- Identify key historical landmarks in social welfare focusing on the period up to 1945.(P1.1). 3
- How the changes in ideological approach since 1945 have impacted on contemporary social policies (P1.2) 5
- Analyze the processes involved in development of a key Act of Parliament (P2.1). 6
- Analyze the factors that influenced the development of social policy (P2.2). 8
- Analyse how social policy is implemented by organisations and practitioners (P3.1). 9
- Explain how the impact of social policy on users of health and social care services can be measured (P3.2) 11
- Evaluate the impact of a specific policy on users of the relevant health and social care service (P3.3). 12
- Analyze the differences in formation and adaption of social policy initiatives from other national perspectives (P4.2) 14
This report talks about the concept of social policy and its outcomes on the society. It explains the discussion that has ongoing ever since the overall look of the emergence of social policy about its part in a community set up and how it outcomes the person associates of the society. The paper brings out and discusses the opinions that can be discovered about the participation that social policy creates to a society. It opinions the present imaginary works and analysis defending the traditional land marks up to 1945 that led to the growth of welfare state. Further, we will talk about the kinds social care policies suggestions that designed after world war to up to 1945.
From the period of 1900 to 1945 in UK, there were different important landmarks which focus on the people’s social welfare. The government of U.K launched different welfare programs through provision of the social welfare, social security or financial abet which means the programs with key objectives of provision of the income of minimum level to the lacking the financial support, the elderly, unemployed and the disabled. The revelation of many researchers was that the poverty rate was high and therefore government had the responsibility of people’s moral obligation and therefore the projects were created to decrease the level of poverty.
Great Britain. (1980 p.224) pointed out that in the 19th century; religion played a significant role because of the voluntary sector of the welfare. However, in the 20th century, liberalism which formed the British welfare foundation and votes for the women was in the limelight. The historical land marks up to the period of 1945 in the social welfare according to Finlayson et al (1994 p.97) include:
1901- The first study of poverty by Seebohm Rowntree in New York. (Poverty: town life study)
1903- Study of poverty by Charles Boothin London. The people of London’s Life And Labor
1906-1912- The New Liberalism which was to make people become more liberal
1906-The School Meals Act
1908-the Old Age Pensions Act directed to the people aged 70 years and above
1913-1941- The Change and Development which mainly focused in getting solutions to individual problems
1920-The Unemployment Insurance Act which included on the non manual workers
1925- The Orphans, Widows and The Old Age Contributory Act. This was the initial contributory pension’s national schemes
1936- The general theory of employment by J.M. Keynes. It dealt with money and interests
1940-the old age and widows pensions act that reduced the pensions age of women from 65 to 60
1942-1945- Gearing Towards a State of Beveridge Welfare which was the first insurance plan that gave return for the benefits of contributions up to a significant level.
1942-the Beveridge report by sir William on Social Insurance and Allied Services
1943-The Work Tested Income of Citizens By Juliet Rhys Williams
The Beveridge Strategy will have the impact of undermining the will to perform of the lower-paid employees to a probably serious and probably risky level. The avoidance of want must be considered as being the responsibility of the Scenario to its entire people, and not merely to a suggested few’
Family Allowance Act: weekly £0.25 for each kid after the first.
Ideological approach changes since 1945 has impacted differently on social policies. Welfare services include social security, which makes different circumstances against interruption of income due to illness, injury, old age or even absence of career. They take the types of absence of career and illness advantages, close relatives problems as well as income products that is being offered and funded through the insurance techniques of the government (Bell 1987p.132).
During 1945, Coffey (2004p. 54) observed that the government was dedicated to complete career through the Keynesian Suggestions, and offered free worldwide additional knowledge, and the release of additional allocation. Family problems, a national physical wellness and wellness and fitness service and complete career were the main problems during that time. Many guidelines offered a comprehensive system of absence of career, illness, pregnancy and old age advantages funded the by companies and workers, together with the govt.
Another crucial aspect that needs to be considered for the social and health welfare in the UK is the social citizenship design. The problems regarding the social citizenship design was not a process in the requirements of the overall look of the Conventional Party head in 1975 and the Primary Reverend in 1979. After 1975 the government actually assured low taxation, less state contribution, as well as ‘abnormal’ amounts of social investing. In the idea it involved, vital reduces in the well being investing (Landis 1994 p33).
But at present, policies reduce benefit reliance by helping people into perform. New Work and social addition, essential control and physical wellness and wellness and fitness and social care projects begin to take over the social with which we live in.
An Act of Parliament makes a new law or changes the laws that exist. Also Acts are Functions of Parliament which have been given Royal assent. All Functions of Parliament begins as bills which must effectively go through Parliament. These must be recognized from Private Members’ Bills which are Team Bills suggested by backbench MPs. The public bills originate from a number of different resources. It may happen from government, community service, government sections, government activities, committees, issues, legal procedure, green/white details and discussion (Alcock 2003p.168).
