PREDATORY AND PSYCHOPATHIC CRIMINALS
Predatory violence is distinct and separate from general offending because Predatory violence is usually characterized by the absence emotion and threats, and is usually cognitively planned. Therefore, predatory violence is the type of violence that is planned and is intended to achieve a certain purpose. According to (Meloy, 2006), general offending is usually impulsive, mostly as a reaction to violence. It is usually highly emotional and enhanced physiological excitement hence not easy to control. On the other hand, general offending is usually influenced of culture, environment, and social factors. Predatory violence involves the use of the frontal cortex that is used in the planning of the criminal activity. The limbic system is responsible for aggression and rage. Research has indicated that predatory violence perpetrators usually have low self-control which is the source of aggressive behavior towards others. Predatory violence is characterized by certain traits, such as psychopathy, antisocial behavior, aggression, childhood trauma.
Environmental factors such as violence, abuse, poverty and social isolation and neglect expose children to problem behavior characters creating a recipe for predatory violence. Studies have shown that the longer a child is exposed to poverty, especially in the first four years of childhood the higher the likelihood of such a child to engage in violent activities. Children from large families and those living in crowded homes are at a greater risk of acquiring predatory violent traits (Allgood, 1999).
Predatory Violence Traits.
Psychological stress is one of the leading causes of predatory violence. As mentioned earlier predatory violence is usually planned and with no emotional connection and less amount of threats Psychopathy is an anti-social behavior. A person may at birth be predisposed to stress due to the nature of their genetic composition. For example, the expression level of a certain stimuli may be abnormal and therefore express abnormal activity. On the other hand, an individual’s genetic endowments may also predispose them to be relatively insensitive to stress.
Perpetual offenders of predatory violence tend to develop psychopathic traits. Psychopathy is usually characterized by emotional and personal and social deviance symptoms. Some of the emotional mannerisms include, lack of remorse, lack of control for behavior, adult anti-social traits, lack of responsibility, need for excitement, early behavioral problems, and aggression.
A research by Kelley, Loeber, Keenan, and DeLamatre shows that early childhood behavioral problems are likely to lead to juvenile resulting to adult anti-social traits. Further the study has shown that there is a link between offenders, whether juvenile or adult to psychopathy and persistent offending (1997). Most murder offenders score above the threshold of 30.this threshold is usually considered the limited measuring score for psychopathy. Further psychopathic traits usually relate to lack of cognitive, emotional and social functions. With the lack of these necessities the offenders usually display maladaptive behavior. Most juvenile and adult offenders are usually psychopaths. Aggression is behavior that is forceful, injurious and destructive.
Low self-control is another character trait of offenders of predatory violence.
Early childhood behavioral difficulties are directly related to low self-control. Low self-control is an attribute that has the likelihood of causing aggression and violence towards others. Low self-control is also linked to the early life and lack of stability up to adulthood. Health related behavior is also associated with low self-control and being less conscious and reduced frontal functioning. Childhood trauma and victimization lead to aggression and violence. This is because trauma and victimization cause poor anger management and control of rage. Children neglected and abused have a higher chance of showing psychopathic behavior.
Allgood, S. (1999). The impact of youth criminal behavior on Adult Earning. University of Nebraska.
Kelly, B., Loerber, R., Keenan, K., & DeLamatre, M. (1997). Development Pathways in Boys Disruptive and Delinquent Behavior. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. US Department of Justice.
Meloy, R. (2006).Empirical basics and Forensic applications of affective and predatory violence. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry.