Powered by ProofFactor - Social Proof Notifications

Enhancing Workplace Safety: The Significance of Safety and Health Training

May 26, 2023 | 0 comments

blog banner

May 26, 2023 | Essays | 0 comments

What Will I Learn? show

 An evaluation of safety and health training at Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA)

Abstract

This paper gives an insight into the role of safety and health training programs in accident reduction. This paper studies the automotive industry in South Africa, it is focused on the safety and health practices in Mercedes-Benz South Africa. The development of an efficient safety and health program is believed greatly to reduce the number of accidents in the industry. The adoption of the combination theory of accident causation in an accident investigation is recommended as it takes into consideration all the factors that combine before an accident ensues. The theoretical part of the study looked at the literature available on the impact of OSH training as a method of accident reduction. Little has been documented in this area; this provides the relevance of the study. Based on previous studies, a positive correlation exists between the level of employee training and the number and nature of accidents experienced. The more frequent OSH training programs are conducted, the fewer the accidents.

Keywords: Accident, European Union, Gross domestic product, International Labor Organization, American National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety(NIOSH), Occupational Safety and Health Assessment series (OSHA), Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA), Integrated Management System (IMS), Key Performance Indicator (KPI)          

________________________________                                    _______________________

People Also Read

   

                                                                                                  

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.0       Introduction

Two main pillars drive the essence for improved Safety and health training as a way of accident reduction in the automotive industry; stakeholders and legislation (McKinnon, 2013: 69). According to ILO (2011), appropriate regulations and legislation are important, so the workers’ health gets protected at the workplace. Several forms of abuse and neglect arise where we lack legislation and are worse off when enforcement is deficient. The South African labor laws regulate the nature of the work and the work environment experienced. Specific considerations are given to guide the process of recruitment and the skills expected of each worker. Pre-employment training is mandatory and the training is done to familiarize the worker with the safe operating procedure irrespective of their experience (Steyn, 2011:1-8). On job safety and health, training is essential to ensure that the worker is always aware of the hazards. Familiarity with the work environment can make a worker insensitive to the danger (Steyn, 2011: 1-8). The training of the safety and health committees are also enshrined in labor laws. The safety and health committee comprises members of the senior management and employee representatives. The task of constituting the committee is the occupier’s responsibility and is mandatory as per law (OSH ACT 2007).

The Automotive component industry in South Africa is involved mainly in the manufacture of turbo diesel engines, processed leather, and other vehicle parts. The components are sourced locally and sold globally after assembly. As of the year 2010, local manufacturing contributed over 6% of the country’s GDP, which is over 12% of its exports. This comprised of 271,000 vehicles and their respective assembly parts. The sector employs 28, 000 people in the manufacturing and a further 65,000 who manufacture components (Brand South Africa, 2010). The retail sectors and tire manufacture is also a major employer with over 200,000 employees (Brand South developing countries in Africa. Frank uses his own experiences to explain how technology has grown and is developing Africa, 2010). The automotive production is expected to edge over 2 million vehicles per annum in the year 2020 (World Bank, 2002b). Reputed vehicle manufacturers that have set base in the country include; Ford, BMW, GM, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Renault, Volkswagen, and Toyota. Bloxwich and Corning are examples of component manufacturers that have had an interest in the country (Steyn, 2011: 1-8). Mercedes-Benz has a long history, with the initial manufacturing facility having been set up over half a century ago (Mercedes-Benz South work opportunities is still a major issue that need requires attention in New Zeeland. Some nations, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa Limited, 2013a). Geographically the industry is located in the Eastern Cape and Gauteng. The main pull factors include the low cost of energy and production. Access to the emerging markets of Africa and the EU is also a factor (South African Development Community Free Trade Area, 2013). The unit cost of production of automotive steel is quite reasonable.

It is based on the economic importance of the industry to the SA Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that this study chose to focus on Mercedes-Benz. The industry is a major employer and occupational accidents affect a large proportion of the population. Common sources of risks experienced in the automotive industry include; Benzene, choice of gloves, fall from a height, fire, hand vibration, noise, slips and trips, used engine oil, workplace transport, and manual handling (Erjavec, 2000: 64-70).

1.2       Background information

To determine the effect of OSH training on accident reduction, we have to determine the causes of accidents. Once an accident has occurred, an accident investigation has to be carried out to determine the cause and mitigate the effects. The accident causation theories are used as a lead in accident investigation and the determination of the likely cause of accidents (Smillie & Ayoub, 2007: 47-68).

Industrial management in the early 80s aimed at reduction in cost incurred in worker compensation (Quinlan, Bohle & Lamm, 2010: 505-507). This presented the birth of the Heinrich domino theory. Being an employee of the US insurance industry, his immediate area of concern was the initial cause of the accident. The initial cause was important as it determined if the injured person was worthy of compensation. The worker was seldom blamed for the unsafe act. The root cause of the problem is the management of OSH was highly ignored. He assigned responsibility for industrial accidents that occurred outside the work environment to the defects in social attitudes and behavior. The simple analogy observes the tumbling of dominoes arranged in a row over each other. The dominoes in such a case represent each causal factor. The accidents were blamed on the unsafe acts of the workers and laxity in supervision by the supervisors. The discrepancy that arose was that the top management was left off the hook, yet the responsibility in the development of the safe systems rests on them (Quinlan et al., 2010: 505-507).

Firenze’s Systems theory is centered on the human cognitive perspective, it is organized into five levels, Person/Machine/Environment, Information Gathering, Risks Assessment, Decision Making, and Task Performance. The abundance of stressors can cloud judgment during information gathering, risk weighing, and decision making processes (Muchiri & Peter, 2009: 17-24). Firenzie recommends five factors to be considered before; decision making and information gathering. First, the worker’s ability, the job requirements, gains from successful task completion, and finally, loss if the task is attempted but results in failure (Muchiri & Peter, 2009: 17-24).

Each of the theories highlighted has a weakness and do not present the actual reality. The combination theory of causation combines all the theories and models to achieve the best approach towards a solution to the problem (Hunt & Darwin, 1989: 41-53). The discrepancy of a model addressing particular problems better than other theories is solved in this manner.

The accident investigation is used to identify and control hazards before they occur and thereby preventing more serious incidences. It further shows hazards that were missed earlier and where hazard controls failed. Investigations are conducted for, all injuries, not excluding the minor ones. Those with potential injury, property damage, near misses, and during initial action. Before the reported the case. Recognizing this, the organization launched an investigation, a plan is drawn. The plan will identify the authorities to be notified, outside agencies, timelines, and the timetables for conducting hazard correction. Finally, the investigation will be considered successful when the correction has been achieved. Those involved should record the information quickly, with high standards of accuracy being adhered to. Leadership should ensure that the involved staff in developing and implementing the recommendations.

1.3       Problem statement

The degree of the world impact of occupational diseases and accidents, as well as major industrial calamities, in terms of human distress and related financial costs, have been a long-standing source of concern at the workplace, national and international levels (ILO, 2011).

Considerable efforts have been developed at all levels to cope with this problem, but ILO approximation is that over 2 million workers die every year from work-related diseases and accidents and that this figure is on the increase globally (ILO, 2011). The company’s performance is closely related to the number of man-hours put into the production process. An employee who is out of work as a result of an injury is an economic loss to the company. Loss of life is a bigger loss to the company and the community at large. Within the automobile industry workers are organized in production lines (The World Bank, 2011a: 10-34). Injury to work means the production line is seriously hampered, and the whole process is hampered. Economic losses and human suffering are quite common in the industry. With the intense competition, Mercedes-Benz would not want to lose out of the market as a result of negative social impact (Mercedes-Benz South Africa, 2013b).

1.4 Objectives

MBSA conducts various health and safety-related training, but there has not been a review of its impact on accidents or incidents.  This research, therefore, aims to evaluate the key types of accidents and incidents at MBSA (East London manufacturing plant) and assess how training aims to address these (trainable) accident/incident root-causes.  This paper will help industry professionals and scholars to understand the importance of evaluation of safety and health training in the South African automotive industry (Blase, 2004: 110; Aquinas, 2008: 134; Wokutch, 1992: 1). 

1.5 Main Objective

To evaluate the safety and health training at Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA)

1.6       Justification

Although valuable technical and legal tools, methodologies, and measures to deter occupational accidents and diseases exist, there is the importance for the enhanced understanding of the significance of OSH as well as a high degree of political obligation for effective implementation of national OSH systems (ILO Safe work Bookshelf, 2011). This awareness can only be achieved through comprehensive OSH training. The study is important as it demonstrates if there is a need for a formal Health and Safety Training program to be introduced in the automotive industry (Gotsch & Weidner, 1994). This study will give insight if this topic needs to be further researched.

1.7       Research goals

The following are the research goals designed for this study.

  1. Evaluation of MBSA incident or accident reports determining the trend in accidents’ root causes.
  2. Assess how safety and health training programs are being developed and/or delivered to mitigate these root causes.
  3. Evaluating the current safety and health training programs at MBSA using Kirkpatrick’s four levels of the evaluation model.
  4. Make recommendations for improvement on either the training approaches and/or training reading spiritual and vocational books, praying and mediating early mornings. Upon realization of my true calling, God sent Holy Cross Sister whom I felt attracted to and felt very content as it relates to safety and healthy accidents/incidents at MBSA.

1.8       Theoretical review

Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory of 1943 on human motivation has five levels: Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, Safety needs – protection and security, Belongingness and Love needs –family, Esteem needs- self-esteem, status and Self-Actualization needs-self-fulfillment. The safety needs are placed at the third level meaning that they are critical for a good living (McGuire, 2012: 10-40).

1.9       Contextual framework 

Figure 1: Contextual Framework – Safety and Health Training for Accident Reduction in the Workplace

References

AQUINAS, P. G., 2008. Organization Structure & Design: Applications And Challenges. New Delhi: Excel Books

BLASE, J., 2004. Handbook of Instructional Leadership: How Successful Principals Promote Teaching and Learning. New York: Corwin Press

BRAND SOUTH AFRICA 2010, South Africa Automotive industry, South Africa.info. [Online].

COHEN, L., MANION, L., and MORRISON, K., 2001. Research Methods in Education. London; Routledge Falmer,(5th ed). London: Routledge Falmer.

COLLINS, D., 2007.  Health and safety strategies 2007: case report, Workplace Law Group, London Department of Trade and Industry Republic of South Africa, 2013, Industrial policy action plan. [Online]. Available: 2013 http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=162797.Accessed: 26 July 2013.

DESA, A, F, N, C., HABIDIN, N, F., HIBADULLA, S, N., FUZI, N, M., & ZAMRI, F, I, M., 2013, ‘Occupational safety and health administration practices and OSHA performance in the Malaysian automotive industry,’ Journal of Studies in Social Science, 4, 1: 1-15,[Online].Available: 25 July 2013, Academic Search Complete

ERASMUS, B., WYK V. M., AND SCHENK, H., 2003. South African Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. Providing incentives and benefits. (3rd ed): 517-588.

ERJAVEC, J., 2000. Automotive technology: a systems approach, London: Cengage Learning

GORDON, S., HUANG, HO, MICHAEL, H., and PETER, C., 2006. The relationship between safety climate and injury rates across industries: The need to adjust for injury hazards. Accident Analysis & Prevention.  38, 3: 556-562.

GRETSCH, A. R., & WEIDNER, B. L., 1994. ‘Strategies for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs.’ Journal of Occupational Safety and Health Training. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus. 6: 171–188.

HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2013a, Manual handling. [Online].  http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/topics/manual.htm. Accessed: 28 July 2013

HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2013b, Health, and safety in the motor vehicle repair industry. [Online]. http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/index.htm. Accessed: 27 July 2013

HUNT, A., & DARWIN, P., 1989. Human self-assessment process theory: An eight-factor model of human performance and learning: an everyman’s causation, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer:  Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74382-5_4

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, 2011. Safety and health in (MVR) ILO code of practice, Geneva, International Labour Office, Viewed 24 July 2013 http://site.ebrary.com/id/10530997

MCGUIRE, J, K., 2012. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Munich: Grin Verlag.

MCKINNON, R, C., 2013. Changing workplace safety culture. Boca Raton Florida: CRC Press.

MERCEDES –BENZ SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED 2013a, Corporate social investment, Mercedes Benz. [Online]. http://www.mercedes-benzsa.co.za/sustainable-development/corporate-social-investment/. Accessed: 29 July 2013

MERCEDES–BENZ SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED, 2013b, Mercedes-Benz South Africa welcomes you, Mercedes-Benz. [Online]. http://www.mercedes-benzsa.co.za/. Accessed: 29 July 2013

MUCHIRI, A & PETER, N., 2009. Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering, London: Springer,  Doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84882-472-0_22

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 2007 (Kenya). [Online]. www.kenyalaw.org/…/Acts/Occupational Safety and Health. Accessed: 27 July 2013

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION., 1988a. Training requirements in OSHA standards and training guidelines. OSHA Rept. 2254. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Washington D.C: U.S. Department of Labor.

QUINLAN, M., BOHLE, P, and LAMM, F., 2010. Managing occupational health and safety: a multidisciplinary approach. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan

SHANON, H.S., ROBSON, L.S., & GUASTELLO, S.J., 1999. Methodological criteria for evaluating occupational safety intervention research. Safety Science, 31: 161-179.

SILVERSTEIN, M., 2008. “Getting Home Safe and Sound: Occupational Safety and Health Administration,” American Journal of Public Health 98, 3: 416-423, [Online]. Available 15 August 2013, doi: 10.2105/ajph.2007.117382

SMILLIE, R. J., & AYOUB, M. A., 2007. ‘Accident causation theories: a simulation approach,’ Journal of Occupational Accidents, 1, 1: 47-68

STEYN, J., 2011. Education and training in automotive component manufacturing. [Online]. 

