Issues And Challenges When Planning Change That Confront Management
Discuss the various issues and challenges that confront management when planning change, integrating into your discussion any ethical issues and ethical implications raised by the following questions:
- What are the key considerations that need to be taken into account in the contracting process?
Contractual relationships are primary in both the public and private sector. A contract binds two or more parties to do or not to do certain things. A contract would for instance be that of sale of goods or the supply of certain goods or services. Contacts exist of different types for example leases, partnership agreements, and employment agreements just to name a few (Haultman 1995). The process of creating a contract involves several things such as exchange of information, discussion and negotiations and many others (Radka 2014). For a contract to be said to be in existence, it must fulfill certain requirements. There must be existence of an offer, consideration, acceptance, and intention to create legal relationship. This section shall discuss all the essential requirements of a contact and factors that may invalidate a contract.
An offer is usually made by one party known as the offeror to the acceptor. The offer made should define the subject matter to contract on and clearly identify the party to whom the offer is made. Once an offer is made it can be accepted or not. Only what is offered is supposed to be accepted. This means therefore, that the conditions that the offer dictates must be accepted without further conditions. In case new conditions or terms are generated then this results to a counter offer which is rejected. Acceptance of the offer automatically brings the contract negotiations to an end. Acceptance is given verbally, in writing or by conduct. If a means of communication is provided by the offeror then the means must be adhered to at the time of acceptance.
Another essential of a valid contract is the intention to create legal relationships. The parties to the contract must intend to enter into a legally binding contract, that the agreement is enforced in law. The parties intend not to be legally bound then they must include a clause in their contract to show the same. Intention to create legal relationships assist either of the parties seek remedy in a court of law incase the other breaches the contract.
Another requirement for a valid contract is consideration or the price in a contract. Every contract must be supported by a valid consideration. One party must therefore do something in return for something of value. Primarily, consideration is usually money exchanged in a contractual agreement. However, consideration can be anything of value such as a promise to do something or not to exercise a particular right. Payment of consideration in a contract need not to be fair but something of value (Radka, 2014).
- What does it take to ensure effective data gathering?
Data that is valid is essential in data analysis programs. Data gathering or collection assists any firm or company to measure the outcomes of particular programs. There are fives steps involved in data collection that must be adhered to. First is identification of outcomes and developing performance measures. Secondly, is the creation and implementation of a data collection plan. Thirdly, is the analysis of data and the last step is communication of the results through a data collection report.
Interviews are the primary tools for collecting data. They can be conducted either through the telephone or in person. Interviews provide an opportunity to explore the questions more deeply and get effective data. One can ask questions since it is easier to clarify any confusion, the respondents can evaluate on the answers they have given than when a survey is used for data collection. Interviews are however disadvantageous since they are very expensive and take considerably a large amount of time and one would be required to collect data from very few people.
Observation is another way to ensure effective data gathering and collection. This will require well trained people who are observers who will take notice of all the details and record it down. Observation is an effective data collection technique since it generates first hand and unbiased information through the individuals trained to gather the data. For observation to be effective a proper observation development tool must be obtained.
- What/who are the primary targets of change programs and why is it important that the identification of the primary target be accurate? What could occur if a mistake is made?
In any organization the primary target for change are the members of that organization. Change however can be targeted to a particular group of people. When this is the case communication need to be made to that particular group to ensure the outcomes of the changes are achieved. It is important to identify the primary target to ensure that communication and information about the changes reaches the group (Dent & Goldberg, 1999). Additionally, it is important so as to avoid blame games when mistakes are made. In case a mistake is made, it becomes easy to find the person responsible for the change and hold them accountable (Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979)
- Why do people resist change and is such resistance justifiable?
Change is an everyday part of any organization. Resistance to change can cripple any business or organization. Major changes are accustomed to very strong resistance. This is because people tend to rush to defend their status quo if they feel that their security is threatened. Change has the likelihood of generating skepticism and resistance proving it difficult to implement improvements. There are several reasons why people resist change. This section shall discuss these reasons and their justification. Change is a process that involves movement from the current way of doing things to a different approach of things. According to (Bridges, 1991), Individual do not resist actual change rather the process of acquiring that change. Sometimes change requires psychological change for people to view change positively. The transition must work for change to work. To understand change, it is important to ensure that the transition process is smooth for all people. Morgan (1997) suggests that change will spontaneously occur only if people are prepared to relinquish their state of comfort.