The Government chooses whether or not to accept to these suggestions and put them before Parliament. Once a division has identified that it desires to ask Parliament to effectively successfully pass a legislation or management on a certain topic, it will go through a assessment procedure with parties interested. The stage of this procedure will vary based on the complexness, importance and immediate of the matter. It may take many months or a few days. The first stage is often an assessment details called a Green Paper which places out usually what the Government is looking for to do and requirements opinions.
Pope et al (1986p. 227) elaborated that once these are obtained and taken account of or not, the Government will generate a White Paper, which places out the suggestions identified upon and the legislation’s legislation. These two levels may be reduced into one. These levels are not set by official recommendations and are topic to change. For example, it is gradually common for set up draft Bills to be attracted up and assigned for assessment before being officially set before Parliament. Sometimes Bills are scrutinized by the Parliament.
Policy making happens in a wide range of options which wide range from pretty open and community systems. The location of creating choices in people or the individual industry, the opportunity of the problem, and you will of the strategy all have an impact on you will of a strategy. Basic understanding of the strategy procedure is the first step in strategizing how to stimulate potential power and impact significant changes in a program. There are three levels of policy making. The ingredients stage, the performance stage and the assessment stage (Jones 1991 p.75).
According to Donnison et al (1995 p.21), health relies on a number of aspects, such as medical aspects, ecological aspects, nourishment, and the total well being. The main aspects currently impacting individual’s health and fitness in UK include smoking cigarettes, bad weight-loss programs, alcohol, and a non-active way of life. While the government of UK has worked to reduce the impact of these aspects, only the individuals themselves can put an end to them by modifying their actions toward health and fitness. Apart from these many other aspects act as key elements which shape the key styles and ideas in a parliamentary act.
Evaluation and proof are not the only aspects that impact service delivery and policy making. The experience, capabilities and thinking of makers of policy, and those individuals who have liability for planning and providing suggestions and public services, are key elements in the technique creating procedure. So too are the limited sources that are available for suggestions, programs and tasks. The ideas and value system within which modern state recommendations take place are also contributory aspects to the procedure of policy making (Midwinter 1994 p.117).
This contains ideologies, beliefs and party manifesto responsibilities. Making of policies also contains regular and traditional ways of doing things that may sometimes get rid of sensible information yet however are available and often figure out what can and cannot be done to make and applying technique. Great Britain (1980p .191) pointed out that the impact of insurance supporters and stress categories on technique creating also paves an essential way to achieve the focus on. The procedure of policy making can be extremely be affected by amazing conditions and contingencies, the reaction to which can sometimes be opportunistic rather than well thought through, completely analyzed, and proof based.
Implementation is the procedure of modifying policy into practice. However, it is common to see a gap between what was organized and what actually happened as a result of a policy. There are three essential theoretical designs of policy implementation by practitioners and organizations as elaborated by Finlayson (1994 p.227).
Top-down approach: This policy identifies policy development and policy implementation as exclusive activities. Suggestions are set at greater stages in a government procedure and are then conveyed to subordinate stages which are then billed with the particular, managing, and management projects of placing policy into perform out. Government researchers have theorized that the top-down policy needs that certain circumstances be in place for policy implementation to be effective including:
- Apparent and rationally effective objectives
- Adequate causal concept (to how particular activities would cause to suggested outcomes)
- An implementation procedure organized to improve submission by implementers (incentives and sanctions)
- Dedicated, skilful implementing officials
- Assistance from legislature and interest groups
- No changes in socio-economic circumstances that process government support or the causal concept underlying the policy
- Adequate projects and sufficient sources available
- Good synchronization and communication
The problems associated with the top down approach according to Bell (1987p. 411):
- It is very unlikely that all pre-conditions would be existing at the same time
- Only symbolizes viewpoint of those in greater stages of government and does not keep in mind the factor of other actors and therefore, it threats over-estimating the impact of government activity
- Complex to apply where no individual, well-known policy or business is involved
- Suggestions modify as they are being implemented
Bottom-up approach: This policy identifies that people at subordinate stages are likely to play an effective factor in implementation and may have some attention to improve goals of the policy and modify the way it is used. The bottom-up policy identifies policy implementation is an exciting procedure such as policy creators, implementers from various stages of government, and other superstars. Plan may modify during implementation. Problems of the bottom-up approach:
- Analyzing the consequences of a policy becomes difficult
- Complex to differentiate the impact of people and different stages of government on policy consequences and decisions.
Principal-agent theory: In each scenario there will be a connection between fundamental concepts and providers, which may include agreements or agreements that allow the principal to specify what is offered and check that this has been acquired. According to Coffey (2004p. 63), the quality of attention given to the providers and the complexness of the principal-agent connection are impacted by the policy problem nature, The viewpoint or circumstances around the problem, The organization of the devices to apply the policy.
Landis (1994p. 74) pointed out that in practice, whether implementation of the policies is done from the top-down, bottom-up or according to the essential broker concept, policy implementation contains 3 activities; interpretation, organization and application. Interpretation of policy directives needs the demonstration of information on therapies into the particular local viewpoint.
