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Organization Theories

Mar 13, 2017 | 0 comments

Mar 13, 2017 | Essays | 0 comments

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Organization Theories



Ontology as metaphysics branch is concerned with the relations and the nature of beings or the kind of things that exist. Epistemology, on the contrary, is the study of nature, origin and the limits of the knowledge of human (Kasper 2005). According to Starik & Sharma (2005), technology is defined as the result of mans acquired and learned knowledge or his technical skills concerning how things are well done. The major determining factors for the organizations survival are acquisition, maintenance and use of technology. It is the lifeblood of organizations and it can only take place through its adoption. Jackson (1999) pointed out that it is incumbent and significant for any organization to monitor changes in technology, motivate and train their employees to be innovative. This is because technology has a wide spectrum in every aspect of an organization. Kasper (2005) observed that when a new technology is introduced in an organization, all aspects of operations changes. According to Lussier & Hendon (2013), technological changes have affected adversely most organizations globally. Globalization which currently dominates the business world was immensely influenced majorly by communication technology. Additionally, digital technology has integrated the world and allowed different organizations to manage their communication channels (Barrar & Gervais 2006).The essay will analyze the relationship between technology, employees, management and organizations using two perspectives; critical theory and post modernism theory. Exra and Oates (1989) defined post modernism as a set of strategic, critical and rhetorical practices that employ concepts like hype-reality, simulacrum, trace, repetition and difference to destabilize other concepts like  identity, presence, epistemic certainty, historical progress and univocity of meaning. Critical theory, on the contrary, is oriented at changing and critiquing the society entirely. It aims to unearth the social life surface and uncover the general assumptions that prevent us from understanding the world (Exra and Oates 1989). The ontology and epistemological stance of the two perspectives will be applied in analyzing the relations between technology, employees, management and organizations.

Technology improve employee relations and the performance of the organizations

In the current world dominated by information technology, machinery and equipment have become complicated that making each is done by many aspects or different technologies. For instance, the combination of electronics and optics formed optoelectronics, which further resulted to the optics-fiber system of communication. Similarly, the fusion of electronic and mechanical technologies produced the mechatronic revolution, which has greatly transformed most industries and organization. These are all due to improvement in technological innovation in developing and developed countries of the world. Seibold (1975) asserted that innovation in technology integrates technology and the organization. The desire by the management of the organization to find better and improved ways of large scale production of quality services and goods to satisfy their customers have made them to be innovative and creative.

Most technology and scientific driven organizations found in the developing nations often tend to ignore continuous investment in maintenance of the systems and training of their engineers and scientists to cope with the radical and rapid scientific technological changes. This according to Exra and Oates (1989) may be because of high capital intensive nature of the technology driven organization, which they cannot afford. Therefore, the ratio of cost of labor to their overall cost of production is relatively low. The continuous workforce reductions as technology makes the influence and activities of employees attract less attention of the management or the owners. They make an assumption that inputs of the human resources have less effect on the production process in overall. They make a concentration on the profit margin which in most instances tend to be higher as the new technologies are introduced. This eventually makes it seem that the introduced technology contributes only to the overall survival, competiveness, wellbeing of the organizations and countries.

To them, only improved technologies can make them absorb the development and maintenance costs of human resources. Elenurm (2013) argued that the resultant effects of these assumptions in the long run were lack of human resources innovation and the inability of the organizations to survive the constantly threatening and changing environment., where the human element only possess the ability to manage, use and assess. Many organizations have come to realize that human errors are very costly and that their contribution to their lack of innovation may lead to the collapse of the machines and the non performance of the organization (Fasoyin 2006). Its profitable to invest in development and maintenance of the short and long run.

Since the technology introduction, it has improved organizational and human resource performance to the extent that most organizations entirely depend on it. However, Guest (1987) asserted that management or human resources still occupies the essential position in the settings of organizations. It is the innovativeness of the human resources through the employees of the organizations that can promote the development of technology in all organizations, industries and nations. For example, the success of Japan in science and technology was as a result of her citizens’ high level of education, her business management traditional systems, the existence if ready and major markets for her finished goods and the creative attitude of employees who were the Japanese. Gupta and Singhal (1993) observed that in most industries and organizations in Japan, all employees form part of the management. The communications in these organizations is bottom up instead of up-down.all these do not exist in most developing countries.

In developed countries, most big organizations have come to realize that it is lasting and dependable for them to make an investment in the human capital, same like in the capital assets. Jamieson (1988) argued that the world is in the middle of a wave of management of knowledge. The knowledge has emerged as a crucial production factor, as even sometimes more important compared to the capital. The continuous fusion of the technology aspects has demanded the need for the improved motivation, maintenance and continuous development and training of scientists and engineers for improvement in technological innovation. 


