D).however, for the other firm it is not optimal if it sets its prices just below the marginal cost as that entails negative profits. In simple terms, the best response function of firm 1 is p1“(p2). This will give it an optimal price for every pricing set by the other duopoly market competitor (firm 2).

Figure 1 illustrates the reaction function p1“(p2) of firm 1, with the strategy of each firm on each axis. It indicates that when P2 is below the marginal cost, that is firm 2 sets the price below the MC, prices of firm 1 at marginal cost will be P1=MC. Similarly, when firm 2 set the prices below the monopoly prices but above the MC, then prices of firm 1 will be below that of firm 2. However, when firm 2 set the prices above the markets monopoly prices (PM), then firm 1 will set prices at the monopoly level, that is P1=PM

Figure 2

Since firm 2 and firm 1 has the same marginal cost, their reaction function on pricing is symmetrical in line with the 450 lines as illustrated in figure 2 above. The strategies of the firm will lead to Nash equilibrium where a pair of pricing strategies, in this scenario neither of the firms can increase profits changing price unilaterally. This is shown by the reaction curves intersection at point N in figure 2. At this point P2=P2 “(P1) and P1=P1 “(P2). As indicated in figure 2, point N is where the two firms are setting prices at the marginal cost

Another assumption is where both firms decide to set their prices above the marginal cost. This implies that the firms will get the prices of almost half of the market to a level higher than the marginal cost price. However, by slightly lowering the prices, a firm would control the entire market. Therefore, both firms may be attempted lower as much as they can their prices. However, it is irrational to lower prices below the MC because it would be a loss to a firm. Hence both firms will just lower their prices up to the marginal cost limit.

3.2.2 Profits

Alepuz et al (2008)[13] defined profits as the remaining surplus after deduction of the total costs from the total revenue, and it is also the basis where the computation of the dividend and taxes is based. Similarly, profits can be defined as the money made through investing in a company after all the expenses and costs are paid.

In a duopoly market, two firms operate in a limited market where both firms get profits derived from simultaneous decisions by both firms on how much to produce and their cost functions. This simply means that the two companies aim for maximum profits derived from maximum sales volume and higher prices (high profits).[14] However, the problem is that increasing higher prices for profitability can make a firm lose market share and damage revenue. Therefore, the firms need to seek an approach to maximize both profitability and the market share by setting the optimum price which will be the same with all the companies

Figure 3

If the two firms in a duopoly share equally the market and have the same structures of cost, each firm will maximize profit at the output of Q and each firm will gain the super-normal same level of profit. For instance, in figure 3, if firm A which is assumed to have half the demand of the total market, can maximize profit and still realize an economic profit. Similarly, the other firm in the duopoly market will also maximize profit and earn the same total profits at the same point. Furthermore, in the absence of each firm’s production costs, and/ or demand change (which to each firm may not go equally), neither of the firms has a reason to undercut the other in a duopoly market.

4.0 Analysis of Telecom market in UAE

To categorize the telecommunication market of UAE as a duopoly, the duopoly theories must be by the firms operating in the UAE telecommunication market.

4.1 Number of firms and type of product

Two major firms control the UAE telecommunication market ad this qualifies it to be a duopoly. The major players in the sector include Etisalat and Du. According to Amiri (2012),[15] Etisalat has been in existence in the telecommunication market of UAE for the past three decades and controls 70% of the telecommunication market of UAE while Du controls 30%.

Similarly, both companies provide the same type of products such as video, content, data, voice services using mobile and fixed.

4.2 Entry barriers

The telecommunication market of UAE has many barriers that hinder potential or new entrants. For instance, Keller (2013)[16] pointed out that economies of scale have been a major barrier to many competitors wishing to enter the market. Before being licensed by the regulating authority, the companies’ average costs and output are analyzed to determine their capability.

Cole (2013)[17] indicated that the telecom operators are also benefiting from markets that are protected and also enjoy state patronage. The two companies are highly insulated by the government from any form of external competition. The two companies have competed in limited scenarios and this has benefited the customers. However, their competition scope has always been restricted by the regulators greatly. This is because of the overriding shareholder’s interests which are mostly the entities of the state. This according to Ghoul & Ping (2013)[18] is the biggest barrier to opening up the market for new entrants and competition. For instance, in 2007, Du technically ended the monopoly of Etisalat by launching some service that competed fiercely with the existing Etisalat, but this has been restricted to only the mobile phone service

4.3 Interdependence

There is high interdependence between the two telecom operators in UAE. For instance, there is no virtual competition between the two firms when it comes to the key segments such as cable TV, internet, and fixed-line services. This is because of the restriction of Du to only newly developed Dubai areas where the services of Etisalat are not available. This implies that there is no competition but rather a vision of monopoly.[19]

Similarly, the interdependence between the two companies is also evident from the prepaid mobile charges

Figure 4

Similarly, on the data service charges, collusion is evidence and this also indicates their interdependence.

