SOCIAL WORK RESEARCH IN PRACTICE SETTINGS
Table of Contents
High-quality research within a social context is significant for several reasons. Research within a social context is performed in evaluating the efficiency of the practice in which individuals engage in different programs using knowledge, experience, and skills in gaining research efforts. The research is performed among a group of individuals assessing the needs and resources. It helps in performing research using relative costs and resources building competencies among individuals. It is important to adapt to different knowledge, values, norms, and skills. Research work helps students to gain research curiosity and evaluate how empirical work becomes crucial in performing research-based social work. The study inculcates research methods in developing problem statements performing data analysis, dissemination, and research-based practice providing deep insight into reasons for the increased rate of youth offenders in Australia.
The research aims at identifying the reasons for an increasing number of youth offenders in and around Australia. The study uses various approaches in conducting the research focusing on the interpretive approach and critical approach. The critical approach allows the researcher to undergo critical thought in revealing negative or faulty sociological claims. The critical approach focuses on a set of theories and models in identifying notions and thought processes of society and culture. Research tends to analyze and question claims that have been made previously and ensure new mode interpretation gaining possibilities of the outcome. While the interpretive approach provides the researcher with different points of view. It helps in performing research analyzing aspects of youth offenders and what led to their growth with deeper insight. This is done by accessing different aspects of reality and how earlier it has been neglected.
- Evaluate various nature of social work research
- Incorporate research methodologies in surveying proposed social questions
- Use appropriate research methodology in analyzing different situations
- Initiate the development of personal and professional skills to tender opportunities for research
- Ensure that the research work performed to enlarge the scope of work and study
- Ensure that the research work is aligned with research objectives
- Provide relevant and authentic data
- Provide necessary loopholes earlier to ignore and recommend possible solutions for growth
The research questions the reasons why there are there a growing number of youth offenders in Australia and what the factors are that lead to their disappointments.
- What are the reasons for the growth in youth offenders?
- Have you been suffering from mental illness?
- What do you think of society and parental responsibility towards children suffering from mental ill-health?
- Does society contribute to mental pressure?
- What leads one to major disappointments?
- What are the side effects of mental health?
- Do you recommend clinical battle or self-improvement approaches?
- How well do you think can one make areas of mental health problems and preventive measures?
The research implies greater significance as it contributes to understanding in gravest debates of Australians. It is found that adults and teenagers are suffering from They also play a major role in ensuring the good standards of the health of society members. There has been an emphasis on concerns about mental health for the last 10 years with a considerable increase. The reasons for youth offenders are homicide, an overdose of income taxes and personal revenues. However, as much as the healthcare system in Canada is social and universal, the plan does not cater for drugs, abusive behavior, and other natural causes. Adolescence is a period of transition; where one reaches a state of heightened position. The research here delves into the reasons, bringing in development opportunities. It ensures activities like awareness programs, self-development schemes and awareness of, range of physical and academic challenges that will help in fighting back severe mental health issues. The study focuses on how adults can establish their identities through competency. Most importantly, it acts as guidelines for youth who are seeking greater independence and facing pressures from home and social environments. It questions several respondents (irrespective of color, gender, and sex) to study depressive orders and how they have been battling over time.
The research enlarges the scope of studying mental ill health issues in a wider context. It broadens the area of research enlarging core mechanisms, security, and robustness of research, manageability, and usability, economic viability, theoretical foundations in understanding various reasons that force youth to undertake ill actions. The scope of research aims at deriving social needs and requirements through high-level conceptualization, privacy, large-scale management, and economic viability and needs of social change. The study is conducted within college premises, gatherings of youth people, study center but can be developed on a sampling of a household survey.
According to Kinner et al. 2015, young offenders in Australia are highly at a risk for preventable death after the release of custody. The study of this chapter has aimed to define the process and causes of the risk factors that are associated with the death of the young offenders that is basically from the orders of the community-based. The mortality rate has been highly increased in the age group between 10 to 17 years of age.