The first and common reason why people resist change for example in the workplace is fear of loss of employment. In most organizational settings technological advancements or product changes can create fear among employees. These changes create the dissatisfaction that their employment status is insecure and that their primary reaction to change is resistance. It s common to find employees who have job security accept and implement change. When the change is harmful to the job then the resistance is more likely to be high. Unhappy employees view change as something annoying and no matter the effect of the change then they will view it as having a negative impact to their positions (Folger & Skarlicki, 1995).
People may also resist change due to bad communication strategies. The mode of communication to people is critical in determining their reaction to change. If the communication is going to define who, why, how, when and what then the chances of resistance is inevitable. People are supposed to understand the need for particular change. In addition, if the change is not communicated at all then the first reaction to it is resistance since the people are likely to feel that the change is being forced on them. Immediate information should be provided during the process of change to maintain an open communication door policy (Strebel, 1996). The management or person responsible for change must ensure that they are available to answer questions.
Fear of the unknown is another reason for resistance of change. People reaction to changes ranges from fear, panic to enthusiastic support. During the change process people may feel the need to cling to the past because it was more secured and predictable (Strebel, 1996). It is usually because the change worked for the people and fear that the changes being implemented will not be achievable. It is said that the more the people are less aware of change then the higher the likelihood of resistance. People need to be prepared for change and a two-way communication must be maintained with the leadership (Kegan & Lahey 2001).
- What strategies can be used to manage resistance to change?
Change is inevitable and proper strategies can be used to properly mange the resistance that comes with change. The first strategy is communication; a two-way communication must be maintained to ensure that that the reaction of the people is listened to. The communication must me timely, and straightforward. Various channels of communication such as email, meetings and suggestion boxes must be used to achieve this.
Resistance to change can be achieved by ensuring that the people are given a chance to participate in the change. The input of the people is very important to determine what is expected and what the employee’s role is in the change process. The people can be divided into teams and will implement the change as a group (Piderit, 2000). All in all to manage resistance the leadership for change should focus on providing solutions other than providing punitive measures to people who resist change. Engage in positive solutions other than being defensive. Listening is one way of achieving this, through listening questions is answered any doubts and fears are also solved (de Jager 2001).
- Given organizational politics is an ongoing challenge in the context of change, how may one develop political support for a change process?
Organizations are required to explore political factors to ensure that organizational change is not interfered with. This section shall outline the strategies to use to deal with organizational politics. In the work place, for instance, political resistance is likely to emanate from Union representative of employees (Coetsee, 1999). To overcome this challenge therefore, it is important to communicate with the Union in charge of the changes that are likely to take place in the work place. Communication can be in form of letters addressed to the Union itself. The Union in return will have the responsibility of communication the changes to its members and convincing them to take it positively (Kirkman, 2000).
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Coetsee, L. (Summer, 1999). From resistance to commitment. Public Administration Quarterly, 204-222. http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/IJKCCMCG/article/view/57526
de Jager, P. (2001). Resistance to change: a new view of an old problem. The Futurist, 24-27. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAAahUKEwiLhZC5ueXHAhUpKtsKHa85Ajo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fusers.humboldt.edu%2Fdecampbell%2Fp403rdg_orgchg2.htm&usg=AFQjCNEoWzd2P6sVTEkdWeTxCrSc6D5z2w&sig2=JfFaakuYfdWliW8KZk_eag&cad=rjt
Dent, E. & Goldberg, S. (1999). Challenging “resistance to change.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 25-41.
Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 35-50.
Hultman, K. (1995). Scaling the wall of resistance. Training & Development, 15-22.
Kegan, R. & Lahey, L. (200 1). The real reason people won’t change. Harvard Business Review 85-92.
Kirkman, B. (2000). Why do employees resist teams? examing the “resistance barrier” to work team effectiveness. International Journal of Conflict Management 74-93. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CCsQFjACahUKEwiM87aXtuXHAhWxCtsKHaCMAI0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.na-businesspress.com%2FJMPP%2FBertschA_Web13_3_.pdf&usg=AFQjCNE5PUOGs5D7fDQJIooSpCc_xBt75Q&sig2=Tsb3KvQ7omntQFn3H0B5pA&bvm=bv.102022582,d.d24&cad=rjt
Kotter, J. P., & Schlesinger, L.A. (1979). Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review 106-114.
Morgan, G. (1997). Images of organization Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/afr/images-of-organization/book229704
Piderit, S.K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: a multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management -794. A, 783
Strebel, P. (1996). Why do employees resist change? Harvard Business Review 86-92. https://hbr.org/1996/05/why-do-employees-resist-change
Radka, S. (2014). Key Considerations for Contract Management. Implementation.Percificient.com. https://blogs.perficient.com/ibm/2014/09/16/key-considerations-for-contract-management-implementation/