Figure 5

4.4 Pricing

From the two above figures (figure 4 &5), it indicates that both companies charge prices after making consideration of the reaction of the other firm in the duopoly market. The two strategic pricing strategies used by both Etisalat and Du are to maintain their market share and their profits. Each firm assumes that the output of its competitor and its own input will affect its prices and profits. Etisalat cannot charge higher prices because it will lose the market share to Du, and at the same time Du cannot lower costs because of uncertainty over the reaction of Etisalat, and the possibility of making losses if the costs are below the marginal cost.[20]

4.5 Profit

According to Jabnoun (2013),[21] Etisalat Company registered a growth of 33% in the first half growth compared to a similar period last year. This is equivalent to 3.72 billion Dirham’s profit.[22] The consolidated profits of Etisalat were 10 billion Dirhams. This is an increase of 2.3 billion Dirhams from 2006. On the other hand, this year Du reported that the three months to 31st March, it made a net profit of $133.5 million (490.3 million Dirhams). This was an increase from 467.9 million Dirhams in a similar time period last year.[23]

According to Forbes Middle East 2014, Etisalat recorded net revenue of AED 38.85 billion ($10.6 billion)[24] and a net profit of AED 7.08 billion ($1.93 billion).[25] Moreover, the total capitalization of the marker for Etisalat in 2012 was AED billion ($22 billion).[26]

On the other hand, Du achieved revenues in 2012 of AED 10.16 billion[27] and this was an increase of 14.71% in 2011.[28] Moreover, the revenue of mobile data in 2011 from AED 1.01 billion increased by 74% in 2012 to AED 1.76 billion.[29]

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
2,951 5,339 7,074 8,855 (Gross); 8,539 (Net) 10, 157 (Gross); 9,842 (Net)

Figure 6: Total revenue from the annual report of Du in AED millions

The financial figures of both companies are a strong indication that they making abnormal profits, a similar scenario in duopolies. However, from analysis of the profits of both companies, it is hard to make conclusions whether it is totally because of their duopolistic arrangements or because of other factors such as efficient operations and lower costs of labor that have resulted in their supernormal profits.

5.0 Important and unique features of the Telecom Market in the UAE

This research essay has discussed the duopoly in the UAE telecommunication market and described some of the market features that show that it a duopoly. However, some of the events and unique features that take place in the UAE telecommunication market imply that this market is a form of monopoly.

The first unique feature of the market is the ongoing discussion to enable both companies to share some infrastructures. As much as the sharing of infrastructures is good in boosting the market share and services, the vague picture from the scenario is a form of an invisible merger or a possible acquisition between the two companies.[30] This is a monopolistic tendency that is unique in this telecommunication market.

Another unique monopolistic feature in the UAE telecommunication market pointed out by Al-Jenaibi (2012)[31] is the supervision and control of the market by the Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (TRA). This regulation body has continuously controlled the market, prevented new entrants by cushioning the two firms from external competition. The collusion between du, Etisalat, and the TRA to speak one language, act as one entity, and block competitors make the telecommunication market of UAE be like a monopoly. For instance, the blocking of Skype, which is an online telecommunication operator from operating in the UAE market. Skype charges low rates to its customers or even offer free services, and this was a potential threat to both du and Etisalat. The monopolistic feature is evident when TRA left the decision of blocking Skype to du and Etisalat in 2011.[32]

Another unique feature is the lack of genuine competition but mutual collaboration by the two industry players, or division of monopoly to charge consumers exorbitantly. The duopoly is a government operated through TRA since the government owns 60% of the market share and controls it to protect its interests.[33] The companies charge high prices and because there is no alternative in the market

6.0 Evaluation of the UAE Telecommunication market in comparison to the United Kingdom market

To make an in-depth analysis of whether the UAE telecommunication market is hindering efficiency or growth, a comparison has been made with another telecommunication market, which is the United Kingdom’s telecommunications market. The comparison was done in terms of the latest developments in the telecommunication industry, which is the usage of internet services on mobile phones. The comparison was basically done on users of the cell phone internet. That is every mobile phone that is used for checking emails and for internet browsing. However, this did not include instant messaging services and the calling service. Four aspects were considered for comparison to determine whether the telecommunication market was beneficial or harmful to the users. They include the number of firms in the industry, prices, regulation, and the percentage of cell phone internet users.