THE SOUTH Factors influencing job satisfaction among public sector employees: an empirical exploration. South AFRICAN DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, 2013, Amended occupational health and safety act, Labor. [Online].

THE WORLD BANK, 2011a. Fostering technology absorption in southern African Americans (Sollins et al 283). His artistry examines how African enterprises, World Bank publications

WOKUTCH, R. E., 1992. Worker protection, Japanese style: occupational safety and health in the auto industry, 21.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Literature review

2.1       History

Several approaches to accident reduction and prevention of incidents are in use in the automotive industry (Shannon et al. 1999: 161-179). The approaches include; first aid training, employee training, education of employees, employee motivation or rewards, supervision, and goal or target setting. Employee training on safety and health has been identified as one of the core strategies in accident prevention. To control hazards the workers have to be cognizant of them in the first instance; how they arise and the mitigation or protection measures that can be instituted (OSHA, 1988a). To further elaborate on the importance of employee training over hundred OSH standards mention and recommend employee training as a tool appropriate for accident reduction (OSH Act South Africa, 1993: 128, Collins, 2007:160-165).

2.2       The automotive industry in South Africa

The Automotive industry in SA supports several small and medium scale enterprises. The SMEs supply and assemble the various parts (Department of the Trade and Industry Republic of South Africa, 2013). For instance, in South Africa, every industry is obligated to develop practices and operational procedures that are safe, with a target to tame workplace hazards. All employers are tasked with securing the health and wellbeing of their employees with possible court indictment in cases of negligence (Desa, et. al, 2013:1-15). The OSH Act No 85 of 1993 and amendment No 181 of 1993, forms the basis of safety and health legislation in the country. Further modifications to the Act were made in the years 2005 and 2008 (The South African Department of labor, 2013). Based on the act, the automotive industry is expected to improve its Occupational safety and health performance as the country gears to an injury-free workplace (Occupational Safety and Health Act 1993, South Africa).

One of the bodies that run health and safety training in line with international standards is SA Mercedes-Benz. The standards include the OHSAS 18001, which are the Occupational Safety and Health Assessment Series for health and safety management systems. This is an OSH management standard. Its purpose is to help organizations to control workplace safety and health risks (Collins, 2007:160-165). Recommended exposure limits, as directed by the American National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, are followed strictly. Workers and safety representatives have to be thoroughly trained according to these standards of best practice (Health and safety executive, 2013a).

2.3       Thesis statement

Several studies have attempted to explain the role of safety training in accident reduction. Research shows that accidents cost employers approximately $33 billion a year (Silverstein, 2008: 416-423). Several approaches to training have been highlighted. Training has been used together with positive reinforcement, rewards, and feedback. This literature review looks at several findings that have proven to be efficient in the industry. It will further show the various approaches taken to train workers on OSH. Most of the evidence to support the role of OSH training will be drawn from experiments and studies that have been conducted out in industries and other workplaces. The role of training in accident prevention will be evaluated by making a comparison of the accidents before and after the training interventions. Comparisons will be made with other companies within the automotive industry. The investigation will further cover the role of first aid training in combination with occupational safety and health training. Lastly, the research will focus on accident causation models. Accident causation models focus on the cause of accidents this makes a study of the models important to determine which model best tells us the cause of an accident. A summary of the literature will answer the question, what effect training has in the reduction and prevention of occupational accidents. We will seek to depict how a trained worker responds to an accident as opposed to an untrained worker.

2.4       The nature of Occupational safety training in recent years

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health TIER model of study on the role of training in accident reduction lists impact assessment as a crucial fourth research goal (Loos et al. 1999: 17). Analysis of published information done by NIOSH in line with worker training shows that; of the 22 published evaluations of worker training, only 13 studies measured the self-reported application of knowledge. Measurement of impacts of safety and health training remains the most difficult outcome for the training community to measure (Monforton & Celeste, 2009:40-48; Robson, 2001:121).

The study of occupational safety and health training roles and impact fits a broader category of intervention research. Intervention research (or prevention effectiveness) is the study of planned and applied activities designed to produce designated outcomes by applying scientific methods to measure the impact of safety interventions (Goldenhar and Schulte, 1994:10-22; Robson, 2001:121). Such evaluation should carefully incorporate a theoretical basis for the intervention. An intervention powerful enough to be measured. It should be a rigorous study design with valid measurement instruments. Finally, it should incorporate the appropriate use of statistical analysis (Monforton & Celeste, 2009:40-48). The move from evaluating occupational safety and health training by student course evaluations and testing to measuring impacts has developed in tandem. This has brought momentous changes in workplace safety and health training philosophies. Three notable developments have influenced training in recent years in ways that by definition must also influence the evaluation of these training programs. The first of these is the growth within the worker training community of participatory or empowerment training. Increasingly, training by unions or labor education organizations seeks to empower the workers to take part actively in making workplaces safe (Wallerstein and Baker, 1994: 305-315). This approach to training has a theoretical basis in the philosophy of participatory education described by Shor and Freire (1987:13). This type of training views trainers as facilitators in the development of knowledge. This knowledge of the instructors is believed to have been gained through life experience. This is opposed to communicators of a static body of knowledge. It is worker-centered, emphasizes participatory and hands-on exercises, and seeks to motivate participants, so as, to remain active in improving their working conditions (McQuiston et al. 1994: 1310-1323; Deutsch, 1996: 68-72).

A second and related development is the increasing use of workers as trainers. The automotive industry and other sponsored training programs rely on worker trainers. These workers offer training, and some go to the extent of becoming a full-time educational staff. This use of peer training in occupational safety and health has been reported to be more successful for increasing self-efficacy among trained workers than the use of professional trainers (Kurtz et al., 1997: 661-671). Thirdly, this philosophy of training becomes particularly pertinent in light of increased attention to the limits that worker training may face in the context of a variety of workplace circumstances or systems. These systems may not be supportive of making changes that prevent injuries and illnesses to workers. This perspective takes a systems approach to workplace organizations and suggests that while worker training may be a prerequisite to improved safety at the workplace; it can significantly be limited or enhanced by the organization to which the training is applied (Ford and Fisher, 1994:241-259). These limits to training appear to support the need for training workers beyond technical materials. Effective worker training should enable the workers to become more effective in making the workplace changes as opposed to the need for supervision. At the same time evaluation of training that is meant to create impacts on the complex workplace, systems must recognize the limit through the critical role of training in the overall workplace safety and health programs (National Clearinghouse, 1997:108-120).

The form of training adopted in the automobile industry should take the model of intervention research. It should employ a participatory and empowering training approach and an evaluation methodology that seeks to measure impacts in the context of workplace safety and health systems. In the context of a typical reliance on professionals to solve health and safety problems, evaluation of this worker-centered model of workplace change is particularly beneficial.

2.5       Accident causation and investigation models about the automotive

          Industry

Once an accident has occurred, an accident investigation has to be carried out to determine the cause and mitigate the effects. To determine the effect of OSH training on accident reduction, we have to determine the causes of accidents. The accident causation theories are used as a lead in accident investigation and determination of the likely cause of accidents (Smillie & Ayoub, 2007: 47-68). Industrial management in the early 80s aimed at reduction in cost incurred in worker compensation (Quinlan, Bohle & Lamm, 2010: 505-507). This presented the birth of the Heinrich domino theory. Being an employee of the US insurance industry, his immediate area of concern was the initial cause of the accident. The initial cause was significant as it determined if the injured person was worthy of compensation. The worker was seldom blamed for the unsafe act. The cause of the problem, which was the management of OSH, was highly ignored. He assigned responsibility for industrial accidents that occurred outside the work environment to defects in social attitudes and behavior. The simple analogy observes the tumbling of dominoes arranged in a row over each other. The dominoes in such a case represent each causal factor. The accidents were blamed on the unsafe acts of the workers and laxity in supervision by the supervisors. The discrepancy that arose was that the top management was left off the hook, yet the responsibility in the development of the safe systems rests on them (Quinlan et al., 2010: 505-507).

Firenze’s Systems theory is centered on the human cognitive perspective, and it is organized into five levels, Person, Machine and Environment, Information Gathering, Risks Assessment, Decision Making, and Task Performance. The abundance of stressors can cloud judgment during information gathering, risk weighing, and decision-making processes (Muchiri and Peter, 2009: 17-24). Firenzie recommends five factors to be considered before; decision making and information gathering. First, the worker’s ability, the job requirements, gains from successful task completion, and finally, loss if a task is attempted but results in failure (Muchiri & Peter, 2009: 17-24).

Each of the theories highlighted has a weakness and does not present the actual reality. The combination theory of causation combines all the theories and models to achieve the best approach towards a solution to the problem (Hunt & Darwin, 1989: 41-53). The discrepancy of a model addressing problems better than other theories is solved in this manner.

2.6       Safety and Health Training

2.6.1   Fundamental Safety and Health Training

These programs necessitate the prevention of workplace-related health complications and injuries by considering proper uses, maintenance, and storage of tools/material, equipment, and furniture. The program promotes proper understanding and knowledge of emergency procedures, personal hygiene, medical monitoring, protective gear in operations, to control workplace hazards and enhance the effectiveness of safety and health training (Monforton & Celeste, 2009:40-48).

All these programs offer approaches that are taken on an individual basis but are fundamentally mutual at varying levels.

In the automotive industry of South Africa, safety interventions are designed on the basis of perceptions of employees towards their safety needs (Sharon, 2006: 413). Their perceptions about the current work environment, as well as about improving safety procedures determine their safety concerns (Sharon, 2006: 413). Therefore, more safety and health training programs can create changes in the perception of employees working in the automotive industry of South Africa.

2.6.2   Safety Climate

It is also found that a strong safety climate at the workplace leads to lower injury rates (Smith, Huang, Ho,, and Chen, 2006: 556). Stakeholders such as safety and health consultancies work with manufacturing organizations to provide training for creating a strong safety climate and for enhancing the health and safety of employees (Erasmus, Van Wyk,, and Schenk, 2003: 582). They also design training programs through the involvement of employees and the employer (Bolton, 2009: 561; Johnson, 2011: 14; Whan, 2011: 33).

Different risks associated with the health and safety of workers in the South African automotive industry are noise, lighting, ventilation problems, temperature extremes, task,, and processes complexity,, and injuries (The South African Labor Guide, 2014).  To mitigate these risks, the industry will require a comprehensive health and safety training program to equip its workers with adequate skills to minimize health and safety risks (Hiles, 2010: 78; Hill & Jones, 2012: 130). 

2.6.3   Training Evaluation

Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation Model

Kirkpatrick’s (1996:54) four levels evaluation model was designed to determine the effectiveness of training programs. Evaluation according to Kirkpatrick (1996: 54) starts with checking the reaction of the employees to training (at level 1) and is a measure of their perceptions. The next level proceeds with determining the learning outcomes (at level 2). The transfer in behavior and assessment of the results occur at level 3. Level 4 is the success measurement area of the program (Winfrey, 1999: 1).

Kirkpatrick’s model is criticized for not evaluating the cost-to-benefit ratio of training. A model incorporating the fifth level of evaluation has been introduced which focuses on the return on investment (ROI) (Phillips, 2003: 36).

The Kirkpatrick model will help in the research study to evaluate health and safety training programs conducted at MBSA. The health and safety training programs will be evaluated on four levels. The fifth level of evaluation will not be covered in this study since it will extend the research beyond the current scope.

It is important to identify trends of accidents when evaluating training because health and safety training programs are designed to provide a safe and healthy work environment as well as reduce injuries, illnesses, and fatalities (Mathew, Hart, Cathy, Neumann and Anthony, 2009: 1). Ineffective training also results in workplace injuries and fatalities (Manwaring and Conroy, 1990: 157).  Identification of different causes of accidents from MBSA will be compared with training programs already planned and/or delivered as per the organization’s ISO 18001 Training Need Analysis matrix.

2.6.4   Occupational safety and health training in a broader perspective

There are several programs that suggest and offer progression from learning workplace basic protection forms to the known hazards. They aim to increase and enhance workers’ awareness of problems as well as their abilities to respond to such problems inopportune time before they become hazards (Hilyer et al., 2000:53-66).

They include:

2.6.4a Empowerment Programs

Primarily aim to build and widen workers’ skills in recognizing and solving problems that arise at the workplace by providing the necessary instructions. However, the focus is on worker activism. The knowledge provided by the activism ensures that workers enjoy their rights to work in environments that are free from injuries and exposures that lead to diseases. As such the program directs at affecting control initiatives by educating everybody at the workplace on health and safety issues.

2.6.4bRecognition programs

Mainly entail instructions that create awareness and acknowledgment of workplace hazards (Monforton & Celeste, 2009:40-48). Essentially such plans aim to improve workers’ knowledge of methods of controlling hazards, ways of collecting information on workplace hazards, ability to recognize symptoms of exposure to toxic substances,, and also be able to report such instances to the relevant authorities.

2.6.4c Problem-solving programs

These programs entail instructions that inform and capacitate workers to participate in the recognition and control of workplace hazards. This is achieved by; working in teams to resolve workplace problems such as injuries and exposure to hazardous materials. Secondly, exercising workplace rights by hiring external experts to investigate workplace accidents. Thirdly, encouraging participation of all workers in the design and implementation of initiatives that aim to improve safety and health, product quality,, and delivery key performance indicators (KPIs). In conclusion, problem-solving programs ensure effective workers’ role in response to workplace needs by sharpening their skills in addressing the requirements of safety and health standardization.

