PSYCHOLOGY QUESTIONS

Nov 12, 2021 | 0 comments

Nov 12, 2021 | Essays | 0 comments

*Explain what is meant by a gene-environment interaction**?*
Gene-environment interactions are circumstances caused by environmental factors that have got effects on different individuals contrarily and it relies upon genotype for which genetic factors have different effects on it depending on the environmental attributes (Lesch, 2004). According to Lesch (2004), gene-environment can also be referred to the varied effects of the environmental exposure on a disease risk in an individual with different genotypes
*Describe how this could lead to the manifestation of a disorder*
A study conducted by John Hopkins study it was clear that gene-environment interactions lead to a manifestation of disorder, the study was based on mice which were born with a genetic mutation that is alleged to make humans more vulnerable to schizophrenia and develop behaviours mimicking psychiatric illnesses when their mothers happened to be exposed to an attack to their immune system while pregnant (Lesch, 2004).
Lesch (2004), indicated that it was quite surprising to the researchers who found out that the mental illness the mice developed didn’t look anything like schizophrenia, which in this case they are genetically susceptible to but it was more of anxiety and mood-like disorders. This clearly implied that one gene mutation can result in different mental illness when influenced by the same environmental factors.
*Define psychological disorder*
A psychiatric disorder is a mental or behavioural pattern that leads to a substantial impairment of an individual functioning or distress (Annenberg & Marcom, 2008).
*Briefly discuss the four defining characteristics of a psychological disorder*
*Anxiety*
Anxiety makes people respond to different situations with distress and dread, as well as physical signs which may include rapid sweating and rapid heartbeat. Anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the anxiety affects the normal functioning of a person, or if an individual responsible for a situation is inappropriate (Annenberg & Marcom, 2008). Social anxiety disorder, panic disorder post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are part of examples linked to anxiety disorder (Annenberg & Marcom, 2008).
*Eating disorders*:
Rhee & Ronald (2014), this entails attitude emotions and behaviours involving food an weight. Binge eating, anorexia nervosa and Bulima Nervosa are the most common eating disorders. It’s easy to ignore this disorder, however, it has become an increasing problem majorly for black women
*Mood disorders: *
*It’s also referred to as an affective disorder. It involves consistent sadness or unhappy period or it could be a mix of happiness or sadness in both extreme. Depression, bipolar and mania are among the common moods disorder *(Annenberg & Marcom, 2008)*. *
*Psychotic disorders*
It’s characterized by inaccurate thinking and awareness. Hallucinations and schizophrenia are the most common symptoms of the disorder. Hallucination is a situation where one see images or hear sounds that are not real, while schizophrenia widespread in today’s society mostly with people who use illegal substances. Majority of people fail to realize that drugs like marijuana can induce the psychotic disorder (Rhee & Ronald, 2014). Any drug or substance that impairs an individual judgment is harmful to the individual well-being and hence linked to psychotic disorder (Annenberg & Marcom, 2008)*. * .
*Work cited*
Lesch, K. P. (January 01, 2004). Gene-environment interaction and the genetics of depression. *Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: Jpn, 29, *3, 174-84.
Rhee, S. H., & Ronald, A. (2014). *Behaviour Genetics of Psychopathology*. New York, NY: Springer New York.
Annenberg Media., & Marcom Projects. (2008). *Psychological disorders*. Eight Mile Plains, QLD: Marcom Projects (distributor.