According to Cunneen, 2017, the paper has analyzed the use of the community for the young individual in regards to the various jurisdictions in Australia that have created a great impact in the indigenous communities. It has also argued the fact that different programs have ignored the rights of Aboriginals in regards to self-determination and it has to provide simplified mechanisms for the indigenous communities.
The chapter mainly aims to present the characteristics of young people who are known to be offenders. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the age of the offenders mainly ranges between 10 – 17 years (Pitt et al. 2016). They are mainly preceded in the juvenile court. The characteristic of the offenders mainly involves sex and age and that also includes the principle offenses conducted by the principal offenders was handed over by the police. Some of the offenses are thus mainly excluded from the recorded crime (Broidy et al. 2015). Accord to the ABS report, more than 55,000 of the youth offenders were recorded by the police and during 2016, there was a consequent number of the offenses recorded by the youth and their age mainly ranges between 10 to 17 years and for the fourth consecutive year the youth offenders accounted by 14 percent of the total population and they were mainly. The people aged between 10 to 17 years mainly belong to the Australian residency. The rate of offenders among the youth has been tremendously increased in 2017. Among 2,330 offenders, it has been noticed that 10,000 offenders ranged from 10 to 17 years of age. In 2017, it has been also reported that more than 100,000 youth were the youths and that for the generated population. The crime rate among the youths is more in South Australia, Tasmania and the people belong from the other territory. In the 2016 year, as measured per 100,000 person’s age between 10 to 17 years of age, and it is the highest in the Northern Territory the crime range is around 2,962 and in the Australian territory of the capital, the crime report recorded was around 884. It is worth mentioning the fact that the proportion of youth offenders is highest in Western Australia that ages range from 10 to 17 years of age. It is to be noted that 16 percent of the total offenders are mainly from Australia (Williams et al.2015).
Since the period of 2008 and 2009, the total number of youth offenders has mainly declined in the offense categories (Anyon et al. 2016). The highest percentage decreases in the offense category. It is said that homicide and related offenses that were fallen by 67 percent. There was an offense against the justice that is fallen by 60 percent. The figure rounded was rounded from 1500 to 608. The property damage issues were fallen by 53 percent by youths in Australia (Cunneen, 2017).
From the expected trends it has been seen that illicit health to ensure the safety of prescribed drugs. This paper discuss the recall of tetrazepam drug has been increased by 47 percent since 2008 and in 2009 and it has been tremendously increased by 35 percent. Sexual assault and related offenses have been increased at a higher rate by 35 percent since 2009, the increased rate of the drug offenses has increased from 3920 to 5760 and the related offenses related to sexual assault has increased by 35 percent among the youth offenders. The number of figures has been increased from 1103 to 1490. The youth offenders’ rate in Australia is generally higher in males as compared to females in Australia. The 70 percent of the youth offenders was recorded to be around 70 percentages as compared to females it was around 30 percentages (Tonry, 2018).
2.3 Understanding and preventing indigenous offending
In this regard, most of the offenders found to be a nonindigenous prisoner, Survey for national data has been collected to provide information concerning the principal offense that has charged by police for the people aged 10, and as per the recorded report, over the period of 2008-09 and adults that has been incarcerated on 30 June 2009. Information on police charges that has been only related to New South Wales, Queensland, because of concerns about the information quality in regards to other jurisdictions (Williams et al.2015). Offenses, which have been charged by notices made due to penalty/infringement, which were thus excluded, from the given scenario it may be said that related toward public order as well as traffic offenses. The focus is mainly on the principal offense that has been resulted in less serious offenses that are being underrepresented for every individual that has been charged with more than having the multiple offenses that have been related to the different type of the occasion. The risk factors that are associated with the Identifying issues are merely different from the identification of the causes that are merely like to be offending the figure that is associated with the reports attempted going beyond statistical correlation for the identified reasons for the Indigenous people. It is thus more offenses, predominantly related with the violent offenses that have been reported on violence suggested for the underlying factors for the violent deficiency, elimination, the disempowerment of the respective elders that leads to hopelessness, defenselessness, desolation, and rage (Tonry, 2018). In addition to that, there are situational factors such as alcohol use, intertribal conflict, and feuds associated with family, rate of unemployment and tediousness, broadminded attitudes of the individual of young Australia towards violence, all this has contributed due to the high use of violence. The report has noted that violent behavior of the individuals has been raised high, such as fighting and payback, which has been practiced as traditional culture, but it, is transferred vastly with the enormous and different status and devoid of traditional controls, and altogether it becomes dysfunctional. There is mere partial information related to the offending behaviors of youth and adults in regards to the community-based information or for the youth detention (Pitt et al. 2016). This has also made the availability for gaining the information that is highly essential for providing a national and profile for the fine-grained in regards to the generated contacts that Indigenous people have with the justice system. Data should facilitate exploration of the demographic and spatial distribution of offending to assist targeting of crime prevention initiatives (Shepherd et al. 2018).