2.7       Role of training on accident or incident investigation

The accident investigation is used to identify and control hazards before they occur and thereby preventing more serious incidences. It further shows hazards that were missed earlier and where hazard controls failed. Investigations are conducted for, all injuries, not excluding the minor ones (ERASMUS, WYK, AND SCHENK, 2003). Those with potential injury, property damage, near misses,, and during initial action. Before the reported the case. Recognizing this, the organization launched an investigation, a plan is drawn. The plan will identify the authorities to be notified, outside agencies, timelines,, and timetables for conducting hazard correction. Finally, the investigation will be considered successful when the correction has been achieved. Those involved should record the information quickly while adhering to high standards of accuracy and quality. Care should be taken to make sure that all staff is involved in the development and implementation of the recommendations (Health and safety executive, 2013b).

2.8       Role of Safety and health training strategies

Several studies are documenting different strategies for OSH training. The literature review will focus on; the fundamental, basic, recognition, problem solving,, and empowerment programs. The literature review will follow the sequence outlined (Becker and Morawetz, 2004:63-70). Each of the programs has salient benefits in increasing the worker’s knowledge of safe work. Other strategies, such as first aid training are aimed at modifying the worker’s behavior (Lingard, 2004:111-112). These methods of safety and health training range from passive, information-based techniques, for example, lectures, computer-based programmed instruction,, and learner-centered performance-based techniques these also include hands-on demonstrations. Similarly, lectures, which are one of the methods that are least engaging in training on safety and health, are used commonly in presenting health-and safety-related information. Other common passive techniques include pamphlets and videos or other forms of written materials. Training methods that can be classified as engaging moderately incorporate knowledge of results, for example, feedback interventions in which performance information is provided in small groups, and allows learners to make corrections on their mistakes. Moreover, feedback is a characteristic of an instruction programmed, a training method designed to present information in a manner that is standardized, such as in a workbook or on a personal computer format.

computer-based instruction which is an extensively used moderately engaging method has been designed for the whole gamut of workplace health and safety topics, including industrial safety, occupational safety, systems safety, waste disposal,, and hazardous material storage, fire protection, industrial hygiene, risk management, and safety engineering and design (Dock, 1994:201-210). The training methods of safety and health that are most engaging focus on the knowledge development in stages (Anderson, 1985:14-29, cited in Trethewy, 2003: 17-27) and emphasize principles of behavioral modeling (Bandura, 1986, citchaptered in Frederick et al., 2000:92-95). Behavioral modelling involves role model observation, practice or modeling, and design feedback for behavior modification. These methods also include hands-on demonstrations linked with behavioral simulations that need trainee active participation. In the case of hands-on training and behavioral simulations, the interactions among trainees and trainers will frequently go beyond 1-way feedback. The trainees will be engaged in dialog concerning knowledge acquired or actions are taken. Such dialogue, in either a virtual or actual context, is significant because it is posited to enhance the quality of reflection (thinking) concerning actions taken (Hacker, 2003:105-130: Holman, 2000:957-980: Holman, Paylica, Thorpe, 1997:135-148). This reflection that is action-focused is regarded as the key to the acquisition of knowledge and transfer of training, because it forces the trainee to infer conditional and causal relations between actions and events, leading to the creation of strategies to handle unforeseen events, to initiate and to promote self-regulatory motivational processes, for example, self-monitoring and self-efficacy expectations (Frese and Zapf, 1994: 271-340). Consistent with these arguments; also, there exists ample affected by mental or physical health disability. However, research evidence in the literature for training that learning active approaches are superior to less active approaches (Frese and Zapf, 1994: 271-340). Therefore, as training moves along the continuum from more passive information-based methods such as lectures to the most engaging methods, for example, behavioral modeling and hands-on demonstrations, the authors hypothesize that computer literacy. This will facilitate the introduction of the ICT curriculum in the college that is can be comprehended by the Dubbo teaching staff. The acquisition of greater knowledge and more training transfer to the work setting will occur. This will in turn improve behavioral safety performance and lead to a reduction of negative safety and health outcomes.

2.9 Worksite training on health protection

     Occupational safety and health training about the automotive industry

OSH training in the automotive industry is an exceedingly complex process that requires expertise in the realization of the inherent hazards. Training has to involve all the labor force that is involved in the production of the automotive parts. The training of contractors has to include all the aspects listed below:

3.0       Exploratory studies acknowledging the effectiveness of training needs

Many scholars in their research have analyzed training needs and issues related to OSH. The focus has been on the role of training in recognition of workplace hazards. Further research has tried to explain the role of training in disease and injury control. Information on training data is not conclusive, but the researcher has reviewed them to add information. A close link to the effects of these training interventions in the reduction of accidents in the automobile industry will be established. The literature refers to the chemical, injury,, and ergonomic hazards. Injury and ergonomic data will be discussed in this case as they are the most relevant to the automotive industry. Training on chemical handling is scanty and is mainly related to spray painting (Gordon, Huang, Michael,, and Peter, 2006).

3.1       Injury Investigations

An epidemiological study sanctioned by the American institute of occupational safety and health in 1990 to study fatalities in the workplace analyzed incidents involving eighty-eight fatalities. The investigations covered fifty-five incidents that required permits for confined space (Manwaring and Conroy, 1990, cited in Frederick et al., 2000:92-95). From interviews of the management and the workers,,,, information was obtained. They sought to understand the conditions that lead to the reported eighty-eight fatalities. Other reports were drawn from the medical examinations by occupational physicians. The form of confined space training received by the workers and a report from the government OSH officer. From the results, it was determined that only in three of the incidences that lead to fatality had the workers trained. In one, instance, the supervisor and two workers all of whom died had received training instructions before entry to the confined space. In addition to the lack of training, statutory measurements of the air quality in the confined spaces as per the OSHA requirements had not been performed. The confined spaces had not been labeled or locked out to deter external interference or malice. No signage had been posted about the work being performed. This is explicit affected by mental or emotional health disabilities. However, research evidence of the lack of training. In a few cases was the right procedure of authorization sought before entry into the confined space. Little efforts were made to ensure the ventilation was appropriate. The choice of respirators was also a key point of concern. Workers in most cases used the wrong respirator or simply used a dust mask. After the study, the authors laid bare the need for concerted efforts in worker’s training concerning the inherent hazards of confined space entry. Procedures should be developed, and supervision upheld to minimize losses and fatalities that come because of work in confined spaces.

Poor discharge of training procedures was more pronounced in the preceding report than the other reports. The report summarized data from a wider scope of studies on confined (NIOSH, 1994). A similar study, relevant to the automotive industry, done by NIOSH involved two hundred and one incidences of electrocution. Of the 217, workers who died from the electrocution lack of training on the proper use of insulating PPEs was the main factor. The data was not as explicit as that presented for the confined space entry (Casini, 1993, cited in Frederick et al., 2000:92-95). Workers who received the lowest form of training were the highest affected, 42 out of the 217 were casual laborers’. Close to that were the production-line workers, 40 from 217. Surprisingly, this group of individuals had received much training in electrical safety. The number of victims thought to have received the training was over 180 the training was offered differently by the various small contractors within the industry. Questions that quickly come to mind are on the adequacy of such training. Does the training cover all the hazards relevant to electrical safety? Do the workers demonstrate valid knowledge on electrical safety? Is it possible to work safely within the sector and have no incidences?

An interview was done by Tan et al. (1991 cited in Frederick et al., 2000:92-95). The interview studied 41 hospitalized patients. The patients interviewed had sustained hand injuries in the course of their work. The information gathered immediately after admission was on the nature of work, the extent of the worker’s job training,, and the length of stay in the profession. The injured worker was required to describe the circumstance under which the accident leading to the injury occurred. On the nature of work, most of the work implicated involved the use of; rollers, chain saws, guillotines,, and handheld drills. The workers could not outline the steps that lead to the development of the injury. The workers who had no job training were 21. The rest 20 had some formalized training in the form of supervised training while others in the group had received training courtesy of on-the-job instruction. Most of the injured workers interviewed had on average three weeks of training on the same job task. To establish if the training could have prevented the accidents a study dedicated to healthy was formulated. The study determined comparable time and job conditions experienced in similarity by both workgroups. There was a minimal difference in results, in both groups. Of the trained workers three were injured on the first day of the job, a further seven were injured in the subsequent days. However, the workers who had no safety training were injured, none on the first day, but the total number of injuries after the task was eight (Becker & Morawetz, 2004:63-70). The research gave little evidence on the importance of training in the reduction of injuries. That notwithstanding, the duration of the study influenced the results of the study.

3.2       Investigations into Ergonomic Hazards

There are several studies that have looked into ergonomic hazards; (Snook, Campanelli & Hart, 1978, cited in Trethewy, 2003: 17-27) describes such injuries as caused by workload at places of work. The studies use aspects such as workload per employee, the possession of relevant skills,, and the effectiveness and efficiency of workplace machinery. The training on safety and health measures of the workplace, among others. Their study concluded that training or selection of employees was hardly effective in controlling injuries at places of work. A survey conducted by Green and Briggs (1989, cited in Trethewy, 2003: 17-27) concluded that there is a vast disparity between workplace equipment/facilities and the necessary skills to operate and interact with them. There exist a need to improve information flow among workers to capacitate them handle efficiently and effectively all the equipment they use at their workstations. Workers, especially new ones, need to undergo extensive study in ergonomics. This should be done to impart the appropriate operating knowledge of all office furniture without having to infer the respective operation manuals and instructions.

There are strong indications that training deficiencies can significantly lead to postural discomforts among other workstation fatalities. It is requisite that workers undergo a thorough Occupational Safety and Healthy training amid frequent revisits and refreshments on the embedded elements to avoid cases of forgetfulness of employees, which has also been reiterated by (Green & Briggs, 1989; Tan et al., 1991 cited in Frederick et al., 2000:92-95).

Occupational Safety and Health training are intrinsically necessary for all workers and employees. There is a need to ascertain factors and conditions for efficacious safety and health training. This is key in determining and establishing their effectiveness in addressing workplace hazards. It is also beneficial in ensuring compliance with the relevant standardizations and legislation. For the occupational safety and health training offered by different companies and countries, there is a necessity to update them. This can be done by using systematic efforts to extract and assemble the training practices and vital aspects. This is of grandness because of the dynamism of the procedures, systems, and strategies of production of most industries and companies which constantly change to sync with the client’s lifestyles and preferences.

3.3       Sample safety and health training strategies

Contractor training

The management of several contractors on site presents a challenge to the safety and health manager of an organization. The automotive industry, more so, South Africa Mercedes-Benz could have over twelve contractors running the processes at the same time (Mercedes-Benz South Africa, 2013). The guidelines below on contractor management provide a sample of best practice that can be adopted in contractor management

  • All contractors have received appropriate induction or familiarization training before the commencement of work.
  • An interpreter is used for subcontractors who do not understand English.
  • Workplace tasks have been analyzed for vital training needs, such as entry into confined space or work at height.
  • All training and competencies required, for example, plant operation, are reviewed in the induction process.
  • Refresher training is provided at appropriate intervals to the management system requirements, for example, emergency response.
  • Subcontractor personnel tasked with OHS roles and responsibilities is appropriately trained to carry out their management requirements.
  • Subcontractors have completed a toolbox talk to undertaken training in their safe work method statement or job safety analysis (work activity).
  • Percentage of consultation sessions carried out where changes to the scope of work have changed workplace risks.

Hazard management training

A hand on training on hazard management is of equal significance to the training of employees. The lead men and the shop floor supervisors have to be competent. A sample plan for hazard management for one of the role model companies in safety and health management contains the information listed below (BAT, 2013)

  • Core risks are identified in trade packages, and specific safe work procedures are developed, for example, hot work, manual handling,, and work at height.
  • New work or changes to planned work tasks include a risk assessment, and appropriate safe work methods are developed accordingly.
  • A number of high-risk items vs. the total number of items rectified by the OHS Committee Inspection.
  • A number of repeated items vs. the total number of items rectified by the OHS Committee Inspection.
  • Percentage of OHS committee items accomplished in the agreed time frame and Percentage of subcontractors audited monthly vs. total number
  • Accident or incident investigations are completed within 24 hours and trends in accidents or incidents are monitored and reported to the site every month
  • Safety alerts are provided to site personnel based on industry or incidents relevant to the project. The percentage of working and defective plant equipment should also be on the record.

Training on Safety behavior in the automotive industry

The management of safety behavior in the automotive industry is done in seven main steps. Firstly, feedback on subcontractor OHS performance is provided. Secondly, feedback on project OHS site performance is provided. Task observation is undertaken, then, Percentage compliance of subcontractors to their documented safe work method statement or job safety analysis. Next, site safety rules are displayed in prominent locations on the site. In addition to that, a periodic review of the workplace OHS management system is undertaken followed by an external audit of the workplace OHS management. Finally, timelines of closeout of issues identified in internal and external reviews should be provided in monthly safety statistics including lost-time injuries that are reported. The presentation part would involve the plotting of trends in injury statistics, in a graph, to allow easy monitoring (Shanon, Robson & Ruastello, 1999: 161-179)

3.4       The prevention of accidents at work

Building a safe and healthy workplace

In building a safe and healthy workplace, consideration of workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths and their prevention is both timely and relevant for individual workers, their families, employing organizations, communities in which these organizations are located, and society at large. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated that every year approximately 2.2 million people die from occupational diseases or accidents at work and these numbers may be increasing (Burke, Clarke & Cooper, 2011: 12). Also, the ILO estimates that there are 270 million non-fatal accidents each year, causing injury worldwide (ILO, 2011). Workplace errors and accidents every year cost hundreds of billions of dollars. Moreover, there are wide differences per country, for example, China has higher rates on some types of accidents,, and in some sectors, and wide occupational differences, such as construction and transportation have higher rates, in the incidence of accidents and errors (ILO, 2011). Organizations incur both indirect and direct costs from accidents and injuries in the workplace. The direct costs include the cost of treatment of injured workers and their payments, and costs of accident and health insurance. On the other hand, indirect costs include overtime charges and lost productivity. The system of health care gets stretched, given the usage increased and government efforts to constrain costs, and the injured worker and their families endure considerable financial and emotional suffering. Executives in the German steelmaker Thyssen Krupp’s Italian unit faced charges ranging from murder to manslaughter following a fire at their steel plant in December 2007 that killed seven people (Susser, 2006:34-36). Survivors said that the fire extinguishers were empty and that safety standards, in general, were lax in the Turin factory. If convicted, the CEO, charged with murder, could face 21 years in prison. Organizations are increasingly being held legally responsible for not addressing known risks to health and safety (Susser, 2006:34-36).