6.1 Number of firms

In the United Kingdom, several telecommunication companies control the market UK. The market which has very fierce competition in the broadband, mobile sector, and the digital sector has many industrial players. The major industrial players include Virgin media, British telecom, Cable and Wireless, Orange, COLT Telecom, Kcom, Carphone Warehouse, O2, BSkyB, T-Mobile, and Vodafone.[34]

Figure 7

Form the number of operators in the UK telecommunication industry, shows the existing fierce competitors between the major telecommunication firms. This can be considered as an oligopolistic market unlike duopoly in the United Arab Emirates. In analyzing the two markets in terms of the number of firms, the UK market which has many firms. The high rate of competition and diversity of services has a higher growth rate and efficiency compared to the UAE market which has two firms colluding to overcharge consumers, does not diversify, and lacks competition.[35]

6.2 Prices

In analyzing the internet data usage between UK and UAE, there is a great difference that is seen. For instance, 1st July 2012, the retail cost sending 1MegaByte of data through a mobile network while with EU and roaming fell to 0.7 Euros (70 cents), and it further dropped to 45 cents on July 1st 2013.moreover, the data price further fell this year to a range of 20 cents and 16 cents.[36]

Figure 8

In comparison to mobile data charges in the UAE, it is clear the difference in prices of both countries. Currently, retail data per MB is 20 cents (AED 0.95), and in wholesale, it is 5 cents (AED 0.24). This very low compared to AED 25 for 10 MB mobile internet in the UAE.

Figure 9

Similarly, the results from the survey also showed that the UAE market was charging higher prices. The summary of the results are below

  1. Reasons why people have no internet services on their cell phones in the UAE
  • Too expensive 70%
  • Poor quality 15%
  • Do not need the service 12%
  • Other 3%
46
49 Too Expensive
Poor Quality
Don’t need the service
87 89 Others
81 83
69 70
46 51
29 29
8 9
Source: Office for National Statistics

Figure 10

  1. Is the internet expensive or not?
  • Yes 85%, No 15%

Figure 11

  1. What do you think of internet service prices in the UK compared to UAE?
  • Lower 75%, similar 25%, higher 0%

Figure 12

The survey results indicated that cell phone internet services are very high. About 70% of those who have no internet services in their cell phones is because of the high prices. Moreover, for those who have, 85% feel that the prices are extremely high. Similarly, for those surveyed who have experience or have ever used their cell phone internet services in the UK, 75% responded that the UK prices were lower; while 25% said that they were similar. However, no respondent said UK cell phone internet prices were higher. This reaffirmed the data the essay presented in figure 8 &9

The inference from both secondary and primary data of the research indicated that the UAE telecommunication market high prices are tendencies of the duopoly to collude and have a big impact on prices compared to the UK where there many firms, and therefore difficult to collude since there are many alternative firms.

6.3 Percentage of Internet Cell Users

Table 8: Internet use on a mobile phone, 2010 to 2013 in the UK (Millions)
        %
2010 2011 2012 2013
         
All 24 36 51 53
Men 29 42 56 57
Women 19 30 46 49
Age group
16-24 43 70 87 89
25-34 44 62 81 83
35-44 30 46 69 70
45-54 21 29 46 51
55-64 9 16 29 29
65+ 2 3 8 9
Base: Adults (aged 16+) in Great Britain
Source: Office for National Statistics

Figure 13

It is evident from the statistics that the UK has more cell phone internet users compared to UAE. This indicates that the UK has a higher penetration rate due to low prices and many internet providers than UAE.

6.4 Regulation

The Office of Communications (Ofcom) is the regulatory and competition authority that is approved by the government of the UK for postal, telecommunications, and broadcasting in the UK.[37] The body has a wide range of powers from radio, television, Postal, and telecom sectors, and has a duty to represent the consumer’s and citizens’ interests by protecting the public and promoting competition from offensive and harmful material.[38] Ofcom also presides over research, licensing, policies and codes, competition, complaints, and protecting spectrum of radio from abuse

On the other hand, the Telecommunication Regulation Authority regulates the telecom industry in UAE but the body colludes with the two firms operating in the market to block new entrants, charge high prices, and is controlled by the government.