2.4 Factors Related to Recidivism for Youthful Offenders
According to Malvaso, and Delfabbro (2015), Mental health is a major problem and the disorder has been linked to many youth aberrant behaviors and felony adjudication; even though it is not understandable if this type of link is being directed, and the difficulties had lead to added risk factors, ineffective decision-making, and the interaction that is associated with the other risks (Farrington and Koegl, 2015). At rest, reviews it has been found consistently that the numerous children and the numerous youth have been involved with services that are related to mental health. It has significantly caused a higher risk for involvement in juvenile court (Bor et al. 2014). There are several numbers of pathways that have been established that are linked with specific issues related to the difficulties related to childhood mental health and also to the involvement in the juvenile court. The studies of developmental science have found associated behavioral problems and emotional problems such as substance abuse. Correspondingly, it can be said that the aggressive behaviors of the children are found as predictive of afterward aberrant behavior and activity of the child (Tubex et al. 2015). The problem related to hyperactivity and hyperactivity are highly linked because of the high-risk taking, and it is more violent and calculated to be found as the offending behavior of the individuals (Ravulo, 2015). Disruptive behaviors in addition to emotional problems mainly in early childhood are signs for later offending activities in the mind of the individual. Adding together, depression in childhood, as well as hyperactivity disorder for attention-deficit (ADHD), is profoundly linked to later criminal behavior, which has been evidenced from side to side physical aggression of the young individuals and their pilfering behavior (Hall and Lynskey, 2016).
In the above literature review, the point, which has been missed out as it has not figured out the crime rate of the young females in Australia? The impact has resulted in the increased crime rate of the adult’s impact has been not evaluated in the literature review in asystematicallye certain step that has been taken in children when they are at school. The cases in the Juvenile court has not been described significantly. It is necessary to take note of the fact that the necessary steps that have been taken by the children when they are at school. For the cases in the juvenile court need to explain that would be effective to carrresearchan effective manner. The report has not analyzed the issues related to the mortality rate in Australia (Anyon et al. 2016).
By the means of the study, it can be concluded that the crime rate in Australia has been increased tremendously. The crime rate has been increased in young individuals especially for the age ranges between 10 to 17 years. The juvenile court is trying to make changes so that the laws should be more punitive and also with the order policies. ABS has shown an impressive range for providing data which need to be used for assessing the Māori contact using the justice system, however, information related to the police contact can be calculated as trepidation slightly different than individuals and there is totally nonappearance of data in regards to detention and alteration populations (Broidy et al. 2015). It is to be recognized on the fact that there are many quality issues in regards to the Indigenous identification and the necessitating for data linkages to create the data for the individual level increase.
