In this assessment the paper will be analyzing the major destinations and generators of tourists of the world in terms of number of visitors and income generations. The essay will also be analyzing development statistics to determine the destination of tourism and make prediction of future developments. The assessment will further have an explanation that is analyzed about physical, social and cultural features of tourist destinations and how they make an appeal to the tourists. The paper will compare the developing features and the leading tourist destinations. That is London, Northern Ireland and Jersey and Gibraltar. Finally, the paper will be explained how the destinations characteristics affect the tourists appeal. The essay will compare the present appeal of leading destination of the tourists with the current tourist destination that is developing. Lastly, it will evaluate how tourist destination features affect its appeal. Tourism destinations according to Clancy (2009), is the country where a tourist chooses to visit. Tourism generators are a country where the tourists come or originate from. Generally France is the major tourism destination and U.K is the main generator of tourism. The appendix contain table for the top tourist destinations, top earners and top spenders in the world.
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United Kingdom and Northern Ireland according to Mehta (2007), is situated in North West of Europe. The area has an area of 242,514 kilometers squared with a population of about 62.4 million people. United kingdom is surrounded by North Sea, Atlantic ocean, Irish Sea and English channel which all form physical tourist attractions to the country. Ireland is one of the top ten destinations of tourists with international tourist arrivals of 28.1 million (Hassan, 2013). Howie (2003) pointed out that Ireland and United Kingdom is ranked at number six globally compared to United States which is ranked at number seven with 30.4 billion receipts of international tourists.
According to Joly (2010), London is one of the leading destinations of tourisms in the world. The city is home of range of famous attractions to tourists. Nicholson (2011) observed that London attracted in 2011 about 15.3 million of international tourists or visitors making it one of the most visited in the world. The visitors to London in 2011spent 9.4 billion pounds, which is slightly above half of the revenue from international visitors of the whole united kingdom that year (Office, 2008)
Gibraltar according to Wearing et al (2010) forms one of the territories of the British that are overseas. Despite the fact that the population of Gibraltar is only 30,000 people, in 2011 the area recorded about 12 million visitors. Yeoman (2008) observed that tourism contributed in 2006 more to the economy of Gibraltar compared to other sectors, with the visitors in 2011 spending approximately 279.41 million pounds (Gibraltar. (January, 2000). Similarly, the same year recorded arrival visitors of 11,940,543
Tourism sector is very significant to the Irish economy and make a very important contribution to the national and regional employment, export service performance, tax revenue and the overall economic activities in general. Clancy (2009) observed the most recent tourism data in 2009.
- The total domestic and out of state expenditure on tourism totaled to £5.3 billion, that is equivalent to 3.9% of the GNP
- In gross value, the tourism sector generated about £ 3.6 billion of added value, which is equivalent to 2.5% of the total value that is added to the economy
- The total earnings in foreign exchange from tourism was £ 3.9 billion, which is 2.6% of the total exports
- The generated direct tax revenue from tourism was £1.3 billion, which is 3.7% of the total tax revenue generated in 2009
- Employment in food service and accommodation services in 2009 was 123,300, which is equivalent to about 6.4% of total employment. The hospitality and tourism sector in general was about 191,747 employees in 2009.
Despite the fact that the tourism sector is making important contribution to the economy in general, currently it is experiencing difficult conditions of trade in terms of revenues and tourism numbers the trends in numbers of visitors from 1999-2005 is represented n the table. The number of overseas visitors increased in Ireland by13.9% (Hassan, 2013).
Tourism is very important to the territory of Gibraltar and is dependent on incoming flows of tourists, especially from UK. The economic outlook from 2009-2010 in the United Kingdom led to reduction in number of visitors to Gibraltar. The financial recovery experienced in UK has fuelled tourist flows to Gibraltar.
The limited geographical size of Gibraltar and bordering of Spain on the seaside resorts of Spain has undermined its performance. The resorts enjoy reputation international as outstanding areas during holidays compounded to wide range of offers of the tourists visiting the area (Gibraltar, 2000).
Tourism sector in London is an invisible giant. The sector is sixth in UK largest industry, generating £ 115 billion yearly and employing 1 in every 11 people working in UK. This is because over 80% of about 249,000 businesses of tourism in London employ less than ten people. Furthermore, the small businesses are spread across entire London and UK rather than congregating together (Howie, 2003).
Joly (2010) pointed out that in 2011, the inbound revenue from tourism grew five times the economy rate, while the estimated domestic revenue of 2011 was 14% higher compared to 2010.this was an additional expenditure of about £ 3.8 billion with ability to generate about 76,000 new job opportunities.