A hospital in Windsor, Ontario, Hotel-Dieu Grace, reached a settlement agreement in a lawsuit brought by the family of a slain hospital nurse who was killed by a doctor, a former boyfriend. The doctor had a long history of disruptive and sometimes aggressive and violent behavior toward hospital staff. The doctor had his hospital privileges reinstated after he got suspended and even ordered to go for counseling after a suicide attempt.

The hospital has instituted several initiatives to prevent such kind of events from taking place in the future (Burke et al., 2012:68-100). Organizations currently are taking approaches that are more proactive to accidents, safety, and health by engaging in risk management and risk assessment. The evidence accumulating indicates that investing in occupational safety and health results in improved financial and social responsibility performance and increasing employee safety health and well-being. Finally, although there has been a reduction in workplace accidents, in some countries, further improvements seem to have stalled.

First aid training

Past research has sought to establish the effects of first aid training on the reduction of occupational accidents in industries. This research was mainly conducted in the early eighties and late seventies. The evidence presented from such research showed a reduction of accident rates among workers exposed to the traditional form of first aid training (Miller and Agnew 1973:209-218; McKenna and Hale 1981:47-59). This research also depicted that people who had undergone training on first-aid are willing to be responsible for their health. The subjects were more willing to adopt and practice safe behavior (McKenna and Hale 1982:101-114). The results from this literature suggest that first aid training can be used to augment training on occupational safety and health. First aid training has been shown to have a positive motivational effect on the response of and knowledge of workers on accidents. However, these early research and studies were not undertaken in an automotive industry environment. In addition to this, the studies used the rate of injuries as an indicator of safety awareness. The parameter has been cited in many sources as weak evidence on the impact of training on workers”” perception and knowledge on safety. Cooper & Cotton (2000: 481-490), identified a shift in research to the use of statistically soft measures of performance to evaluate safety training programs. An example of the approach in research was used by Harvey et al (2001:615-636). He used the survey of attitude to investigate the effects of first aid and safety training on safety culture. His choice of a nuclear power industry was most appropriate. This is because it takes a lot of time for the effects of radiation to be felt as a result of exposure to radioactive nuclear materials.

3.5       General considerations in safety and health training

The embedded objective of these training is to ease the health and safety policies implementation. Secondly, it is meant to raise awareness and skill levels to the recommended and acceptance criteria. The commencement of safety and health training should be preceded by an informed conviction that the objectives will be met. Some of the fundamental elements that have to be put into consideration in training include;

     I.        Assess the training Needs

It is ideal to evaluate and gauge whether training offers the best solution for controlling and containing the identified workplace hazard. For instance, it might be that; adoption of safe work exercises is more effective in controlling physical hazards as opposed to awareness creation through training. 

    II.        Formulate the training objectives

The guarantee for success of any project, program, or plan is usually essentially built on the guidance by objectives and goals that steer the training from inception to the successful decommissioning. The type and approach of training needed should be guided by the analysis of workplace hazards and records of worker’s health and safety and their perceptions of probable risks (Stewart, 2012).

  III.        Specify the content of the training

Most OSHA guidelines identify the necessity to outline the results that occupational safety and health training aims at achieving. The standards also seek to define the observable and indicative elements which constitute the core objectives. The content of the training should entail quantifiable and quantifiable targets and results that can be easily documented after a training exercise.

  IV.        Specify the learning conditions

The coverage and content of the training should be prescribed and restricted to the

OSHA regulations. OSHA makes use of a sequence of activities to simulate the actual conditions and ensure that the content of the training is transferred to the actual workplace. This makes it possible for practical application. It is vital to tailor the training activities, techniques, and materials in a way that allows workers to demonstrate that they have certainly gained from the training exercise.

   V.        Evaluating the training

Throughout the training, it is key to supervise the progress of activities; identified mismatches should be effectively revised appropriately to sync the entire training with activities that guarantee success. Evaluation at the conclusion of the training should be conducted to gauge the actual situation. This can be done by interviewing employees in relation to knowledge gain, reaction, behavior change and results about before and after the training conditions at the workplace.

References

ANDERSON, J.R., 1985. Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications. New York, NY: Freeman

AQUINAS, P. G., 2008. Organization Structure & Design: Applications And Challenges. New Delhi: Excel Books.

BANDURA, A., 1986.  Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

BECKER, P., & MORAWETZ, J., 2004. Impacts of health and safety education: comparison of worker activities before and after training. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46:63–70

BLASE, J., 2004. Handbook of Instructional Leadership: How Successful Principals Promote Teaching and Learning. New York: Corwin Press.

BOLTON, S. C., 2009. Are we having fun yet? A consideration of workplace fun and engagement. Employee Relations, 31(6), pp. 556-568.

BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO, 2013. Health and science. [Online]. Available, 18 August 2013, www. Bat.com

BURKE, R. J., BURKE., R. J., S.C.C.L.C., CLARK, S., & COOPER, C. L.,2012. Occupational Health and Safety: New York: Ash gate Publishing, Limited.

BURKE, R. J., CLARK, S., & COOPER, C. L., 2011. Occupational Health and Safety. Farnham: Surrey, Gower

COLLINS, D., 2007.  Health and safety strategies 2007: case report, Workplace Law

COOPER, M., & COTTON, D., 2000. Safety training – a special case. Journal of European Industrial Training. 24, 9: 481-490.

DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY, 2014. Draft South African Automotive Industry Code of Conduct, Cape Town: Department of trade and industry.

DESA, A, F, N, C., HABIDIN, N, F., HIBADULLA, S, N., FUZI, N, M., & ZAMRI, F, I, M., 2013, ‘Occupational safety and health administration practices and OSHA performance in the Malaysian automotive industry,’ Journal of Studies in Social Science, 4, 1: 1-15,[Online].Available: 25 July 2013, Academic Search Complete database, EBSCOhost.DUNNETTE, M. D., & HOUGH, L. M., 1994. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Palo Alto, Calif: Consulting Psychologists Press. 271–340.

DOCK, S. D., 1994. The application of educational technology to occupational safety and health training. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 64, 9:201–210.

ERASMUS, B., WYK V. M.,, AND SCHENK, H., 2003. South African Human Resource Management: Theory and practice. Providing incentives and benefits. (3rd ed): 517-588.

FREDERICK, K., BIXBY, E., ORZEL, M., STEWART-BROWN, S., & WILLETT, K., 2000. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the injury minimization program for schools. Newyork: Group.bmj.com.

FRESE, M., & ZAPF, D., Action as the core of work psychology. A German approach. In: Trends

HACKER, W., 2003.  Action regulation theory: a practical tool for the design of modern work processes.  European Journal of Work Organization Psychology.12: 105–130.

HARVEY, J., BOLAM, H. GREGORY, D. & ERDOS, G., 2001. The Effectiveness of Training to Change Safety culture and Attitudes Within a Highly Regulated Environment, Personnel Review, 30, 615-636.

HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2013a, Manual handling. [Online].  http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/topics/manual.htm. Accessed: 28 July 2013

HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE, 2013b, Health,, and safety in the motor vehicle repair industry. [Online]. http://www.hse.gov.uk/mvr/index.htm. Accessed: 27 July 2013

HILES, A., 2010. Approaches to Enterprise Risk Management. London: Bloomsbury hero

HILL, C. W.,, and Jones, G. R., 2012. Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

HILYER, B., LEVITON, L., OVERMAN, L., & MUKHERJEE, S., 2000. A Union-Initiated Safety Training Program Leads to Improved Workplace Safety. Labor Studies Journal, 24, 4, 53-66. doi: 10.1177/0160449×0002400403

HOLMAN, D., 2000. A dialogical approach to skill and skilled activity. Journal of Human Relations, 53:957–980

HOLMAN, D., PAVLICA, K., THORPE, R., 1997. Rethinking Kolb’s theory of experiential learning in management education.  Manage Learning Journal, 28:135–148

HUNT, A., & DARWIN, P., 1989. Human self-assessment process theory: An eight-factor model of human performance and learning: an everyman’s causation, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer:  Doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-74382-5_4

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, 2011. Safety and health in (MVR) ILO code of practice, Geneva, International Labour Office, Viewed 24 July 2013 http://site.ebrary.com/id/10530997

JOHNSON, M., 2011. Workforce Deviance and the Business Case for Employee Engagement. Journal for Quality & Participation, 34(2), pp. 11-16.

KIRKPATRICK, D. 1996. Great Ideas Revisited. Techniques for Evaluating Training  Programs. Revisiting Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Model. Training and Development, 50, 1: 54-59.

KIRKPATRICK. D.L. AND KIRKPATRICK., J.D. 2006.  Evaluating training programs: the four levels. (3ed). Berrett-Koehler Publishers. San Francisco, CA.

KURTZ, J. R., ROBINS, T.G., & SCHORK, M. A., 1997. ‘An evaluation of peer and professional trainers in a union-based occupational health and safety training program.’ Journal of Occupational Safety and Health. 39:661–671.

LIN, L., & COHEN, H. H., 1983. Development and evaluation of an employee hazard reporting and management information system in a hospital. Final Report, Safety Sciences, San Diego CA: NIOSH Contract 210-81-3102.

LINGARD, H., 2004. First aid and occupational health and safety. The case for an integrated training approach. Faculty of Architecture, Building,, and Planning: The University of Melbourne, Australia, p.111-112

LOOS. G, P., FOWLER, T., & MILES, K., 1999. A model for research on training effectiveness. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

MANWARING, J.C.,, AND CONROY, C.S. 1990. Occupational confined Space-related fatalities: Surveillance and prevention. Journal of Safety Research. 21, 4: 157-164.

MATHEW B. HART, CATHY M. NEUMANN, AND ANTHONY T. V. 2009.Hand Injury Prevention Training: Assessing Knowledge, Attitude,, and Behavior. Journal of Safety, Health and Environment Research, 6:1.

MCKENNA, S.P., & HALE, A.R., 1981. ‘The effect of emergency first aid training on the incidence of accidents in factories.’ Journal of Occupational Accidents, 3: 101-114.

MCKENNA, S.P., & HALE, A.R., 1982, Changing Behaviour Towards Danger: the effect of first-aid training, Journal of Occupational Accidents, 4: 47-59

McQuiston, T. H., COLMAN, P., WALLENSTEIN, N.B., MARCUS, A.C., MORAWETZ, J.S., & ORTLIEB, D.W., 1994. Hazardous waste worker education. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 36: 1310–1323

MERCEDES –BENZ SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED 2013a, ideal future state. Obstacles are not just Corporate social investment, Mercedes Benz. [Online]. http://www.mercedes-benzsa.co.za/sustainable-development/corporate-social-investment/. Accessed: 29 July 2013

MERCEDES–BENZ SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED, 2013b, Mercedes-Benz South Africa welcomes you, Mercedes-Benz. [Online]. http://www.mercedes-benzsa.co.za/. Accessed: 29 July 2013

MILLER G., & AGNEW, N., 1973. First aid training and accidents. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 47, 209-218.

MONFORT & CELESTE., 2009. Evaluation of the impact of a mandatory safety training regulation on occupational injury and fatality rates among U.S. stone, sand,, and gravel miners. THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY. [Online]. Available 28 August 2013. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=3336761

MUCHIRI, A & PETER, N., 2009. Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering, London: Springer,  Doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84882-472-0_22

NATIONAL CLEARING HOUSE., 1997. Resource guide for evaluating worker training: A focus on safety and health. Silver Spring: George Meany Center for Labor Studies

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1993 (South Africa).181. [Online].

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1993 (South Africa).181. [Online] Available at http://www.labour.gov.za/downloads/legislation/acts/occupational-health-and-safety/amendments/Amended%20Act%20-%20Occupational%20Health%20and%20Safety.pdf.

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION., 1988a. Training requirements in OSHA standards and training guidelines. OSHA Rept. 2254. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Washington D.C: U.S. Department of Labor.

PHILLIPS, J. J., 2003. Return on Investment in Training and Investment Performance Improvement Programs (2e). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

QUINLAN, M., BOHLE, P,, and LAMM, F., 2010. Managing occupational health and safety: a multidisciplinary approach. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan

ROBSON, L.S., SHANON, H.S., GOLDENHAR, L.M., HALE, A.R., 2001. Guide to evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for preventing workplace injuries. Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 121

Robson, LS, Shanon, HS, Goldenhar, LM, & Hale, AR 2001, Guide to evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for preventing work injuries, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati.

SHANON, H.S., ROBSON, L.S., & GUASTELLO, S.J., 1999. Methodological criteria for evaluating occupational safety intervention research. Safety Science, 31: 161-179.