Epistemology helps the researcher to understand how we know and what we know about the gathered data and information. It helps in providing philosophical ground regarding decisions and authentication of knowledge ensuring legitimacy. It helps to identify the gap between ‘study of being’ and the scenario of reality’. The research has been conducted based on the ontological notion of realism. It helps the researcher to examine the interpretive mind and actions beyond the general mindset of an individual. The assertions made by the respondent are checked to be aligned with real-life actions and problems. The answers gathered from respondents are independent of consciousness. Objectivism in the epistemological study of research helps researchers to ensure fulfillment of research targets and objectives (Pitt et al. 2015). The researcher further delves into the assumptions of respondents identifying if they are parallel to knowable reality. The transactional approach means the interaction between the interview and interviewer in examining rhetorical situation ‘constructed realities’. On the other hand, subjectivist research deals with constructing the impression of individuals regarding reality and the psychological world. Human is the owner and also the inseparable of the natural setting. Interpretive approach and critical analysis help in gaining possible outcomes regarding youth mental illness and how to overcome the similar.
Reflexivity is important to factor that resolute interpretive needs in research. The interpretive approach help in positioning knowledge with deeper insight and take account of how assumptions are being made. According to the theoretical perspective, research needs to conduct a personal interview with a concentrated population and probe into their answer with deep interpretation, gaining scope and directions for higher research. Reflexivity herein becomes an important factor that allows dynamic outlook, make it flexible for collective assumptions, deriving possible resolutions. Reflexivity uses hermeneutics of research practice with value-free propositions (Birckhead, 2015). It eliminates obscene and dishonest assumptions and centers on productive and objective information. There are different aspects such as interaction using empirical material (accounts in interviews, observations of respondents and their situations); interpretation (underlying meanings); critical interpretation (ideology, power, and social reproduction) and reflection (selectivity of voices and claim to rightful data).
Another important theory applied in the research is a constructivist grounded theory that was introduced by Charmaz based on the notions of Strauss and Glaser. The iterative procedure was established in 2006 regarding the data-gathering technique in producing social, contextual, and interpretative data (Mugford and Braithwaite, 2017). Theoretical mapping help in selecting data based on alignment with reality, emerging values, and objectives. The research information is collected, interpreted, and constructed through the academic study of literature review, journal, and articles. Ideas are gathered and constructed from emerging data, concepts, processes, responses, and theoretical saturation. Experimental research is conducted in analyzing the reasons for youth offenders and mental illness. It helps to determine the information based on the responses collected and the investigation of the independent and dependent variables. It is used to explore notions of participants regarding mental illness developing a hypothesis. According to Emil Durkheim, society help in developing self-built norms and beliefs beneficial for citizens regarded as social facts (Sutherland et al. 2015). The interview helps in developing such facts in deriving required knowledge and information.
Qualitative research is comparatively supportive in nature over Quantitative research. The qualitative research method is used in research that helps to examine and to reflect on various aspects of the research subject. It focuses on values, behavior patterns, attitudes, and perceptions. Qualitative research depends on studying academic literature reviews, journals, and articles. It is important because the information collected can be challenged more easily. On the other hand, deductive research needs to help to conduct research based on particular & situations. It intends to study concepts and theories in deriving conclusive statements. Qualitative methodology help in deriving a theoretical position that helps in collecting information. The information is collected in a qualitative method that uses ‘professional’ under the supervision of professional associations (Cale et al. 2015). This is performed by preparing questionnaires questionnaire that is structured and aligned with the objectives conducting interviews or group discussion.
The population comprises of 100 respondents centered on college students, adults, and teenagers of school. The population has been dived into the age group of 10-18, 19-24, and 25 and above. The research is conducted over different centers and spans for a month. Each day is recorded based on age groups. This is referred to as the systematic sampling method. It refers to the steam of representative people over concentrated geography whose records and responses are collected and stored for future evaluation. The population concentrated is within the locale of Brisbane and New South Wales.
The local youth center has been researching the targeted population, ensuring authentic data regarding youth offenders in Australia. It has been identified that on an average 40% of youth residing in the country are abusive and addicted to drugs. The age group of 16-25 is currently suffering from ill mental health due to overuse of drugs (Shepherd et al. 2015). The research aims at performing research on 100 individuals. The questionnaire is made after prolonged research on drug overdose, mental health, young offensive behavior, and mortality rate with young people. Among the 100 respondents, only 20 have been affected by issues relating to mental health and depression. The questionnaires have been distributed to the youth center in gaining respondents within the age range of 20-25. Besides, questionnaires have been distributed among respondents in a local shopping center, local colleges, and night clubs. The distribution of questionnaires provided insight regarding youth’s understanding of overuse of drugs and in gaining an insight into their thought process (Shepherd et al. 2015). The questions prepared were kept devoid of hurting anyone’s sentiments. The questions have been prepared for keeping ethical standards.
