The purpose of the study was to find the relationship between ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in different age groups and gender variance.IMA is present at high levels in cardiac ischemic patients. Many studies have been done on the relationship of other biomarkers such as troponin to gender and different age groups (Rodriguez-Ospina, 331; Wiviott et al, 1415). Therefore, further research needs to be done to find out whether there exist differences in the levels of IMA between different age groups, and also in gender. The results of the study will be a helpful incorrect diagnosis of cardiac ischemia among patients, in addition to the stratification of the patients that suffer from acute chest pains. Correct diagnosis means immediate treatment and management of the cardiac ischemia before it destroys the myocytes.
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Cardiac bio-makers According to Rodriguez-Ospina et al (14) are substances released by the heart into the bloodstream when it is stressed or damaged. Measurement of the released bio-makers in the bloodstream is helpful in diagnosis, monitoring, risk stratification, and management of people suspected to have cardiac ischemia and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cardiac ischemia results when the blood supply that goes to the tissues of the heart is not enough to meet the needs of the heart. This results in a sudden blood decrease and oxygen that reaches the heart. Tousoulis et al (15) highlighted some of the different types of cardiac biomarkers tests but the most used and effective one is the troponin test. However, cardiac troponin is only specific and sensitive for detection of damage in the myocardium, but sometimes may not rise in there is reversible myocardial ischemia. Further research is needed to clarify whether pathophysiological differences that are gender-related exist in acute coronary syndromes presentation. The study aimed to find out the levels of IMA in different age groups and gender variance
Ninety-six patients with acute chest pain between the age group 30-60years admitted to ICCU of hospital participated in the study. Among these subjects, 40 were male and 56 were female. Of the 96 patients, 16 of them had no evidence of myocardial ischemia. They were categorized as group II. The remaining 80 patients with . For example, the course of nation-state building that took place in the 19th and 20th century and society militarization, as well as the warlordism, are two processes that provide evidence of myocardial ischemia were categorized into group I. About 41% of the patients of group I was between 50-60 years of age. The control group of healthy subjects was 28, of which 10 were males and 18 females.
Patients were evaluated as being nonischemic or potentially ischemic through standard coronary disease indicators [(CK), CK-MB, LDH, and electrocardiography findings and were tested by a Co (II)-albumin binding assay for IMA. The patients of the ischemic group (group 1) were further divided into three groups based on their age &sex as follows; 30-40 years (M&F), 40-50 years (M&F), and 50-60 years (M&F).
Table: Age-wise distribution of cardiac markers in Ischemic group
|Sex||Males (n=11)||Females (n=13)||Males (n=9)||Females (n=14)||Males (n=14)||Females (n=19)|
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
Mean ± SD
Many important findings regarding IMA in different age groups and gender variance in Ischemic patients presenting with Co (II)-albumin binding assay for IMA have emerged from the analysis. Similarly, Women had a higher likelihood of having IMA biomarker compared to ischemic men; this is in correlation to a study done by Kazanis et al (78). Further analysis indicated that as age increases (from 40 to 60 years) IMA levels get elevated among ischemic patients. The study also shows a correlation to a study done by Bar-Or et al (12) where myocardial ischemic patients had elevated assay levels ((0.529±0.086)), and for the age group of 50 to 60 years which had higher levels of IMA. The clinical diagnosis was assigned and correlated with standard biomarker (CK, CK-MB, and LDH) test results which were high compared with group II (0.316±0.092) with no evidence of myocardial ischemia (Bar-Or et al, 12). High levels of the IMA in women and the elderly is an indication that the accuracy of the diagnosis of coronary heart diseases such as cardiac ischemia has been increased. The application of IMA to detect ischemia before the destruction of the myocardium muscles will help treat the elderly who mostly suffer from cardiac diseases such as cardiac ischemia. Furthermore, it would be helpful in the stratification of the patients who have cardiac ischemic and normal chest pains (Radha et al, 225). Recent studies have indicated that Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) is a very sensitive and effective biochemical marker of ischemia (Gaze, 337; Sinha et al, 209|). During an ischemic attack, IMA is produced and is present in psychological effects. For example, blood in concentrations that is easily detectable. Recent studies have also indicated that there exist differences in the levels of biomarkers in gender but minimal differences in different age groups (Kazanis et al, 2; Mowafy et al, 146). Chawla et al (79) indicated that the diagnosis of diseases of the coronary artery in mental health complications. The condition always affects women is more difficult. This is because of the lower diagnostic accuracy of the non-invasive tests and lower symptoms specificity. In their study, they found out that in patients with Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and Unstable Angina (UA), there existed different patterns of biomarkers presentation. For instance, men had had a higher likelihood of elevated troponins and creatine kinase-MB. Women, on the other hand, had a higher likelihood of having elevated brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein. Similarly, age differences exist in the level of bio makers. The levels of Brain Natriuretic peptide (BNP) are higher in older populations and women compared to men (Yakut et al, 173).
In conclusion, despite the gender and age differences, IMA was higher in women and gets elevated as age increases in ischemic patients. This is a breakthrough for the elderly and the women who are ailing from cardiac ischemia or just experience chest pain. Correct diagnosis would enable them to get people treatment on time.
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