Because organizations consist of people who have different goals, values, talents and personalities, the organization must have a discrete culture (Hu 2012, p.630). Culture affects both the organization and its employees. The effects of culture can be constructive or destructive. What is alleged to be positive by one person can be alleged to be destructive to the other (Li 2012, p.380). When the culture affects the outcome and productivity of the employees in an organization, then culture change is essential. Organizational culture consists of an interlocking set of behavior, hypothesis, dialogue practices, roles, beliefs, norms, visions and goals (Jung 2009, p.1088). The organizational culture cannot be changed without understanding the vision of the organization. It is more complex to change the tradition of an organization that is existing than to form a culture in an upcoming organization (Tataw 2012, p.136).
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Statement of the problem
The principle of this study is to determine the effects of culture change in an organization. It elaborates on how to change the organizational culture and make it more positive. This study explains the different approaches that can be used in bringing a culture change in an organization.
Purpose of the study
This study will benefit the staffs in business organizations that will learn to identify the different ways in which culture affects the outcome of an organization (Buschgens 2013, p.765). Identifying how culture affects the outcome of their organization, will enable them to take the essential action to bring in a cultural change. By sharing this information, staffs can act as a channel to help the management execute appropriate policies for culture change (Hartmann 2010, p.845). The educators can also use this study as a valuable steer to incorporate into their syllabus. The students should be emphasized on the need of culture change to improve their relation with other students therefore improving their outcome (Garnett 2008, p.273).
Scope of the study
This study is restricted to the perception of employees on how culture affects an organization, and how to change it. It is limited to the employees of WA Police department where bullying, corruption and discrimination have taken a toll. This study will help the employees to change their culture, beliefs and traditions to make the department a better working environment. This will also improve their outcome. Furthermore, this study can also be employed by other police departments to help change their culture (Tsui 2010, p.660).
Elements Of Organizational Cultural Change
Executives in the organization should support the change. This should be done in ways beyond vocal support but they ought to show behavioral support (Buschgens 2013, p. 778). Thus, the executives must guide others by first changing their own behaviors (Tsui 2010, p.667).
The behavioral change in an organization helps to change the culture. The members of the unit should know what is expected of them. In addition, they must learn the new behavior once it has been defined (Li 2012, p.390). Training is important in communicating the expectations and coaching of new behavior. The first coaching should not be in the form of training classes during the working hours. A “choice Learning Lab” approach should be used and this allows the concerned employees to come in early or stay late to discover the new technology (Tataw 2012, p.140). Those who show concern should be welcomed to take formal classes. The result of this approach is that the first to be trained are the most interested and confident of their abilities, and are most liable to become change agents actively promoting what they have learnt (Hartmann 2010, p.851).
Creation of value statements
The organization should be a continual learning setting. This is to help the employees at all stages and functional areas not only to believe that change is vital to success but also to educate for potential change opportunities. The staffs become aware that the changes being made by competitors, is vital to the survival of the organization (Jung 2009, p.1093).
There should be employment of the employee groups in the different departments to put the vision, mission and values into simplified words (Hu 2012, p.636). This should be in words that they can best understand and has an impact on their job descriptions. Moreover, this will give all the employees a universal perception of the desired culture, which reflects the measures they must commit to on their jobs (Garnett 2008, p.268).
It is significant to have an open communication between the management and the staffs to prevent any speculation. Hartmann (2010, p.853) suggests that awareness prevents misinformation and decreases the chance that playing political affairs against change will succeed. The main method of communicating to a cluster is the use of newsletters (Li 2012, p. 382). All employees should be aware about the organizational culture change process. This ensures commitment and accomplishment. In addition, the employees should be told what is expected of them in their different job capacities. Moreover, the reward system may also need to change to encourage the expected vital behavior (Jung 2009, p.1093).
Work systems review
Review strives to reveal the finest stories from the engagement and inquisition phases, as well as establish how well these stories can be circulated throughout the organization (Hu 2012, p.637). There should be a review of work systems. This includes pay practices, promotions of the employees and performance management (Tataw 2012, p.145). This is to be certain that they are aligned with the desired culture. For example, one should not reward an individual if the requirements of the organization culture required teamwork (Hartmann 2010, p.852). An executive’s total additional benefit should not reward his department’s accomplishment of the goals without acknowledging the significance of him working well with others on the executive team to accomplish the organizational goals.