The basic principles followed in researching concentrated respondents are minimizing risks and identify root causes; obtain informed consent; ensure confidentiality; limit deceptive practice; avoid hurting sentiments of respondents and ensure the right to withdraw. Since, the survey involved human participants, their thought processes and cultural values need to be prioritized as it can raise political and social issues. Following basic principles and terms will help in gaining trust, fairness, and kindness from respondents, providing authentic and relatable answers. Consistency in following standards and principles will allow meaningful results. The major issues like anonymity, privacy, loss of data, and piracy need to be governed. In gaining information rightly, it is important to consent with research integrity. It involves being honest and accurate from the respondent’s side. Ethical approval hereby allows researching without causing any harm to the whole process and protects reviews of respondents (Bor et al. 2015).
As per evident, approximately, 5% of Australians among youths have been experiencing rapid mental health issues every 7 days. It is likely to increase by 5% by 2020. There is no accountability of male outnumbers women, but as per respondents, women are growing considerably higher over the past few years. The growth in abuse disorders tends to increase with time. Prevalence of mental illness has considerably decreased mortality rates as it increases the number of suicides in the country (Kinner et al. 2015). Mental illness is prevalent high among19-25-year-olds. It is estimated that 1/3rd of adults accounting for 9 million experience mental illness leaving them with trauma. As per the 2015 evaluation, 1 of 5 youth from the age group of 14-19 is suffering from an extreme mental disorder. There has been no decrease but a considerable increase. The point of worry is anxiety disorders that are succeeding common in the U.K and U.S. earlier it was not rampant in Australia but with a gradual increase of intake of drugs, results affecting 40 million adults. Notably, individuals suffering from anxiety and depression receive treatment but leaves one weak mentally for prolonging several years.
Among the 100 respondent, 20 respondent aging from 19-4 is suffering from either bipolar depression or anxiety (far of mixing with people). Their responses seem valid more because of abrupt and unsupportive social actions (Pitt et al. 2016). As per evaluation, their individual is unable to stay and live freely as per their wishes, resulting in the intake of abusive drugs. Parent seems not cooperative and causing a generation gap among parent and children. Until proper discussion and freedom to speak and act, there can be no justice made to this age group. They have been living with anxiety mostly for 2 years and above. Parents need to guide children and support them at every level. Proper communication and coordination will help in finding reliance on drugs. Subsequently, preventive measures and education will spread awareness. As per the 2015 estimation, the male population tends to meet the criteria for suffering from serious mental illness (Farrington and Koegl, 2015). Community-based, family-based, education-based recovery orientated supports will be beneficial over clinical approaches in providing awareness and care services. Youths need to be engaged with rehabilitation programs, awareness programs, and youth-friendly mental health services. This will help to advocate on issues regarding various mental health (Hall and Lynskey, 2016). Young people need to be experts in making the right actions and decisions limiting the adverse effects of mental illness.
This paper deals with a very important sociological aspect which is mental health. Mental health in turn affects human beings, especially the younger generation. It is significant to understand the value of sound mental health which helps to build a sane individual. However, it is not the case always. Certain internal and external factors of society force individuals to go grow a crooked mind and they turn towards crime as an outburst. The current and sudden increase in the number of young people committing a crime and getting arrested for it has reached a level where it has become a disturbing national aspect in Australia. Therefore, through thorough research and in-depth study individuals need to identify on time the reasons leading to this issue. The youth of the nation and their parents and guardians have to be approached while conducting this disturbing survey and have to acquaint them with the emerging dangers of the society and its people. This paper uses appropriate models and theories to identify and understand the study required to know about the mentally derogatory ideas which make young people commit crimes like theft and violence and drug abuse. The issue is dealt with keeping in mind the social and political weather of Australia and dispersed strategically by influencing people.