The government of United Kingdom uses a wide range of assessment techniques to make sure that suggestions, applications and team solutions are organized and provided as effectively and effectively as possible to the support clients. An important energy for top quality policy assessment and evaluation in United Kingdom is the Government’s dedication to evidence-based policy making. Alcock (2003p.397) adds that this needs policy creators, and those who implement suggestions, to use the best available proof from national analysis, educational analysis, financial concept, aviators, and assessments of previous suggestions, commissioned analysis and methodical assessment with distribution providers. The Government’s way of team making an investment and taxes also provides the perspective within which policy assessment happens in the United Kingdom. The government of United Kingdom has performed, and is currently processing a number of controlled assessments that are randomized of policy projects in the area of industry and welfare policy.
According to Pope et al (1986), restart assessment arbitrarily assigned jobless people to a necessary major interview at six several weeks absence of profession to see if this had the impact of effectively reintroducing them to the work industry. This is one of the biggest and best-known randomized managed assessments in United Kingdom and it identified an obvious and beneficial impact on outcomes in from absence of profession with long lasting outcomes still.
Usually, as the function of social and health care, it can be recognized as a body which provide services that is appropriate to ‘care services’ but the two techniques are divided in term of managing, suggestions, act, and so on. Jones (1991p 227) pointed out that the UK government is engaged with the breaking of social and health care. Because of the breaking, it cause a significant issue such as support fragmentation, more expensive of treatment and issue in ongoing social and health care after release from the medical center. Reflecting to this issue, the UK government has put an issue in developing these two entities. The Government entity can make sure better advantages to back up clients by having advantages to:
- Strategies for wellness and fitness promotion
- Manual handling
- Health and safety
- Food handling
- Data protection
- Mental health
- Care practice
- Children Disability
Evaluate a recent development in health and social care policy
The Health & social care works Department define policy and guidance for offering a social care system that provides excellent and proper care equally for all, whilst enabling people to retain their freedom, control and dignity. Government policies and strategies aimed at offering a variety of health care services alternatives and functions. Other current projects include complementary health and fitness settings, or group health sides, with children, seniors or those with problems. Apart from these projects there are also few that act as policy projects in all Health & social care functions. They are impairment, gender, cultural problems, group excellent appropriate proper care, poverty and group security, criminal activity and criminal justice, health and fitness insurance policy coverage health and fitness alternatives (Donnison et al 1995 p.72).
For promoting health the projects that need to be taken are labeling regulations to inform consumers of nutritional content of foods, educational campaigns to promote healthy diets and special applications focused to children, promotion of consumption of fruits and vegetables for the general population, fruit and vegetable submission applications for youngsters. Also there is a chance where there will be multi-agency partnerships that creates many job opportunities in line with government projects to address health and fitness improvement, health and fitness inequalities and group omission, the of children, youngsters and families, excellent appropriate proper care and wellbeing of seniors, those suffering from mental medical concerns and group development (Midwinter 1994p. 36).
This in turn gave rise to increased job opportunities in these Health & social care. Child group health care, like many group alternatives is under pressure to make benefits, greater use of resources and effective operating practices are essential if the sector is to continue offering top quality excellent appropriate proper care. Other Projects according to Great Britain (1980p. 110) may be:
- Employee related initiatives: Increasing skills & employability of jobless people, working Family tax credit, National Minimum wage
- Area Targeted initiatives: Physical health and fitness focused zones
- Initiatives to deal with group exclusion: National Policy for Neighborhood and renewal
The social and healthcare policy initiatives showed up as a distinct area in the UK in the early years of 20th century. To make a civilized community by supply of well being benefits to the individuals, irrespective of their ability to pay for them and aim for universal health support, pensions & scenario education.
The social & aware of the medical product and its side effects. According to NHS, before they are made available, vaccines have to be tested by MHRA (Medicines and healthcare policy initiatives In USA is being handled by individual & work-related insurance plan policy methods with the scenario playing no part. This is also similar to Asia.
In Western Europe however, there are medical proper care and excellent appropriate care systems that are run by both individual & state run insurance plan policy methods (Finlayson 1994).
In Wales it maintains the person centered focus to the patients and accountable to all individuals of the state. Also it includes the areas in the development of the guidelines for social & healthcare policy initiatives. So many physical wellness and fitness issues are prevented before they start of.
In Scotland the technique is an agreement between the government & the citizen as an individual. However, the British technique is straightforward. It guarantees dedication to improve the health support rather than the policy itself. It is a agreement between government, service & the customer.
In Welsh records it is in accordance with the thoughts of group improvement & group potential building. But it is losing in British & Scotland documents (Bell 1987p. 223).
In conclusion, social policy has developed over a longer period in United Kingdom. There exist different noticeable historical landmark in the social welfare up to 1945. Moreover, changes in the approach in ideologies by different governments have impacted differently on the contemporary social policies. For the development of a parliament act, there exists many processes for the bill to be passed. The factors that influence social policy development rely on many aspects that range from ecology and medical aspects. Lastly, the organizations and practitioners applies different approaches to policy implementation,
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