The key human agents in management of technology

There is the need for consideration on the interface between globalization, human resource management, change, technological innovation, survival needs and organizational competitiveness. An organization can adopt strategies of employee relation for globalization management, which is the product of rapid changes in technology. The key human agents for technology management are in the organization. The objective is using the strategies of employee relations in strengthening the capability of the human resource innovation for the management of technological, organizational and change competitiveness (Khalil 2000).

The hygiene theory, Herzger theory and the motivation theory of Maslow were used alongside other theories of human resource management (Hersberg 1959). Factors such as the provision of security, economic status, physical working conditions, orientation and motivational factors like advancement opportunities, recognition, responsibility and achievements has been used or stimulation  and motivation of the employees for improved innovation in technology. Locke (1979) suggested the activation theory contrary to the theory of Maslow which was goal oriented. To him, the level of arousal which was moderated is the most preferred for any goal achievement and that high activation will lead to non creative performance, reluctances and boredom. Locke (1979) sees motivation in goal settings terms. An individual will strive to only attain goals that satisfy him or her and those that give him or her pleasure.

To properly utilize technology and avoid its misuse or breakdown, new technology adopted by an organization requires some adjustments in marketing methods, in spare parts and materials supply, in wage scheme, in cost control, in assigning of responsibilities to managers, workers, and in the organizational and financial structure of the enterprise. Therefore, the human resource managers should play a significant role in initiating, monitoring and maintaining the available technology to the employees. Merguiles and Colflesh (1982) explained a socio-technical system on the relationship between the human resource management and technology at individuals’ and group level. The system provided a way of coming up and developing a better fit between social interaction, structure and technology of the organizations work place. This will eventually enhance the desired outcome of the organization.

According to Starik & Sharma (2005), the most difficult task for the human resource managers in organizations that are technology driven is the management of the interface between human subsystems and technologies. Kasper (2005) pointed out that when this interface is properly managed, it provides the compatibility or fit that is appropriate between the two subsystems. Furthermore, understanding of both the human and technical subsystems is important to manage this compatibility even during the rapid technological change times. The fit management at all times is imperative because of its high profitability that changes in technology can create a disequilibrium or misfiting the main groupings and organizational structure that is existing within it, and its projected output and input systems. Moreover, the problem can also take place when major process of transformation is taking place within technical system, in addition to other technical information systems that are relevant. For example, the critical and equipment interface, and the nature of raw materials.

Jackson (1999) observed that the complexities of the major characteristics that are current of the human systems that are existing with the complex task relationships set required to complete various tasks; the predominant set of attitudes in the climate of organizations and the groups, give credence to the industrial relations system use in the technological innovation improvement. The system of industrial relation can be used in structuring and analyzing carefully organization, group and individual interests. It gives possible avenues to draw relevant and sufficient necessary information for the human system design. Barrar & Gervais (2006) indicated that it can stimulate employees performance that are improved in the new global production system, and also in describing the associated activities with workers roles. Moreover, industrial relations enables employees to take part actively in providing means of assessing the required new skills of the development plan specification, supervisory personnel to increase the innovativeness of employees.

Technology enables standardization and integration of the management and the employees

The technologies that operate and run the businesses of today are so interdependent and pervasive. This has made it easier to standardize and integrate the management and organizations of an organization. This is essential to innovation and competitiveness. Lussier & Hendon (2013) elaborated that when the management of the organization has a broad understanding of the organizations digital data, they can be in a position to identify synergies that enables the organization to develop new services and products. They can apply information and technology to improve customer service, fine tune the processes of the business, innovate and efficiently operate. For example, Elenurm (2013) describes the MAPFRE, an insurance company that is Madrid based. The company was able to standardize the important data of the customer to find out why certain customers of the organization ns were leaving. They later formulated policies that would retain their customers.

The major challenges that face most organizations is how to manage the radical and rapid changes in technology. Innovations in technology in large extent determine the competitiveness of the organizations. The technology of an organization includes the skills, knowledge and procedures in addition to the physical manifestations like the machines and tools (Fasoyin 2006). The effect of rapid changing technology has demanded the need for employment by organizations of knowledge and skilled workers to motivate them to cope with change and to innovative. The technological development level of any organization or nation influences its ability in production of quality goods and services. This will make it profitable, improve the employees’ wellbeing and performance and create wealth.


The practice of employee relations enhances the incentives and motivation of employees and improves extrinsic factors of environment that affects the environment of working. Industrial relations can be adopted to stimulate usage of technology and innovation when compounded with organizational analysis and planning of new technologies and with changes in technology. It promotes effective integration and communication of development for the overall benefit of all aspects of the organization. Industrial relations can provide a way of quality goods and services production, by stimulating usage of technology and innovation in a large number of the employee and in every facet of the business.

Organizations should create conclusive environments of working and employee rewards to tram and develop them. This will motivate them to embrace technology and be innovative (Gupta and Singhal 1993).training of employees for their adaptation to the increasing technological, socio economic, demographical changes can be integrated with the industrial relations to stimulate innovations and embrace of technology. The results of these actions are increased flow of information and relations between groups and individuals within the organization.


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