The paper had the objective of providing valuable information on the sociological problems which has resulted in an increased number of young offenders. Australia and its surroundings are heavily disturbed by the outcomes of different issues like peer pressure, problematic behavior, insufficient income, drug abuse, criminal parents, isolation from society, lack of education or community, etc. These issues were identified by proper interpretive and critical approaches of study and proved valuable for the researchers and the society as well. This research work when put to practical use will provide for the strategies required to eradicate the factors disturbing the youth who are the future of the nation. It enquires about important aspects like why is the youth turning bad, what are the social reasons behind mental illness, what are the disappointing notions causing the degradation of mental health, etc. The paper also provides certain solutions that can be effective when implemented strategically. It questions the notions of realism and legitimacy of certain laws. However, it provides a qualitative analysis of how acquiring knowledge is the ultimate way of evolution and development.
When one views and reviews the tragic condition of the Australian young generation, one cannot but feel sad for them. It has been identified and researched how various factors are responsible for the degradation of the youth. These factors might be the internal trauma a child faces when he is young in his family circle. It can be the society or social obligations and norms which affect him adversely. It can be a lack of education or the unavailability of basic resources like food and clothing. Therefore, it is necessary to locate those issues and then trying to eradicate them. It can be done through proper education, valuable counseling, appropriate corrective measures taken by the parents, educators, social workers, etc. One has to understand that these offenders can be male or female and can be of any age but it is more prominent in the age group of 10-17. Therefore, any necessary actions taken have to consider the age and sex of the offender and employ valuable corrective measures. The youth in South Australia and Tasmania, as well as the Northern Territory, are degrading fast and low. Reflection on the offending is required before taking drastic measures and destroying the future of a child.
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Purpose of research
The research aims at identifying the reasons for an increasing number of youth offenders in and around Australia. The study uses various approaches in conducting the research focusing on interpretive approach and critical approach. . It helps in performing research analyzing aspects of youth offenders and what led to its growth with deeper insight. This is done by accessing different aspects of reality and how earlier it has been neglected.
Individuals associated with research
- Richard Garret- Ph.D. student
- K Weaver – research supervisor
- Edward Simpson Supervisors
The study will intend to conduct voluntary interviews among 1000 respondents. The interview session will span from 15-30 minutes duration. Questions are open-ended in gaining possible resources and thought processes of youth. The study may follow up interview with additional clarifying questions. Respondents need to provide authentic answers relatable to reality.
Research material and confidentiality
The interviews and transcripts will e recorded both audio and virtually. It will later be formed as reports and presentations for further examination. No legal names will be sued. The information collected will be recorded, stored, and checked and provides confidentiality. The information will be transcribed and loaded into Nvivo software for analysis. The information collected from respondents will be accessible by request.
As a respondent, one may opt-out of the stud before 11 December 2018
All information and data will be disclosed at the beginning of the interview
The reasons for the increased rate of youth offenders in Australia
Consent to take part in research
By signing and returning this consent form you are indicating your agreement with the following statements:
- I voluntarily agree to participate in this research study.
- I understand that even if I agree to participate now, I can withdraw at any time or refuse to answer any question without any consequences of any kind.
- I have had the purpose and nature of the study explained to me in writing and I have had the opportunity to ask questions about the study.
- I understand that I will not benefit directly from participating in this research.
- I have received enough information about this study.
- I have received satisfactory answers to all my questions, where I have had a query.
- I understand that all information I provide for this study will be treated confidentially.
- I understand that if I inform the researcher that I or someone else is at risk of harm they may have to report this to the relevant authorities – they will discuss this with me first but may be required to report with or without my permission.
- I understand that I am free to contact any of the people involved in the research to seek further clarification and information on request.
- I give my permission for information collected about me to be stored or electronically processed for research and to be used in related studies or other studies in the future but only if the research is approved by a Research Ethics Committee.
- I agree to take part in this study.
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