7.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, this research essay has shown how the telecommunication market of UAE is a duopoly. The essay discussed the duopoly theory, its assumptions, and related it to the tendencies of the two firms which the major players in the telecommunication sector in UAE. From the analysis and comparison of the market to that of the UK, the conclusion has been that the market of UAE has hindered growth and efficiency through its only two operating firms, artificial entry barriers, high prices, low number of users, and weak regulations by TRA. Therefore, there is a need to transform the sector by introducing new competitors and liberalizing the market to offer consumers choices and reduce prices. In addressing the research question, the essay concludes that the duopolistic nature of the market has hindered growth and efficiency.

8.0 Bibliography

“Etihad Etisalat (Mobily): Saudi Arabia“. 2008. Project Finance. 90

<http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-316654>

Aghion, Philippe, and Maria Paz Espinoza. 2010. Dynamic duopoly with learning through market experimentation. Paris: CEPREMAP.

Al Mehairbi, Rawdha Khamis, and Yoosuf Khamis Cader. 2012. ““Customer Service in an Emerging Market (UAE)”.

Alepuz, María Dolores, José J. Sempere, and Amparo Urbano. 2008. Duopoly price communication. [Valencia]: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas.

Al-Jenaibi, Badreya. 2012. ““Public Relations Practitioners, Independency, and Teamwork in the UAE Organizations”.

Amiri, Shaima Yousef. 2012. A model of telecommunication sector development and economic growth in GCC countries: a case study of UAE. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah.

Cole, Alex. 2013. Analysis of Etisalat. Munich: GRIN Verlag GmbH. <http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2013091819270.>

Emirates Telecommunications Corporation Ltd. 2014. United Arab Emirates telephone directory. Abu Dhabi [UAE]: Emirates Telecommunications Corp.

Ghoul, Ali El, and Ping Gao. 2011. Transformation of the mobile telecommunication industry in a developing country: a case of UAE. Manchester: University of Manchester.

God, Ahmed El. 2011. “ICT and Gender Inequality in the Middle East”.

Great Britain. 2014. Internet access – households and individuals. London: Office of National Statistics].

Great Britain. 2014. The Ofcom broadcasting code. London: Ofcom.

Industry report telecoms and technology. 2010. New York: Economist Intelligence Unit. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/direct.asp?db=bth&jid=9350&scope=site.

International Conference on Networked Digital Technologies, and Rachid Benlamri. 2012. Networked digital technologies 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012. Proceedings. Part I Part I. Berlin: Springer. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30507-8.>

Jabnoun, N. 2013. “Perceptions Towards ISO Certification in the UAE Telecommunication Company”. ASIA PACIFIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW. 8: 201-216. <https://search.proquest.com/openview/915a7ad3802dfc8955394a468400c5e4/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1246353>

Jun, Byoung, and Xavier Vives. 2001. Incentives in a dynamic duopoly. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Keller, Kevin Lane. 2013. Strategic brand management. Pearson.

Lyn Suzanne Amine, and Golam Mostafa Khan. 2014. “Saudi Telecom: an example of accelerated internationalization”. Journal of Islamic Marketing. 5 (1): 71-96.

Nero, Giovanni. 2013. Spatial multiproduct duopoly pricing. Florence: European University Institute.

Pyramid Research (Firm). 2009. Communications markets in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Cambridge, MA: Pyramid Research.

Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Sharon Eisner Gillett, and Ingo Vogelsang. 2009. Competition, regulation, and convergence: current trends in telecommunications policy research. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Trefgarne, George. 2013. OFCOM is watching you. London: Centre for Policy Studies.

Westminster Media Forum. 2014. The Ofcom public service broadcasting review. London: Westminster Forum Projects Ltd.

9.0 Appendices

9.1 Appendix 1

Questionnaire- Cell Phone Internet Survey

I am researching my IB essay to find out the usage of mobile phone internet in the UAE among adults. Mobile phone internet services do not include instant messaging and Wi-Fi. Only fill this form if it applies to you and you currently own a phone. Please tick appropriately and thank you for your time