SHARON, C., 2006. Safety climate in an automobile manufacturing plant.Personnel  Review, 35, 4: 413-430.

SHOR, I., & FREIRE, P. A., 1987. A pedagogy for liberation dialogues on transforming education. South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey

SILVERSTEIN, M., 2008. “Getting Home Safe and Sound: Occupational Safety and Health Administration,” American Journal of Public Health 98, 3: 416-423, [Online]. Available 15 August 2013, doi: 10.2105/ajph.2007.117382

SMILLIE, R. J., & AYOUB, M. A., 2007. ‘Accident causation theories: a simulation approach,’ Journal of Occupational Accidents, 1, 1: 47-68

STEWART, J. M., 2012. Managing for world-class safety. John Wiley & Sons.

SUSSER, P., 2006, Limiting exposure of the legal kind. Harvard Business Review; May, 34–36

THE SOUTH Factors influencing job satisfaction among public sector employees: an empirical exploration. South AFRICAN DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, 2013, Amended occupational health and safety act, Labor. [Online].

THE SOUTH AFRICAN LABOR GUIDE, 2014. Different types of risk assessment. [Online]  Available at http://www.labourguide.co.za/health-and-safety/1512-different-types-of-risk-assessments.

TRETHEWY, R.W., 2003. OSH performance- improved indicators for construction contractors. Journal of construction research, 4, 1:17-27.

WALLERSTEIN, N., BAKER, R., 1994a. Labor education programs in health and safety. Journal of Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 9, 2: 305-320.

WHAN, C., 2011. Leveraging GARP to Ensure Employee Engagement. Information Management Journal, 45, 6: 32-35.

WINFREY, E. C., 1999. Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation, San Diego: San Diego State University.

WOKUTCH, R. E., 1992. Worker protection, Japanese style: occupational safety and health in the auto industry, 21.

WORLD BANK, 2002b. Free trade agreements and the SADC economies.  [Online]. www.world bank.org/afr/wps/wp27.

3.0 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

MBSA conducts various training related to health and safety, but there is no review of the impacts of the training on incidents or accidents. Therefore, this research aims to make an evaluation of the key types of incidents and accidents at at MBSA (East London manufacturing plant) and assess how training aims to address the root causes of accident/incident trainable. This thesis will help scholars and professionals to understand the significance of the safety and health training evaluation in the automotive industry of South Africa (Aquinas, 2008: 134; Blase, 2004: 110; Wokutch, 1992: 1). The researcher being an employee of the company (MBSA) will isolate himself from the business during the research. This is critical to ensure all bias is removed from the research.  The researcher will endeavor to critically evaluate the data collated from the research instruments and to clearly present the findings. The researcher will make recommendations for improvement in either approach of training or content of the training as it relates to health and safety incidents/accidents at MBSA

This section will cover research design & instruments, location of study, target population, sample size and sampling techniques, validity and reliability, data collection procedures, methods of data analysis,, and ethical considerations (Janssens and Kraft, 2012).

3.2 Aim of Study

The main aim of this study is to evaluate health and safety training with MBSA as one of the mechanisms for the reduction of incidents/accidents.

3.3 Research Goals

The designed research goals for this study are as follows

  1. Evaluation of MBSA reports on accidents or incidents to determine the accident root causes trends.
  2. Assess how safety and health training programs are being delivered and/or developed in mitigating the root causes
  3. Evaluating the current safety and health training programs at MBSA using Kirkpatrick’s four levels of evaluation model.
  4. Make recommendations for improvement in either the training content and/or training approaches as it relates to health and safety healthy incidents/ accidents at MBSA

3.4 Limitations of the Research

The research is conducted at MBSA which is one of the automotive manufacturers in South Africa. Therefore the data collated and interpretation thereof cannot be generalized for the industry but can be used as a guide for operations in similar areas. It would beneficial to the industry if the research can be repeated at the other automotive manufacturers to get a holistic analysis of the total industry.

3.5 Ethical considerations

However, in keeping with ethical standards in the research conduct with the human participants and the respect for published data copyright, consent, respect and confidentiality will be given to the respondents before the process of primary data collection commences (Polkinghorne, 2005). Confidentiality will also be accorded to all respondents; both the organization and individuals, identities of the respondents will remain private to avoid victimization (Torchim, 2006).

Information deduced from the research will be used for academic purposes only. The ethics standards will be according to the company’s (MBSA) rules and by the university’s guidelines. All respondents will be made to understand and assured that their participation is voluntary and information will not be personalized and will be used for this research purpose alone (Smith, 2003).

3.6 Research Paradigm

The paradigm adopted is that of pragmatism because it focuses on ‘what works’ in order to answer research questions (Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen and Razavieh, 2009:559). Pragmatism is the approach to philosophy, where the or meaning of a statement or the truth is to be measured by its practical consequences.  This paradigm expects the researcher to observant during the research and captures the response during the interviews accurately. Also expecting the researcher to correctly code the questionnaire and interview responses and present the results.

3.7 Research design

The study will be carried out in Mercedes-Benz South Africa, which is one of the major employers in the Eastern Cape. The location is chosen due to its proximity to the researcher. A cross-sectional research design will be used in the study (Mitchell and Jolley, 2013). The method will be used because we intend to evaluate the OSH training programs across various production environments at MBSA. The management and Employees at SA Mercedes-Benz will constitute the population of the study. In sample size determination, cluster sampling will be used where all the Mercedes-Benz manufacturing facilities will be selected (Singh, 2007). Random sampling technique will be used to pick the sample respondents (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2001: 101). The strata will be human resource managers, line managers, safety representatives,, and employees. Within strata, simple random sampling will be used to pick samples. Concerning (Marsden & Wright, 2010: 470), within strata,,,, separate samples are selected, and sample estimates of stratum-specific parameters are calculated. The separate sample estimates are then combined to produce parameter estimates for the entire population.

3.7.1 Research Instruments

Heaton (2004: 35) states that data can be collected through several methods including field notes, focus groups, surveys, taped social interaction or interviews, and questionnaires. A researcher is not restricted to the method to use and consequently, more than one method can be chosen. It is significant to note that no method of collecting data is more powerful than the other (O’Leary, 2004: 132-149). The method that a researcher selects will depend on its advantages and disadvantages and the study objectives. This study will make use of use questionnaires and Interview schedule. The interview is a method of data collection through conversation between two people (Kadushin & Kadushin, 1997: 65-134). The mode of data collection is systematic in that the researcher asks the respondent a set of open-ended questions. The respondent provides answers to the interview questions whereby the researcher notes down on paper. A number of characteristics distinguish interviews from a conversation. Kadushin & Kadushin (1997: 65-134) give some distinguishing features of an interview: beings formally focused on a specific issue, well planned, assignment of roles to participants, use of formal language among others. Several reasons will prompt the researcher to use the interview as an instrument for data collection. As pointed out by Gray (2004: 185) the reasons for using interviews as instruments for data collection include the need to attain highly personalized data, where a high return rate is desirable, where probing may be deemed necessary, where language fluency is a problem or where the written language is a barrier to communication. This study will use this tool because a high return rate is desired. Sensitive data may also be sought in a way that will not elicit fear and mistrust.

3.7.2 Data Methods and Analysis

Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used for this research. Mixed research methods will be applied to the different stages of the research (Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2010:8). The qualitative and quantitative data generated will be assessed, coded,, and analyzed (Creswell, 2003: 78). Numerous categories in coding will be developed for the classification of the learning outcomes and worker’s standards of behavior of MBSA (Bogdan and Biklin, 1998). The quantitative data will be analyzed using statistical software. Data findings analysis will be done to draw conclusions and to provide the recommendations (Bitsch, 2005). Descriptive statistics that will include frequencies, percentages,, and tabular representation will be used to analyze and present qualitative data. The data findings in the study will be presented in frequency distributions, plots, graphs, and tables.

3.7.2a Data collection for Research Goal 1 

For data collection of Research Goal 1:

Evaluation of MBSA incident or accident reports determining the trend in accidents’ root causes.

Incident/accident reports of MBSA Will be used in the collection of information on the accident types that take place with regards to issues of safety and health at MBSA over the period 2012 to 2013. Rigorous analysis of the reports will be conducted to determine 

3.7.2b Data collection for Research Goal 2

For data collection of Research Goal 2:

Assess how safety and health training programs are being delivered and or/developed in mitigating the root causes.

3.7.2c Data collection for research Goal 3

For data collection of Research Goal 3:

Evaluating the current safety and health training programs at MBSA using Kirkpatrick’s four levels of the evaluation model.

The dissertation will use Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels in evaluating the training at MBSA. A different method of data collection for each level will be used. At level one, the workers at the reaction shop floor to the training will be measured using questionnaires. Questions related to the training material, instructor, content of training, the presentation and environment will be asked. At level two, training learning outcomes will be measured by the researcher against training program learning objectives defined. The supervisors whose workers underwent a training program for this purpose will be interviewed. It will assist in determining the change in the level of skill and workers”’ attitude. At level three, workers”’ behaviour change will be measured by the researcher interviewing the supervisors or managers whose workers underwent training. The interviews will be useful in providing insights into how the trainees apply the information acquired after undergoing the training. At level four, the training final results will be analyzed. A questionnaire will be designed for this purpose and then forwarded to the employees of the shop floor and the managers/supervisors. Related questions to the outcomes will be considered such as decreased absenteeism, increased productivity, increased employee commitment, and increased motivation and morale of workers (Gillham, 2000).

The questionnaires will be developed with the close-ended questions to get information from the respondents that are structured (Saunders et al., 2009: 141). Moreover, a Likert scale will be applied in the development and designing of the questionnaires. The answer choices on the Likert scale range from one extreme to another, therefore revealing the degree of the opinion of respondents (Surveymonkey, 2014). Numerical values will be assigned for each scale point such as 1 for strong disagreement, 2 for disagree, 3 for neutral, 4 for agree, and 5 for strongly agree.

Even though this study will be majorly quantitative in nature, opportunities and open-ended questions will be included for additional qualitative information. For the interviews, they will be conducted in a manner that is mixed where qualitative and quantitative data will be collected from workers identified (Zivkovic, 2012).

The selection for the samples for the interviews and questionnaires will be done randomly (Marshall, 1996: 522). In this sampling method, samples are selected on a non-probability or judgmental basis (Koerber and Mcmichael, 2008).

Reports on incidents/ accidents will be collected from the MBSA based five SHEQ practitioners. For level one of evaluation in Kirkpatrick’s model, distribution of a questionnaire will be done to the 150 sample shop-floor workers. The for the learning outcomes measurements at level two, five supervisors will be interviewed whose workers have undergone training, to collect feedback on the learning outcomes after one week to six months of the training program. A sample size of five supervisors or managers will be selected to measure workers”’ change of behavior after training, which is Kirkpatrick’s models level three. For analyzing training results (level four), a questionnaire will be distributed to five managers and 150 workers on the shop floor.

3.7.2d Data collection for research Goal 4

For Research Goal 4: 

Make recommendations for improvement in either approach of training and /or content of the training as it relates to health and safety incidents/ accidents at MBSA 

The researcher will draw meaning deductions from the results of the analysis of the research data and present recommendations for improvements relating to training approaches and training content.

3.7.3 Validity and Reliability

A research’s reliability and validity depends on questions, pretesting,, and instrument structure (Patton & Cochran, 2002: 63; Saunders et al., 2009: 90). Before the distribution of the questionnaires, pretesting will be done. The questionnaires validity will be enhanced by designing close-ended and structured questions consistent with the research objectives. The questionnaire’s internal consistency will also be measured by similar questions to the respondents but differently (William, 2003).

References

AQUINAS, P. G., 2008. Organization Structure & Design: Applications And Challenges. New Delhi: Excel Books.

ARY, D., JACOBS, C.L., SORENSEN, C. AND RAZAVIEH, A., 2009. Introduction to Research in Education. Mixed Methods Research. Chapter 19, (9th ed). Cengage Learning, Inc.

BITSCH, V., 2005. Qualitative Research: A Grounded Theory Example and Evaluation Criteria. Journal of Agribusiness, 23, 1:  75-91.

BLASE, J., 2004. Handbook of Instructional Leadership: How Successful Principals Promote Teaching and Learning. New York: Corwin Press.

BOGDAN R. B. & BIKLIN, S. K.  1998. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods (3rded). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

CRESWELL, J. W., 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: Sage Publications, Inc.

GILLHAM, B., 2000. Developing a questionnaire. London: Continuum

GRAY, D, E., 2004. Doing Research in the Real World. London: SAGE Publications

HEATON, J., 2004. Reworking qualitative data. London: SAGE Publications

HRYMAK, V.,, and PEREZGONZALEZ, D. J., 2007. The Costs and Effects of Workplace Accidents: Twenty Case Studies from Ireland.

http://www.labourguide.co.za/health-and-safety/1512-different-types-of-risk-assessments. [Accessed 6 January 2014].

JANSSENS, A. C. J. W. and KRAFT, P., 2012. Research Conducted Using Data Obtained through Online Communities: Ethical Implications of Methodological Limitations. PLoS Medicine, 9, 10: 1-4.

KADUSHIN, A,, and KADUSHIN, G., 1997. The social work interview: a guide for human service professionals (4th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

KOERBER, A.,, and MCMICHAEL, L., 2008. Qualitative Sampling Methods. Journal of Business and Technical research practices. It also facilitates long-distance learning, which relies on online Communication, 22, 4: 454-473.