Development of change agents and visionaries
There are those who think that the best way to steer change in the organization is from top to bottom. There are also those who believe that change must be driven across. This causes a conflict (Garnett 2008, p.278). Change is firmly driven deep into the organization when the management takes a two-branched approach. This is by establishing visionaries at the top management level who steer change downwards in the organization and change champions at the middle level who steer it across the organization (Buschgens 2013, p.777). A double effort is essential to ensure buy-in at all stages and across all functional levels.
Establishment of team approach
This is done by getting people who had little contact with one another to work mutually and to appreciate one another (Hu 2012, p.620). A “book of words”, which is a dictionary containing definitions of the acronyms and jargon used by technologists and trade people can be used to help dialogue and understanding (Tataw 2012, p.136). In addition, “Partnership in Action” sessions can be held where the staffs who attended the pilot project discuss the problems they faced in the beginning with the groups that were joining the training (Jung 2009, p.1094).
Build and develop
This is involved in a more developed change that entails building on the existing, totaling to structures, strategies and systems that are existing in contrast to just repairing these (Li 2012, p.378). This can lead to recruitment of latest proficiency or market share expansion through the employment of advertising campaigns. Consequently, this change forms concerns achieving Single-loop learning (Hartmann 2010, p.854)
Moving and relocating
This means changing the organizational systems (Hu 2012, p.660). This involves questions on whether a company should outsource an interior function, change the structure of the organization such as adopting a system structure or consolidate organizations in correlation with an acquisition (Jung 2009, p.1092). Moreover, this refers to planned changes commenced and formulated by senior management level.
Liberate and recreate
This is the most developed form of change and is seen as a conversion of an all-encompassing kind (Garnett 2008, p.278). Transformation entails the regeneration of an entire organization and connects to several organizational sub-systems for example management control systems, strategy, and structure (Li 2012, p.375). This occurs through research, innovative and radical thinking, fantasy and creativity among the employees. This is change not necessarily considered before hand or seen as implementation of calculated goals or objectives (Tataw 2012, p.133). The changes usually confront many of the existing systems and result to political game playing.
Management Of The Change Process
Organizational change enables companies to adapt in order to satisfy the requirements of the environment that is constantly changing (Buschgens 2013, p.765). The change process comprises of four phases that have valuable elements. These are:
Key elements-Change driver
This is a key element in the change process as it facilitates in the development of the awareness of the challenges and opportunities (Hu 2012, p.646). Thus, Garnett (2008, p.275) is of the opinion that it is paramount at the beginning to illustrate to the company the relevance of the change process. The drivers of change can be identified by evaluating the environment. This is further strengthened by assessing the demands that change in clients, evaluating the progress of rivals and collaborators and by the arising issues in the company with the current conditions (Jung 2009, p.1092). Furthermore, the objective of the new proposal for planning can be evaluated as a driver of change.
The change drivers assist in the following ways. This includes making of major progress to break from the norms of the past, development of other ways of dealing with the arising issues that occur on day to day and with each situation (Hartmann 2010, p.850). For instance, an example of a change driver can be the development of a new law in the education ministry. This can be aimed at increasing participation of the community and the parents who form the major stakeholders. In addition, this leads to motivation of the school to aim at an increased rate of passing for the student. Thus, this necessitates the school to maximize its resources in order to strengthen the financial muscle of the school (Tataw 2012, p.134). The drivers of change are different depending with the employees and the company. Buschgens (2013, p.780) focused on pointing out that it is vital to note the differences in an organization in the stages of development of a plan.
In a company, the change drivers are normally from the external environment but for the employees, their drivers are connected to their condition of working. Hu (2012, p.623) strongly suggested that it is a major task to match the change drives of an organization with the individual drivers of change. At other times, the change drivers that for instance may include the unpleasant current situation, are constantly present for a period of time though it receives limited attention (Li 2012, p.387). Thus, it is important to create awareness on the factors that are the drivers of change. Jung (2009, p.1090) categorically stated that creation of awareness can result in changing of the drivers in their strength. The following activities can lead in creation of awareness in a company on the drivers of change. These comprise of new regulation, pressure from the public to address an issue(s), comparing of the output of the company with the past performance, reports of incidents that have been problematic, comparing of the output of the organistion with other firms and training programs (Buschgens 2013, P.763).