  1. What age bracket do you fall under?
  • 18-25
  • 26-40
  • 41-50
  • 51-60
  • 61-70
  • 71+
  1. What is your gender?
  • Male
  • Female
  1. Do you use internet service on your cell phone?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. If you don’t have an internet service provided by UAE, what is the main reason for not having it?
  • It is expensive
  • Poor quality of services
  • I don’t need the service
  • Other
  1. If you are having the cell phone internet service provided by UAE providers, are the rates high?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. If you have been to the UK with your mobile phone, how can you compare the prices of the UK and UAE?
  • Higher
  • Lower
  • Similar
  1. Pyramid Research (Firm). 2009. Communications markets in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Cambridge, MA: Pyramid Research.
  2. Amiri, Shaima Yousef. 2012. A model of telecommunication sector development and economic growth in GCC countries: a case study of UAE. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah.
  3. Cole, Alex. 2013. Analysis of Etisalat. Munich: GRIN Verlag GmbH
  4. Alepuz, María Dolores, José J. Sempere, and Amparo Urbano. 2008. Duopoly price communication. [Valencia]: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas.
  5. Nero, Giovanni. 2013. Spatial multiproduct duopoly pricing. Florence: European University Institute.
  6. Ibid
  7. Jun, Byoung, and Xavier Vives. 2001. Incentives in a dynamic duopoly. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
  8. Aghion, Philippe, and Maria Paz Espinoza. 2010. Dynamic duopoly with learning through market experimentation. Paris: CEPREMAP.
  9. Nero, Giovanni. 2013. Spatial multiproduct duopoly pricing. Florence: European University Institute.
  10. Ibid.,44
  11. Jun, Byoung, and Xavier Vives. 2001. Incentives in a dynamic duopoly. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
  12. Alepuz, María Dolores, José J. Sempere, and Amparo Urbano. 2008. Duopoly price communication. [Valencia]: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas.
  13. Alepuz, María Dolores, José J. Sempere, and Amparo Urbano. 2008. Duopoly price communication. [Valencia]: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas.
  14. Nero, Giovanni. 2013. Spatial multiproduct duopoly pricing. Florence: European University Institute.
  15. Amiri, Shaima Yousef. 2012. A model of telecommunication sector development and economic growth in GCC countries: a case study of UAE. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah.
  16. Keller, Kevin Lane. 2013. Strategic brand management. Pearson.
  17. Cole, Alex. 2013. Analysis of Etisalat. Munich: GRIN Verlag GmbH.<http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-2013091819270.>
  18. Ghoul, Ali El, and Ping Gao. 2011. Transformation of the mobile telecommunication industry in developing countries: a case of UAE. Manchester: University of Manchester.
  19. “”Etihad Etisalat (Mobily): Saudi Arabia“”. 2008. Project Finance. 90
  20. International Conference on Networked Digital Technologies, and Rachid Benlamri. 2012. Networked digital technologies 4th International Conference, NDT 2012, Dubai, UAE, April 24-26, 2012. Proceedings. Part I Part I. Berlin: Springer. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30507-8.>
  21. Jabnoun, N. 2013. “Perceptions Towards ISO Certification in the UAE Telecommunication Company”. ASIA PACIFIC MANAGEMENT REVIEW. 8: 201-216.
  22. Industry report telecoms and technology. 2010. New York: Economist Intelligence Unit. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/direct.asp?db=bth&jid=9350&scope=site.
  23. Ibid
  24. Emirates Telecommunications Corporation Ltd. 2014. United Arab Emirates telephone directory. Abu Dhabi [UAE]: Emirates Telecommunications Corp.
  25. Ibid.,101
  26. Ibid.,103
  27. Lyn Suzanne Amine, and Golam Mostafa Khan. 2014. “Saudi Telecom: an example of accelerated internationalization”. Journal of Islamic Marketing. 5 (1): 71-96.
  28. Ibid
  29. Ibid.,88
  30. Al Mehairbi, Rawdha Khamis, and Yoosuf Khamis Cader. 2012. “Customer Service in an Emerging Market (UAE)”.
  31. Al-Jenaibi, Badreya. 2012. ““Public Relation Practitioners, Independency, and Teamwork in the UAE Organizations”.
  32. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Sharon Eisner Gillett, and Ingo Vogelsang. 2009. Competition, regulation, and convergence: current trends in telecommunications policy research. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  33. God, Ahmed El. 2011. “ICT and Gender Inequality in the Middle East”.
  34. Great Britain. 2014. The Ofcom broadcasting code. London: Ofcom.
  35. Westminster Media Forum. 2014. The Ofcom public service broadcasting review. London: Westminster Forum Projects Ltd.
  36. Great Britain. 2014. Internet access – households and individuals. <http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-316654>
  37. Westminster Media Forum. 2014. The Ofcom public service broadcasting review. London: Westminster Forum Projects Ltd.
  38. Trefgarne, George. 2013. OFCOM is watching you. London: Centre for Policy Studies.
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