MARSDEN, P, V,, and WRIGHT, J, D., 2010. Handbook of Survey Research (2nd ed.). London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

MARSHALL, M. N.,1996. Sampling for qualitative research. breast cancer. Ann has been a staunch Christian since childhood just like the rest of her Family practice13, 6: 522-526.

MITCHELL, M. L.,, and JOLLEY, J. M., 2013. Research Design Explained. 2013: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

O’LEARY, A., 2004. The Essential Guide to Doing Research. London: SAGE Publications,

PATTON, Q. M. And COCHRAN, M., 2002. A Guide to using Qualitative Research Methodology.

SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P.,, and THORNHILL, A., 2009. Research Methods for Business Students. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

SINGH, K., 2007. Quantitative Social Research Methods.Sage publications, Private Ltd, India.

SURVEY MONKEY. 2014. The Likert Scale Explained. [Online]  Available at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/likert-scale/

TEDDLIE, C.,, AND TASHAKKORI, A., 2010. Overview of contemporary issues in mixed methods research, in Sage Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research, Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (Eds) 2010: 1-40.

WILLIAM, A.  2003. How to write and analyze a questionnaire. Journal of orthodontics. Vol. 30, No. 3, 245-252.

WOKUTCH, R. E., 1992. Worker protection, Japanese style: occupational safety and health in the auto industry, 21.

ZIVKOVIC, J., 2012. Strengths and Weakness of Business Research Methodologies: Two Disparate Case Studies.

4.0 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

4.1       Research Goal 1: Evaluation of Root Causes of Accidents at MBSA

MBSA has identified various root causes of accidents in the year 2013 and 2014. According to SHEQ practitioner, 77 % of accidents in 2013 were caused due to unsafe acts. Senior and middle management was not well aware of OHS Acts. They did not successfully apply health and safety specifications (The South African Department Of Labour, 2004). Lack of communication between management and employees had also created hurdles in creating safety awareness among shop floor workers. There was no proper behavioral based system implemented on-site which had contributed to the additional number of accidents and unsafe incidents.

Other root causes of accidents identified through the Integrated Management System (IMS) Business Plan 2013 are incompletely implemented or unmet health and safety targets of IMS. Poor implementation of health-based risk assessment workshops at MBSA for all divisions had contributed to accidents and injuries (The South African Labor Guide, 2014). Summary of some of the causes of incidents identified from the electronic health and safety incident register is presented in the table and graph below each depicting the number of casualties or incidents.

CAUSES OF INCIDENT
Causes No. of Casualties in 2012 No. of Casualties in 2013 No. of Casualties 2014(Jan -Oct)
Chemical 12 2 4
Dust 0 12 5
Fall 20 22 14
Falling Object 14 11 0
Heat 2 3 3
Machine 6 2 0
Manual Handling 13 2 9
Other 21 34 24
Struck Against 49 54 58
Struck By 60 75 66
Transport 6 3 1
TOTAL 203 220 184

Table 1: Table showing various causes of accidents at MBSA in 2012, 2013 and 2014(Jan – Oct)

Figure 2: Graph showing the causes of accidents along with the number of incidents in 2012, 2013 and 2014

Figure 2 shows that major causes of incidents in years 2012, 2013 and 2014 are: struck against, struck by, fall of person, falling object, manual handling,, and others. Among various causes, ‘struck by’ and ‘struck against’ have high number of casualties depicting that these factors majorly contributed to the accidents in three years. Figure 2also provides a comparison of different causes of accidents in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Overall, it reveals that the number of casualties reduced in 2014 as compared to incidents in2012 and 2013. Although ‘struck against’ and ‘struck by’ were the major causes of accidents in three years, the number of casualties reduced in 2014 as compared to the number of incidents in 2013 and 2012

Incident reports of MBSA also provide relevant information about trends of accidents that occurred in 2012, 2013,, and 2014. It is found from the incident reports that major injuries occurred in body-shop and plant facility areas in these years. The number of disabling injuries and first-aid injuries was very low in other departments, therefore facts and trends of accidents in only body-shop and plant facilities are presented here.

Figure 3: Graph showing disability injuries in Body-shop in the year 2012, 2013,, and 2014.

Figure 3 illustrates the trend of disability injuries in Body-shop. Disability injuries in Body-shop did not show any regular trend in 2012, but injuries were more in May 2012. Figure 3 also shows that no disability injury was found in 2014. In 2013, disability injuries were high in February. Later in 2013, disability injuries were reduced

Figure 4: Graph showing disability injuries at the plant in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014

In 2012, disability injuries were high in May and November, whereas disability injuries at the plant found more in February and July 2013. The number of disability injuries was then reduced at the end of the year 2013. Figure 4 presents that the number of disability injuries was initially constant, then sharply increased in July and August 2014.  The disability injuries are limb deformation or limb impairment, amputation of a limb, sensory disability,, and psychological trauma.

Figure 5: Graph showing first-aid injuries at the plant facility of MBSA in 2012, 2013 and 2014

Figure 5 reflects on trends of first-aid injuries that occurred at the plant facility in 2012, 2013,, and 2014. The number of incidents in 2012 and 2013 was inconsistent, and there is no specific trend found. On the contrary, the number of incidents was high in June, July, August,, and September, but no first aid injury was found in the October 2014. Overall, first-aid injuries at the plant facilities were 114 in December 2012. The number of first-aid injuries was reduced to 102 in December 2013, whereas in 2014, these injuries were reduced to 72. Therefore, there is a reduction in first-aid injuries from 2012 to 2014.

4.2       Research Goal 2: How training programs are developed and delivered at MBSA to mitigate the root causes of accidents

Safety and health training programs was developed and delivered by MBSA in 2013 in order to mitigate the root causes of accidents and unsafe incidents that occurred in 2012 and 2013. MBSA has developed different projects in the IMS Business Plan 2013 (attached in Appendix) to reduce the health and safety issues of 2012-2013. Major initiatives taken by IMS in 2013 were: alignment of the action management system to include IMS escalation topics, increased awareness around waste separation at source,, and senior and middle management training on OHS Acts. Behavior-based system implementation, campaign management audits,, and implementation of inspection processes audits are also some of the initiatives taken by IMS.

OHS Act Training in 2013

OHS Act training 2013 was developed and conducted to inform and create awareness among senior and middle management about OSH Acts. In this training, 24 managers have participated. 22 managers were from Body-shop and two B4 managers from Assembly.  The training focused on informing the managers about 14 minimum requirements to apply health and safety specifications. It is ensured that during training, each manager must learn about occupational injuries and diseases, occupational health and safety policy, hazard identification risk assessment, health and safety training, audits,, and management reviews. They should also learn about emergency procedures, safety signage, permits,, and general information about hazardous works. Participants have also learned about current regulations of Occupational Health and Safety Act.

BBS Trainings in 2013

Behavioral-based training (BBS) were designed and conducted at MBSA in 2013 and 2014 to reduce the number of unsafe incidents, and workplace injuries occurred in 2012-2014. These training aimed to improve communication between management and employees regarding safety awareness. The schedule of behavioral-based system (BBS) training 2013 are as follow:

BBS Training Implementation Month
BBS for SHEQ Practitioners June 2013
BBS for team managers of the Body-shop July 2013
Leadership skills training for team managers October 2013
BBS for employees of the Assembly November 2013
BBS for employees of the Paint shop December 2013

Table 2: Table showing various kinds of BBS Training in 2013

These trainings have a considerable and significant effect on the number of accidents and injuries that occurred at MBSA. From the IMS business plan 2013 and Figure 2, it is found that Body-shop has a high rate of incidents till June 2013. In July 2013, training was conducted for team managers of Body-shop that has greatly reduced the number of incidents in Body-shop. In Body-shop, no disabling incident was found in July, August,, and September 2013. BBS training were also conducted for other departments in which incidents were reported.

Overall, it is found that the number of incidents was higher in Body-shop, Assembly,, and Paint shop in 2012 and 2013, but BBS training have reduced the total number of incidents that occurred at MBSA. Disability injuries at the end of December 2012 were 19, whereas in December 2013 the disability injuries were increased to 26. In October 2014, only 10 disability injuries were recorded.

SHE Trainings in 2014

As it is found that most of the accidents at MBSA occurred due to unsafe acts, the focus of management of MBSA in 2014 was more on training in different health, safety,, and environmental aspects. According to the SHE schedule,,, 2014 of MBSA attached in Appendix, different kinds of training were developed for different employees. Major types of training programs conducted in 2014 are as follow:

Types of Training Participants
First aid training All employees
General introductory training for OHS Acts All employees
Basic fire and practical training All employees
SHE training All employees
SHE Representative function SHE representatives or nominated employees
Preliminary incident investigation SHE representatives or nominated employees
Safety for Supervisors training course (SSTC) Team Managers / SHEQ Practitioners

Table 3: Table showing types of SHE Training conducted in 2014

These training were developed for specific employees to train them and provide them with adequate knowledge and skills. These training programs caused a reduction in the number of accidents as SHEQ practitioner reported that the number of disability injuries is reduced to 10 in 2014. Figure 3 also supports this fact as the total number of disability injury were reduced from 26 in 2013 to only 10 in 2014.

4.3       Research Goal 3: Evaluation of Questionnaires and Interviews

To evaluate the effectiveness of training conducted at MBSA, Kirkpatrick Four-Level Model is used (Kaufman and Keller, 1994). Four levels of this model are applied at MBSA training and are discussed below:

1.0       QUESTIONNAIRE-I (For shop-floor workers -Level 1)

A questionnaire was handed out to shop floor-workers of MBSA to measure the reaction of employees after receiving training (Level One of the Kirkpatrick model). 150 shop floor workers of different levels have participated in this questionnaire. There were131 respondents, 99 assemblers, 21 were inspectors, seven coordinators,, and four team managers.124 participants responded about time duration with MBSA. 19 workers have six month’s duration, 17 workers have one year, 14 workers have two year’s duration and 74 workers are working in MBSA for more than two years.

1.1 About the Instructor

Figure 6: Frequency Graph showing Employees Reaction about Instructor

Figure 6 highlights the response of shop floor workers about the instructor. 30 employees have strong agreement with the updated knowledge of training instructor, whereas 43 workers have shown agreement in this aspect. 22 participants held strong agreement that the instructor was well prepared during training, whereas 49 respondents have an agreement in this aspect. Figure 6 also reflected that the majority of respondents i.e. 49 workers have an agreement with the cooperative behavior of the Instructor. Overall, Figure 6 reflects that most of the respondents (above 40) have an agreement with the updated knowledge, well preparedness,, and cooperative behavior of the instructor during training. The average values of updated knowledge, well-preparedness,, and cooperativeness are 3.5, 3.47,, and 3.52, respectively. These mathematic mean values show that the overall response on these three aspects lies between neutral to an agreement. 

1.2 About Training Content

Figure 7: Frequency Graph showing Employees Reaction to Training Content

Figure 7 reflects the response of participants about training content. 22 and 55 participants have a strong agreement and the agreement with the organized training content, respectively. 19 and 55 respondents have a strong agreement and the agreement with that training content was easy to follow, respectively. 29 participants have a strong agreement, whereas 50 have an agreement with the relevancy of training contents. Overall, Figure 7 highlights that more than 50% of respondents have an agreement with three aspects of training contents. Average values of organized training content, easy to follow and relevancy are 3.47, 3.5,, and 3.62, respectively. These mathematic mean values reflect that the respondents have an opinion between the ‘neutral’ and ‘agreement’ option. 

1.3 About Training Material

Figure 8: Frequency Graph showing Employees Reaction to Training Material

Figure 8 presents the response of shop floor workers to training material used. The graph reflects that 50 and above participants have an agreement with the three aspects of training material. These aspects are: helpful, use of audio and visual aids and various multimedia techniques were also applied in order to deliver training content. 27 respondents have strong agreement with the helping aspect of training material, whereas 17 and 19 respondents showed strong agreement for audio and visual aids and multimedia techniques used, respectively. Average values of helpful aspect, use of audio and visual aids,, and multimedia techniques are 3.58, 3.39,, and 3.44, respectively. These values show that the overall response is between agreement and neutral. 

1.4 About the Training Environment

Figure 9: Frequency Graph showing Employees Reaction to Training Environment

Figure 9 reveals the fact that more than 50 participants have an agreement with the three aspects of the training environment. More than 20 respondents have strong agreement with the comfortable and encouraging training environment and the effectiveness of training facilities. Overall, respondents (more than 50) having an agreement with three aspects of training environment i.e. comfortable, encouragement, and effectiveness of training facilities are more than the respondents (less than 20) disagreeing. Average values of comfortable, encouraging environment and effectiveness of training facilities are 3.5, 3.56,, and 3.60, respectively. These values are significant as they shows that overall participants have neutral to agreement response about the effectiveness of the training programs regarding the training environment. 

1.5 Likeness about Training

Figure 10: Pie Graph showing Likeness of Employees towards Training

Figure 10 shows that around 50 % of respondents did not show any response about likeness for training. 9.63% of respondents said that training was knowledgeable, whereas 8.15% of respondents held the opinion that the training was interactive and practical. Very few respondents have mentioned other aspects of likeness such as interesting training material, open communication,, and beneficial and applicable. Some respondents have associated likeness with an understanding of the work, skilled trainees and motivated trainers, effective training facilities, professionalism,, and documentation. Other aspects of training are also liked by very few numbers of the respondents.

1.6  Training Improvement Areas

Figure 11: Pie Graph showing employees response to Training Improvement Areas

Figure 11 highlights that 50 % of respondents did not show any response to the areas that need improvement. 1.52% were undecided, 3.79 % reflected on the need for focusing on current trends and 2.27% said that training needs updating of contents. 5.3% of respondents said that there must be an improvement of training tools and efforts must be made for continuous improvement. 12.12% of respondents held the opinion that the improvement is required in every aspect of the training, whereas 12.88% of participants said that there is no need for improvement. Figure 11 presents different responses of the shop floor workers on training improvement areas.