Redefining the Objective of Change
Besides the development of change drivers, it is necessary for the employees and the management to aim at the objective of the change process. Through the change drivers, it is possible to develop a goal for the organization. However, this should be complemented by other analysis for instance the SWOT analysis (Garnett 2008, p.276). The change process for a firm should enhance the performance and its capacity to employ the available resources to bring development in the output of the firm. Tataw (2012, p.143) carried out a research that found that the processes of change that are centered on the firm’s internal structure should additionally result to attainment of improved performance.
Regardless of the benefits that a firm derives from the change process, this cannot succeed without support from the management (Hartmann 2010, p.847). The management has to commit itself to offering support. If this is not so, it can result to lack of trust in the change process. Garnett (2008, p.280) strongly suggested that the combination of the support from the staff, stakeholders and the managers result in provision of support on the importance of the process of change. Furthermore, it is significant to note that the support from outside the firm is key to the success of the process of change. Li (2012, p.392) is of the opinion that both the employees and the firm’s management should not just share a vision of the company but they also believe the possibility of attaining the change. Moreover, the attainment of this state necessitates a high level of proficiency and abilities coined with the willingness and commitment of taking risks (Jung 2009, p.1096).
The term change means uncertainity. This is because the future is impossible to predict (Tataw 2012, p.144). The uncertainity is expected to rise especially where there is inadequate information concerning the focus of the organization. There is need for clear communication and exchange of information in order to avoid misleading information in the staff and management implementing the change process (Li 2012, p.385). Garnett (2008, p.279) argues that employees may fail to coordinate in the change process where they expect other agendas that are contrary to their own interests.
Development of coalitions
Building of coalitions is of paramount importance while convincing the staff and the management on the need for change (Tataw 2012, p.133). Hu (2012, p.659) categorically stated that a successful process of change requires a powerful coalition for the attainment of its vision. Moreover, the guarantee of the support from the various stakeholders is a key determinant on the impact of vision.
Step 2: Organization Of The Process Of Transition
Development of a transition plan
The vision of the change process alone is not enough for the realization of the process thus there is need to develop a plan on how to achieve the change (Tataw 2012, p.147). Thus, it is of paramount to develop ideas and the steps to attain the change process. Hence, this necessitates operationalization of the objectives. This is shedding light on the details of the change process and the development of ideas that are shared (Li 2012, p.391). In addition, it also includes understanding of the effects of the numerous stakeholders and the creation of a plan for transiton. However, this does not mean that the steps should be followed completely but that there should be maintenance of a broader perspective concerning the initial step (Buschgens 2013, p.766).
Evaluation of people
The various stakeholders can be evaluated based on the analysis of their response to the planned change. Hartmann 2010, p.853) is of the opinion that there is need for patience for the stakeholders to fully adopt the new change process. He adds on to say that people require time to detach themselves from the previous state. The instrument known as Self-Diagnosis can be used to evaluate the readiness to accept the change (Garnett 2008, p.272) .
Resistance to change
This is the most difficult section in change process (Li 2012, p.624). Hence, it is vital to evaluate the kind of resistance one expects. The management needs to comprehend the expressions related to the resistance, the reasons and coping method.
Change in an organization just not occurs by itself, there is need to develop strategies and structure which will support the change that you are seeking.
Change can destroy or build an organization, without proper management, change of organizational structures and culture will bring down even the most profitable organization.
All aspects, departments and employees of the organization including the leadership and management must be drive n to support the change. The management should take the responsibility of communication the change directly to the employees, supporting the challenge that they may have to over come when undergoing the changes and help the employees accept the changes_ there must be leadership by example.
Before any change begins, the leadership should understand the importance of such change, so that they can be able to communicate the same to their employees.
Change is not automatic, leaders and management must give time for the change to take place and become embedded in the organizational culture. They should be prepared for challenges and even resistance from employees and other stakeholders in the organization.
Managers must strive to build an environment where change is supported in all aspects. A flexible culture that accepts change, drives change and adapts easily to change
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