According to Mehta (2007), there are three key aspects of the London Tourism which are very uncompetitive internationally. That is the air passenger duty, visa requirements and VAT rates. The expected tourism industry gold mine where London will be the center stage is the Olympics and the diamond jubilee where the expected tourists to the Olympics will generate a lot of income in the tourism and the hospitality industry.
According to Nicholson (2011), white chapel is a district located in the east of London. For a long time the area has been a neighborhood of the working class and the poor
The 19th century theatres, the Effingham and the Pavilion, were located at the white chapel road. White chapel has prominently figured in the London’s art scene. The most prominent venue of art in white chapel is the white chapel Art Gallery (Office, 2008). According to Wearing et al (2010), in the early 21st century, white chapel prominently figured in punk rocks/skuzz of London with these prominently featuring in the nightclubs, restaurants and factories.
Many see white chapel as a cultural hub political activism that is community based especially of an anti war or anti authoritarian trend. Furthermore, White chapel Art Gallery (2001) observed that the Bangladeshis migrant group is the most visible currently making up of the almost half of the population. The east London mosque symbolizes the existence of the Islamic community
Some of the conspicuous physical features of the white chapel as a tourist destination is the royal London hospital which has been in existence since 1757 (Yeoman, 2008). Additionally, the population of white chapel is predominantly the Bangladesh, West Indies, Pakistan and the India. The area is also near enclaves of Choreditch and Hoxton. Similarly the white chapel market also offers variety of Asians spices.
According to Clancy (2009), white chapel formed the hub of the end of the Victorian East. The area long around the 17th century was very prosperous but began to deteriorate in the mid 18th century. The area later became overcrowded and infected with crime. The notable social features in white chapel are many poor families that are crammed in single rooms without proper ventilation and sanitation. Hassan (2013) asserted that the area was a murder venue that was committed in the 1880s on any women by jack the Ripper, an anonymous killer.
In comparing white chapel and London in physical features that attract tourists, may structures comes in play. North white chapel and London has built physical structures that attract tourists. Howie (2003) pointed out that the there are many notable tourist attractions in London. For instance, the London Eye, which is a permanent structure and wheel like situated on the edge of river Thames. Nearby, there are the Big Ben, London Aquarium, Nelson Column, Westminster Abbey and Houses of parliament. Recently, the tallest building in London forms one of the tourist attractions in addition to the Buckingham palace and Tower of London. Furthermore, other physical things include museums, open spaces and parks for tourists to rest, stroll and relax.
Similarly, when white chapel is compared to Gibraltar, many differences and similarities are noted. The main attractions of Gibraltar are the Rock of Gibraltar, with its inhabitants of the Barbary Macaques or the apes, the marinas, casinos, duty free shopping and the military heritage. This contrary to white chapel that has a huge chapel building in the locality, many restaurants and casinos and mixture of populations from different races (Gibraltar, 2000).
Location and accessibility
London is excellently situated while the location of white chapel is also good. White chapel runs from the city of London and great Bishops gate and from the commercial road heading to Brick lane. The location of London is centrally placed with accessibility to all means of transport for tourists such as airports, railways and accessible roads. White chapel can be accessed by tourists from the west side at Aldgate East station and directly take you to the white chapel art gallery or to the East of Chapel Road (Hassan, 2013).
The image of London as a tourist destination is very good compared to white chapel which is very poor. London has beautiful parks, well maintained structures and cleans environment that is appealing to the tourists. However, the white chapel is congregated and is a slum with degraded environment, old building and structures, overpopulation and poor sanitation (Howie, 2003).
Security and safety
London city has an excellent and tight security for the tourists from the central government and the municipal governments. All tourists’ avenues are guarded with high security detail compared to white chapel which is a slum, crowded and has emergence of criminal activities in addition to high crime rate (Joly, 2010).
Both London city and white chapel has good heritage that is appealing to the tourists. Both areas were built long time ago and has physicals structures that attract tourists. Similarly, both towns has rich cultural heritage which appeals to the tourists to learn more.
Social and economic status
London has a good social and economic status compared to white chapel. The socio-economic class in London is high, has several economic activities that are operational compared to white chapel that is predominantly slums, overcrowded and the residents are of low social class.
Life expectancy and health
The data retrieved from the borough o tower of Hamlets shows that the life expectancy for males is 72.9 years and 78.9 years for females. Similarly, the self assessed proportion good health found in white chapel is 68.2% higher than tower of hamlets 67.9% (Mehta, 2007).
In white chapel area, there exist about 9380 households (Nicholson, 2011). The number of the lone parents without children is 8.5% which is more than double of Wales and England. Moreover, there is much greater proportion of other households, 21.3% households. Office (2008) asserted that the high percentage in white chapel of other households is likely to be linked to high levels of housing and overcrowding.