2.0       INTERVIEW WITH SUPERVISORS (INTERVIEW-I)

Interviews were conducted with five supervisors and managers of the production department of Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA) to measure the learning outcomes of training (Level Two of the Kirkpatrick model). The researcher intended to identify the outcomes of the training and to establish whether there are notable improvements in the employees’ characteristics and performance under the training. For each question of interview-I, the response was recorded and categorized. Similar responses recorded during the interviews are grouped into one category and coded with the same alphabet. The results of the interview questions are presented as:

2.1 Changes in the attitude of employees

Interviewee Code Changes in the attitude of Employees Response
1 A Positive attitude change
2 A Change in mindset and concern for health and safety
3 B Focused on people
4 C Motivated towards work
5 C Motivated and positive towards work

Table 2.1 Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on changes in the attitude of employees

Figure 12: Frequency graph showing attitude change of employees after receiving training

Figure 12 shows that the response of supervisors falls into three categories mentioned in Table 2.1. Two supervisors showed that there is a positive change in the attitude of employees after receiving safety and health training. One supervisor held the opinion that employees get more focused on people, whereas two supervisors reported that employees are motivated towards work after receiving training.

2.2 Learning of employees about following safe working procedures

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Positive Change in production line employees regarding safe work environment
2 B More focus on the safety of people and environment
3 C They have more focus on applying learned skills and knowledge in the accident scenes. Concern for identifying reasons and root causes for accidents.
4 B More focus on the safety of people and environment, better able to reject unsafe work and efficiency in work
5 B More cautious and aware of safety work procedures

Table 2.2: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on learning of employees about following safe working procedures

Figure 13: Frequency graph showing the learning of employees about following safe working procedures

Figure 13 illustrates that employee learning about safety procedures are divided into three categories. Out of five supervisors, three falls in category B, and they held the opinion that after training, the focus of employees on safety has been increased. One supervisor said that employees have learned about a safe work environment. The supervisor of category C said that employees have more focus on applying learned skills and knowledge in the accident scene and for identifying reasons and root causes for accidents.

2.3 Changes in Employee’s skills after training

Interviewee Code Response
1 A More conscious and have ownership of tasks
2 B Noticeable improvement in skills.
3 C Improvement in skills required for First-aid processes
4 A More responsible and share learned skills
5 A Empowered and shared learned skills

Table 2.3: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the changes in employee’s skills

Figure 14: Frequency graph showing changes in Employee’s skills

Figure 14 reveals that an employee’s skill level has improved after training. Three supervisors of category A discussed that after training employees are more conscious, responsible,, and feel empowered. One supervisor said that there is a noticeable change in the skills of the employee. Another supervisor held the opinion that training has improved skills required for first aid processes only.

2.4 Ways in which employees are practicing first aid techniques

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Attend employee injuries, empowered and efficient after training
2 B  Learned the first-aid process to follow and share health benefits of accident
3 B Share and inform others about correct and safe working methods
4 B Using the correct accident reporting process
5 B Great tendency to follow safety processes

Table 2.4: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on ways in which employees are practicing first aid techniques

Figure 15: Frequency graph showing ways in which employees are practicing first aid techniques

Figure 15 and Table 2.4 presents that the interviewee’s response is divided into two categories. Only one respondent in category A said that employees are better able to practice first aid and they have increased empowerment after receiving training. They have learned to take responsibility for work. All other interviewees held the opinion that employees are practicing first-aid by following safety and reporting procedures and sharing with others in the organization.

2.5 Importance of training in creating safety awareness among shop-floor workers

Interviewee Code Response
1 A It makes communication and compliance easy
2 B It is a tangible benefit for employees
3 C It creates awareness about safety measures
4 B It is beneficial for employees
5 D It helps in achieving KPI and preventing future injuries

Table 2.5: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the importance of training in creating safety awareness among shop-floor workers

Figure 16: Frequency graph showing the importance of training in creating safety awareness among shop-floor workers

The responses of supervisors are divided into four categories. Two employees said that training is important in creating safety awareness because it is beneficial for employees regarding health and safety. Category A, the respondent said that training is important because it makes communication and compliance easy. Category C and Category D supervisors said that it created general awareness about safety measures, and it helps in improving key performance indicators of business as well as preventing future injuries, respectively.

2.6 Beliefs about training addressing health and safety concerns at the workplace

Interviewee Code Response
1 A It increased awareness of working hazards and unsafe practices
2 B It addressed health and safety topics for production line, information about PPE,, and MSDS (Material Master Data Sheet) requirements.
3 C It addressed the benefits of safety and health policies
4 B It focused on general health and safety topics
5 B General awareness of employees regarding health and safety practices has improved.

Table 2.6: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the beliefs about training addressing health and safety concerns at the workplace

Figure 17: Frequency graph showing beliefs about training addressing health and safety concerns at the workplace

Figure 17 presents that three supervisors have believed that the training addressed general health and safety topics. One respondent said that the training was focused on increasing awareness about health and safety practices. Another respondent stated that training addressed the benefits of safety and health policies.

2.7 Employee’s response to hazardous work after attending training

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Confident and correctly use EEP
2 B Comfortable in the working environment
3 C More aware and responsive
4 A Eager and confident
5 A Happy and confident

Table 2.7 showing codes and responses of interviewees on the employee’s response to hazardous work after attending training

Figure 18: Frequency graph showing employee’s response to hazardous work

Table 18 and Figure 17 reflect that three out of five supervisors found that employees are now more confident in following safety procedures and for handling hazardous situations at work. One supervisor said that after training, employees are more comfortable with the working environment and another supervisor reported that employees are more aware and responsible in handling hazardous work.

3.0       INTERVIEW WITH MANAGERS (INTERVIEW-II)

Interviews were conducted with five managers of Mercedes-Benz South Africa (MBSA) to examine the change in the behavior of employees after receiving training (Level Three of the Kirkpatrick model). Results of Interview-II are as follows:

3.1 Ways in which training outcomes influence the behavior of employees

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Increased awareness, broad outlook of employees
2 B Adoption of safety behavior
3 A Increased awareness about health and safety
4 A C Increased awareness, a better understanding of safety conditions,, and increased accountability
5 C Increased accountability, sharing,, and empowerment

Table 3.1: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on how training outcomes influence the behavior of employees

Figure 19: Frequency graph showing ways in which training outcomes influence the behavior of employees

Table 3.1 and Figure 19 show that one interviewee’s response fall into two categories i.e. category A and category C. Based on this fact three respondents held the opinion that training has changed the behavior of employees. They become more aware of health and safety concerns in the workplace. One supervisor said that employees are following more safety procedures at work after attending the training. Two respondents shared the view that an employee’s accountability has increased after training.

3.2 Changes in the behavior of employees

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Discipline and obey correct PPE procedures (housekeeping and spray booth area), increased morale
2 B Increased engagement and research of work, more careful
3 C Some employee resists to change, others have positive change in behavior
4 D More Aware of responsibilities, proactive, contributed to health and safety topic discussions
5 D More safety conscious and responsible (smoker)

Table 3.2: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees Increased engagement and research of work on the changes in the behavior of employees

Figure 20: Frequency graph showing changes in the behavior of employees

Figure 20 presents four categories of responses. One respondent said that employees are more disciplined now, and they are following correct PPE procedures. Another supervisor said that the employee’s engagement has increased, and they question any deviation in processes. One respondent revealed the fact that some employees have shown resistance to change behavior after training, but others have acquired positive change in behavior. Two respondents of category D said that employees became more responsible and safety-conscious after attending the training.

3.3 Ability of employees to transfer acquired skills and knowledge to others

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Young employees are better able than aged employees
2 B More experienced staff are better able to transfer than less experienced employees
3 C Briefs about safety awareness topics by SHEQ representatives have provided a platform for transferring skills and knowledge to all
4 D Not saw the implementation of it.
5 E Skill and knowledge transfer is more among employees of specific areas

Table 3.3Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the ability of employees to transfer acquired skills and knowledge to others

Figure 21: Frequency graph showing the ability of employees to transfer acquired skills and knowledge to others

Figure 21 shows the responses of interviewees in five categories. In other words, each supervisor has a different opinion about the ability of employees to transfer acquired skills and knowledge to others. Category A, respondent said that young employees are better able to transfer acquired skills and knowledge to others as compared to old age employees. Category B gives an opposing response as the supervisor reported that experienced staff has a better ability to transfer knowledge and skills as compared to less experienced employees. Category C respondent focused response on the company’s briefings, whereas category D respondent said that he did not find transference of acquired skills and knowledge to others. Category E respondents claimed that the transference of knowledge and skills was found more in specific work areas.

3.4 Ways in which training reduced accidents and unhealthy working conditions

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Increased awareness
2 A Increased awareness
3 A Increased awareness
4 B With the help of maintenance teams
5 C Proactive approach and learning from mistakes

Table 3.4: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on how training reduced accidents and unhealthy working conditions

Figure 22: Frequency graph showing ways in which training reduced accidents and unhealthy working conditions

Three of the interviewees held the opinion that accidents are reduced after training due to increased awareness of employees. One supervisor said that maintenance teams contribute to reducing accidents. Respondent of category C associated it with a positive approach and learning lessons from mistakes.

3.5 Use of safety equipment at work by employees

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Willing to use PPE
2 A  Improvement and willingness to use PPE
3 A Improvement and willingness to use PPE
4 A More receptive in using PPE
5 A More knowledge and correct use of PPE

Table 3.5: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the use of safety equipment at work by employees

Figure 23: Frequency graph showing the use of safety equipment

Figure 23 reveals that all of the five interviewees held the same opinion about the use of safety equipment in the workplace. They reflected that training has resulted in the improved and correct use of PPE.

3.6 Kinds of safety procedures at work followed by employees

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Each area has unique MSDS safety and health procedures
2 B Maintenance area procedures, procedures on hazardous chemical spillages, plant evacuation and reporting of accidents
3 A MSDS safety and health procedures
4 C Welding machine procedure, lock-out /tag-out and working in confined area procedures
5 D Plant start-up and shut-down procedures for production team managers

Table 3.6: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the kinds of safety procedures at work followed by employees

Figure 24: Frequency graph showing various kinds of safety procedures

Through Table 3.6 and Figure 24, it is found that supervisors’ response is categorized in four categories. Two respondents of category A showed that there are MSDS safety and health procedures at MSBA. Category B respondent said that they followed maintenance area procedures and procedures on hazardous chemical spillages, plant evacuation and reporting of accidents. Category C respondents claimed that the company has welding machine procedure, lock-out /tag-out,, and working in confined area procedures. Category D respondent discussed the plant business entrepreneurs have planned to open a French-Caribbean Restaurant at Farnborough town, which is located in Northeast Hampshire. The start-up and shut-down procedures followed by the production team managers.

3.7 Handling injuries and accidents at workplace

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Follow safety escalation process
2 B First-aid for minor injuries, medical station help for major injuries
3 C Follow health and safety procedures
4 A Calm and follow the safety escalation process
5 A follow the safety escalation process

Table 3.7: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the handling of injuries and accidents at the workplace

Figure 25: Frequency graph showing employee’s handling injuries and accidents

Figure 25 highlights that three respondents (category A) informed that accidents and injuries are handled at the workplace by following the safety escalation process. Category B respondent believed that safety representatives use first-aid procedures for treating minor injuries, whereas the help of the medical station is used to handling major injuries caused by workplace accidents. Category C respondent answered that the following general health and safety procedures are used for handling injuries.

3.8 Importance of practicing first aid procedures in emergencies

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Reflects on responsibility towards workers, proactive behavior of medical staff
2 B To keep calm patients, follow first aid procedures to save lives and time
3 C Improve skills, increase confidence in dealing with emergencies.
4 D Quick stabilization of the patient and the environment
5 B Keep calm the injured person, involve medical and emergency staff

Table 3.8: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the importance of practicing first aid procedures in emergencies

Figure 26: Frequency graph showing importance of practicing first aid procedures

Figure 26 presents that two of the respondents (category B) highlighted the importance of practicing first-aid training to keep calm the injured person and help them immediately. The supervisor of Category A said that first-aid training is important as it reflects on the responsibility of the organization towards workers, and it also shows the proactive behavior of medical staff. Category C respondent said that practicing first-aid procedures helps in improving skills, and it increases the confidence of employees in dealing with emergencies. According to category D supervisor, first-aid helps in quick stabilization and recovery of the injured person.

3.9 Preventive measures taken by employees at the workplace

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Good housekeeping standards, appropriate storage of chemicals, ensure the PPE is in good conditions
2 B Expiry date checking, reports on fluid leaks and damages
3 C Alert and vocal in highlighting risks and hazards at the workplace and learned from lessons from previous accidents
4 D More conscious of lifting attachments, machine guards and the safe operating procedures of equipment, use of correct PPE
5 E Communication between staffs during an accident, use of correct PPE

Table 3.9: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the preventive measures taken by employees at the workplace

Figure 27: Frequency graph on preventive measures

Preventive measures taken by employees are divided into five categories as presented in Figure 27. Each supervisor has provided different information about preventive measures. The detail of each is presented in Table 3.9.

3.10 Change in the response of employees to hazardous work

Interviewee Code Response
1 A Empowerment and understanding of hazards and appreciate preventive measures and safety procedures
2 B Awareness, understanding,, and knowledge
3 A, B More aware and confident and also appreciate preventive measures
4 C More receptive and conscious
5 B Awareness and understanding of processes

Table 3.10: Table showing codes and responses of interviewees on the change in the response of employees to hazardous work

Figure 28: Frequency graph showing change in the response of employees to hazardous work

As it is revealed from Table 3.10 that the response of interviewee 3 falls into two categories i.e. Category A and B. Two respondents (category A) said that after training employees have a better understanding of hazards, and they appreciate preventive measures and safety procedures. Three respondents informed that employees are become more aware of hazardous work after attending training. One respondent of category C has a similar view but differed in opinion that employees became more receptive and conscious after receiving training.

4.0       QUESTIONNAIRE-II (For managers and supervisors – Level 4)

The survey was conducted on five supervisors of MBSA to measure the results of training (Level Four of the Kirkpatrick model). It seeks to ascertain any behavioral changes in shop-floor workers following the safety and health training programs. It also measured whether the training achieved the objectives of advancing the company’s health and safety concerns. In this survey, all team managers who participated have more than two years’ experience with MBSA. Survey findings are as follow:

4.1 Effect on Productivity

Figure 29: Frequency Graph showing the Response of Supervisors on the Effect of Training on Productivity

Figure 29 shows that supervisors and managers have an agreement with the effect of training on productivity. Only one respondent has a neutral response, and one respondent has strong disagreement on the aspect of meeting targets by employees after attending the training. Three managers believed that training has resulted in meeting targets. Four managers have strong agreement on the improvement of work performance after training. Two managers held a strong opinion that training has resulted in improved health performance. The average values of meeting targets, improved work performance, and improved health performance are 4, 4.8,, and 4.4, respectively. It shows that the responses of managers lie between agreement and strong agreement.

4.2 Effect on Satisfaction Level

Figure 30: Frequency Graph showing the Response of Managers/ Supervisors on the Effect of Training on Employee’s Satisfaction Level

Figure 30 reveals that all team managers who have participated in the survey showed agreement with three aspects of the satisfaction level of employees. Two and four managers had a strong agreement with the right level of skills and knowledge and increased employee morale, respectively. Two respondents have strong agreement with the increased interest of employees on the job after receiving training. The average value of the right skill level increased employee morale,, and increased job interest are 4.4, 4.8,, and 4.4, respectively.

4.3 Other Factors

Figure 31: Frequency Graph showing Managers Response on Other Factors

Two managers have an agreement with increased employee retention after training, whereas three agreed with the effect of training on higher working quality rating. Four managers have an agreement with the enhanced ability of employees to attain organizational goals after attending a training program. Figure 31 shows that none of the five managers have a disagreement in these aspects. Average values of increased employee retention, high working quality,, and enhanced ability of employees to attain organizational goals are 3.8, 4.4,, and 4.2, respectively.

4.4 Employees Attitude Change after Training

 

                   

Figure 32: Pie Graph showing the Response of Managers on Employees Attitude Change after Training

Three managers showed that the attitude of employees has changed positively after training. One manager responded in each of the other categories as shown in Figure 32. One manager agreed with an increase in the motivation of employees after training, whereas another manager responded that employees are more relaxed at work after training. A manager mentioned that the work focus of employees has increased after training. One more manager said that employees are more aware and their security ownership is enhanced after training. One respondent agreed with the employee’s ability to attain practical know-how from training.

4.5 Training Improvement Areas

Figure 33: Pie Graph showing managers response to Training Improvement Areas

Figure 33 shows that each manager highlighted different training improvement areas.

5.0       QUESTIONNAIRE-III (For shop-floor workers – Level 4)

A survey was conducted on shop floor workers to measure the results of training (Level Four of the Kirkpatrick model). A questionnaire was used to ascertain whether employees experience tangible benefits from the training at work or not. 150 shop floor workers have participated in this survey, 115 questionnaires were completed, out of which 91 were assemblers, 13 were inspector, 7 were coordinators and four were team managers. Five workers have six month’s experience at MBSA, whereas 12 workers have one-year experience. 16 and 15 employees have two and five years’ experience with MBSA, respectively. 67 workers are working with MBSA for more than five years. Survey findings are as follow:

5.1 Effect on Productivity

Figure 34: Frequency Graph showing Employees Response on the Effect of Productivity:

Figure 34 presents that more than 30 employees have a strong agreement and more than 40 employees have an agreement with each of three aspects of productivity. Very few respondents (less than 15) have shown disagreement in these aspects. The average values of meeting targets, enhanced work performance,, and better health performance are 3.93, 3.90,, and 3.72, respectively. It shows that respondents”’ overall score lies between neutral behavior and agreement. These values are significant because they provide an overall reflection on the effect of training on employee’s productivity at work.

5.2 Effect on Satisfaction Level

Figure 35: Frequency Graph showing Employees Response on the Effect of Satisfaction Level

By measuring the effect of training on the satisfaction level of employees, it is found that between 30 and 50 employees have positive (strongly agree and agree) responses on the three aspects shown in Figure 35. Only one employee has strong disagreement with the aspect of skill level and knowledge and enhanced morale. Average values of skill level and knowledge, enhanced morale and increased job interest are 4.05, 3.89,, and 4.03, respectively. These values are significant to study the effect of training on the satisfaction level of employees. These values show that participants have a response between agreement and strong agreement with the effect of training on employee satisfaction.

5.3 Other Factors

Figure 36: Frequency Graph showing Employees Response on Other Factors that Effect Training

Figure 36 reflects that more than 40 respondents have an agreement with the effect of training on personal goals attainment, high work quality,, and career development. Overall more than half (57.6) number of respondents have a positive response i.e. strong agreement and agreement on three aspects. Average values of personal goals attainment, high work quality,, and career development are 3.80, 3.94,, and 3.75, respectively. These values are significant for determining the overall response of participants about different factors affecting training outcomes.

3.6 Success of Training in Resolving Health & Safety Issues

Figure 37: Pie Graph showing Success of Training in Resolving Health & Safety Issues

Survey results about the success of training in resolving health and safety issues are presented in Figure 37. It shows that 55.46% of respondents agree that training was successful. 5.04% of participants responded that the training was unsuccessful. 21.01% of respondents did not show any response, whereas other respondents associated the success of training in a few aspects such as it caused increased awareness, helped in learning new things,, and aided in developing work procedures. 

4.4       Research Goal 4: Conclusion and Recommendations for MBSA

4.4.1   Major findings of the research study

From the analysis of incident reports of MBSA, it is found that major causes of accidents were unsafe acts and careless behavior of employees and managers at the workplace. Most of the accidents caused in 2013, and 2014 were due to ‘struck against’ and ‘struck by’. Different trends of injuries and incidents that occurred in 2013 and 2014 are also analyzed in this research paper. Based on the root causes of accidents at MBSA, this paper has provided insight into the development of different training programs to reduce the number of accidents. MBSA conducted various safety and health training programs in 2013 and 2014. Most important training conducted during this period were OHS Act trainings, behavioral-based system trainings and SHE training. It is inferred from the analysis of research question 2 that these training programs had resulted in the reduction of accidents as reflected in the trends of accidents.

In this research study, the effectiveness of a training program conducted at MBSA was evaluated. Survey findings showed a positive response of shop floor workers about training content, instructor,, and training environment (Level One of the Kirkpatrick model). It is discovered that training has resulted in notable improvements in the employees’ characteristics and performance (Level Two of the Kirkpatrick model). A positive change is found in the attitude and behavior of employees (Level Three of the Kirkpatrick model). They become more aware and conscious about health and safety. They have enhanced concern for safety practice and following safe work procedures and first aid techniques. Employees’ skills are also improved after attending the training. The change in the behavior of employees was analyzed from the manager’s perspectives. Results have shown that in some aspects, responses of the managers interviewed were not in agreement but rather contradicted each other. For instance, the response of each manager on the transfer of knowledge acquired while training was different. The results of training (Level Four of the Kirkpatrick model) were measured and showed that training has a positive effect on productivity, satisfaction level,, and work,, and health performance. Besides managers, more than half of shop floor workers who have participated in the questionnaire agreed that training has a positive effect on the productivity and satisfaction level. 55.46% of respondents agreed that training was successful.

4.4.2   Recommendations for MBSA based on the Analysis of Incident Report,

           Questionnaires and Interviews

Besides the success of training programs conducted at MBSA, following

recommendations are given to the management of MBSA:

The training content should be improved, and more practical knowledge should be

provided to employees of MBSA.

  • Efforts should be made to improve the training environment as it will facilitate in better transfer of knowledge and analysis shows that the project was entirely beneficial. The major areas of expenditure for the project were on transport, acquisition of skills.
  • There must be more first aid training in-plant facility as the first aid injuries were still high in September 2014.
  • Along with training, various steps should be taken by the company to reduce various causes of accidents such as hazardous work and unsafe working areas should be made safe to eliminate ‘struck against’ and ‘struck by’.
  • Health-based risk assessment workshops should be conducted at MBSA for all divisions. It will facilitate further in reducing the number of accidents and identifying and dealing with various health and safety risks.
  • Campaign management audits and inspection process audits should be properly implemented at MBSA

4.4.3   Discussion and Conclusion

The researcher while looking for relevant literature on the role of training in accident reduction has noted challenges on the availability of information. Limitations have also been noted on the parameters used for most of the research; this suggests the need for further analysis and research on safety and health as a social science. The explanations that follow below are the areas the researcher feels that the opportunity for further review is essential.

  • Several reasons were not clear concerning the role of training interventions mentioned in this literature. Firstly, most training considerations did not address the OSHA training guidelines and requirements. There is little evidence of any international standard that was followed in the training material. Secondly, the parameter used to measure the effectiveness of training, knowledge gains in safety,, and increase in preventive actions, does not establish a relationship between these parameters and the rate of accidents. There is no evidence to attribute the above-mentioned factors to the reduction in the levels of accidents as recorded. Finally, remarkably little time was allocated for most of the studies, the effects of the interventions were far from being observed, most studies were site-specific, and thus they never provided an accurate picture of the real effects of the study. Further studies should consider demographical and economic reasons. The results cannot be generalized considering the divergent nature of experiences in several industries. More evaluation needs to be done (Tompa, Dolinsch & Laing, 2009). The best approach would be to classify the industries in terms of the nature of injuries experienced and their corresponding rates. The next level would involve tabulating the appropriate OSHA training requirements for the workplace of interest hand in hand with the actual practices being observed for the training. The focus will be directed to the relevant injury or disease risks.
  • Variations in how the selected training rules were implemented at the different sites were selected to be used for the study. The noticeable relationship existing between the training carried out, and accident control measures would be studied to determine the best practices. Asides from that it would also help in the assessment of the results of training. Such a study is noteworthy, and it needs to be done.
  • In addition to thepointsmentioned above, there is littleinformation on howthevariousplayers in the industry have responded to the available trainings standards such as those presented by OSHA. If the response is there, the question will be directed to the quality and nature of the response. The data to this effect may be available on the libraries of some lead agencies in terms of OSH such as NIOSH and OSHA, arising from other documented works by these agencies. Records on accidents investigations, fatal accident records and those provided by governmentsafetyandhealthinspectors would be invaluable in such a scenario. Successful extraction of data from such databases would provide a conclusive statementconcerning OSH training practices in the From the data extracted, we can determine the extent to which the training is in line with the OSHA voluntary guidelines on training. Information will be attained on the resultant experiences and control objectives on the hazards
  • It is crucial to note that training on hazards alone within an organization is not enough to eradicate accidents. However, training is part of the initial management approaches to accident eradication. The dependence on this other factors makes it difficult to ascertaintherole of training in accident reduction by use of accident statistics exclusively. In addition to instruction, motivation, feedback and transfer to the job site, there are administrational, engineering, and practices within an organization that can influence the success of training interventions. The commitment of the Top management, work relationships, communication, accountability, workplace safety and health, greatly influence the resultsexpected after employee training. Therateandzeal to which the Top management handles issues concerninghealthandsafety will flow down to the shopfloor. To decide on a winning combination of both the management, training and physicalfactorsorganizations should be able to demonstrate exemplary resultsand documentation on health and safety matters. Even though seemingly repeating other work geared to defining successful work practices, thisresearch would focusmore on criticaltrainingactivities, both alone and in their relations with otherfactors to describethecontrollinginfluencesordominantfactors on thetrainingresults.
  • Retrospective studies on the role of safety training in accident reduction could be another appropriate method to determine the importance of training. In such a study, the researcher will compare the variations in the levels of training. The sample for the study will include one stratum, which has been injured on the job, and the other strata would be those with comparable characteristics but have not been injured. The rate of exposure and the nature of the hazard should be comparable in both strata for analysis.

References

KAUFMAN, R.,, and KELLER, J. M., 1994. Levels of Evaluation: Beyond Kirkpatrick. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5, 4: 371-80.

THE SOUTH AFRICAN DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR, 2004. Occupational Health and Safety Act. [Online]
THE SOUTH AFRICAN LABOR GUIDE, 2014. Different types of risk assessment. [Online]  Available at:     `

TOMPA, E., DOLINSCH, R., & LAING, A., 2009. ‘An economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process in an auto parts manufacturer.’ Journal of Safety Research; 43, 41–47.

5.0 Appendix A – Research Instruments

   5.1 Questionnaire I (For shop-floor workers -Level 1)

   5.2 Interview Questions I (For supervisors – Level 2)

   5.3 Interview Questions II (For managers and supervisors – Level 3)

   5.4 Questionnaire II (For managers and supervisors – Level 4)

   5.5 Questionnaire III (For shop-floor workers – Level 4)

5/5 - (6 votes)