Although it is a big issue in white chapel, it has reduced of late. White chapel continues to be a street crime, anti social behavior and violent crime hotspot
Key sectors and economic growth
The employment in white chapel is dominated by retail and whole sale at 13.2%,real estate at 21%, health and social work at 11.45% and finally finance at 9.4%.the area is over represented by restaurants and hotels while underrepresented in public administration and manufacturing (Wearing et al, 2010).
The white chapel n 2001 had an unemployment level of about 6.9%, London had 4.3%, and Tower of Hamlets had 6.6%.
Work force skills
The white chapel workforce has relatively high level of higher and intermediate managerial grades AB workers of about 34.9% compared to 32.5% of London and Wales and England of 23%. The supervisory or the grade C1 is equal with other areas. In contrast, the skilled manual or grade C2 stood at 9.3%, unskilled and semi skilled manual workers was 15.9% (White chapel Art Gallery, 2001).
The industry o tourism faces many different factors. These factors may affect particular destinations while other factors may affect the whole tourism sector. These factors include the following:
If people are becoming jobless and keeps worrying where their next meal or rent to pay their mortgage, definitely they will not think of tourism. The worry of the future may force people to save their money rather than spend it on travel. This is because many people consider travel as a luxury which should be done by the extra money at good times. For instance, the global recession of 2007 rendered many people jobless and this affected tourism in Ireland (Yeoman, 2008).
Prices of the gas
When people spend much on gas, they may be reluctant to taking long road trips which they would have gone for. Additionally, may companies that are associated with the travel and tourism industry like the bus companies and the airlines need to pay for gas. When the gas price rises up a little, they will have added costs (Clancy, 2009). Therefore, to account or if, they will raise their charges which may eventually influence most people not to go for a trip because of the cost added. For instance, increase gas prices from gas producers affected tourists to London
This can have some influence on particular destinations. When people are hit by a natural disaster, they will be worried about going for a travel. There are also particular tourist destinations that might be hit by their own disaster, which can influence people to avoid going there. Natural disasters include explosions, terrorist attacks, earth quakes and hurricanes among others. For instance, when explosion occurred in Gibraltar, many travelers cancelled their trips (Gibraltar, 2000).
The Cape Town declaration states that responsible tourism in the destinations is about making places better for the people to live, and better places for more people to visit (Hassan, 2013). Responsible tourism according to Howie (2003) is very broad but has a commitment to respect places tourist visit and the significance of having an interest on the environments and the host communities, cultural and natural first.
Responsible tourism entails taking responsibility collectively and individually for the bottom-line sustainability; environmental, social and economical. It is about taking corporate and individual responsibility for sustainable development principles implementation. Furthermore, it entails taking responsibility for an action instead of demanding that another person else does it.
According to Office (2008), The Cape Town declaration of 2002 defines responsible tourism as possessing the following characteristics;
- Minimization of negative social, environmental and economic impacts. This implies that when the tourists visits London city on a tour visit. They should ensure they reduce negative environmental impacts like throwing litters aimlessly; not polluting the environment and ensuring the environment remain natural like the way they found it. Negative social and economic impacts imply that the tourists ensure they minimize negative influence on the host communities.
- The tourists can also generate to the host communities greater economic gains and also enhance their well being, improve their working conditions and ease their access to the tourism industry. This can be enhanced by the tourism bodies, government agencies and including the locals in the industry to gain economically.
- The tourists also should involve the local people in the host communities in decision making that affect their lives. This includes decisions on expansion of the tourist sites of the tourism areas, corporate social responsibility of the corporate to the local communities and employment of the employees in the tourism sector
- The tourists should also make positive contributions to the maintenance and conservation of the cultural and natural heritage, to the diversity of the world maintenance. This is essential for the continuity of the tourism heritage areas. Conservation of the wildlife is important for the future generation. Furthermore, maintenance of the cultural heritage of the locals like in Gibraltar is important responsible tourism.
The data under the appendix section has been extracted from website of UNWTO.
- TOURISTS NUMBER 2005-2011(‘000s)
|Rest of World||243||261||261||245||249||319||289|
|Total Out-of-State Visitors||6403||6646||6353||6476||6764||6982||n/a|
P=PROVISIONAL, N/A= NOT AVAILABLE
- TOURISM REVENUE 2005-2011 (€ MILLION)
Total Expenditure by non-residents
|Tourism Foreign Exchange Earnings||3115||3637||3935||3989||4057||4076||4273|
|Domestic Tourism Receipts||n/a||707||880||849||971||1037||n/a|
|All Tourism Revenue||n/a||4344||4815||4838||5028||5113||n/a|
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Yeoman, I. (2008). Tomorrow’s tourist: Scenarios & trends. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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