Homosexual men

Jul 27, 2017 | 0 comments

Jul 27, 2017 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

 Homosexual Men-Homosexuality and Testosterone

The debate on the origin of homosexuality has raged on for quite a while. Recent studies have suggested that homosexuality not only affects but also causes homosexuality in men.  According to,(Roper 1996)  there are many causes of homosexuality, but top among them are prenatal hormones and in specific testosterone. In their research, the performance of homosexual men was also measured. Each of the rests was designed to determine the effects on testosterone. The concern for testosterone levels is not just among the homosexuals in terms of performance but is also included in the concerns for the increased levels of homosexuality among the men.

Testosterone is a hormone that is the main reproductive hormone in individuals. The hormone in fact is prenatal, however, it begins to manifest after the age of puberty among young boys. Many scientists, therefore, determine that young children cannot describe themselves as gay or homosexual. There is a need for children to reach puberty. Attraction to members of the opposite or similar sex and gender can only be manifested during puberty.  According to (Marchnant Haycox 1991) testosterone, is the hormone is responsible for maintaining sexual desires of whichever sexual orientation. This is in turn contradicted by (Buvat et al 1996) who state that the lack or excess exposure to testosterone does not necessarily translate into homosexuality.  This is proven by individuals who test either with high testosterone and even though they may be highly sexually active they are not necessarily homosexual; or on the other hand, men who show low levels of testosterone as a result of age and other social problems, this may cause problems is sexual performance but again does not equally translate into being homosexual. The main debate on testosterone and homosexuality, and which has drawn a lot of academic interest comes in the form of exposure to testosterone while the boy is in the womb.

Prenatal exposure to testosterone has been quite difficult to study based on the fact that it is often difficult to prove exposure in the first place. However, scientists feel that they have adequately proved that exposure, and in that case early exposure to testosterone often translates in the majority of the cases turning into homosexual desires. While women often produce the testosterone hormone which is often ideal for various production and reproduction balances and checks in the system, such production is often much lower than in male children. As stated before, boys experience changes in puberty when the testosterone hormone begins to be produced. However, as (McIntyre et al 2006) states that there are studies that have shown that during pregnancy children could become exposed to the testosterone hormone which can in turn be credited for the development of early sexual orientation desires. This is in major contrast to past studies which have often suggested that homosexuality is a form of deviant behavior that is acquired and learned socially. Also, this contradicts the belief that homosexual men can be transformed and taught what society has often considered to be the “right” behavior”.  The study into testosterone and the role in plays in the development of homosexuality are vital.

One of the most controversial studies focused on measuring the pheromone levels of individual heterosexual, lesbian and homosexual men. Each of these groups was exposed to various components of hormones that are often credited for sexual attraction.  However, the results of the study have long been debated since they did not focus more on the women, segregating them instead and focusing on what attracted men sexually to various genders, (Neave et al 2000).  During the study, heterosexual men responded sexually, which is a region of the hypothalamus that became activated when they were exposed to estrogen collected from women. On the other hand, homosexual men showed more excitement when exposed to male sweat which contains testosterone. The results of the study laid the foundation for the understanding of homosexuality. Evolutionary genetics has agreed that homosexuality in and of itself should be a behavior that in the strict evolutionary nature and Darwinian principles should have ceased to exist. Homosexuality does not allow for the production of a stronger and more efficient human race. As such, if it is a behavior that was acquired and learned overtime should have ceased to exist.  The only reason why homosexuality would continue to exist would be that it’s beyond a social behavior and therefore have a biological precedence.

Conventional science has found that an embryo’s gender is determined through exposure to the X or Y chromosome. Should the embryo be exposed to the Y chromosome, it triggers the development is tested which turns to begin the production of male hormones such as testosterone. However, it should be noted that girls too are exposed to some level of testosterone, which balances the exposure to estrogen and ensures proper development. What scientists have determined according to (Robinson and Manning 2000)is that the level of exposure differs in the womb between the boys and the girls. The young girls are exposed to very little and sometimes even insufficient levels of testosterone. On the other hand, the boys are often exposed to high levels of testosterone, but not quite as much as had been previously thought of. However, such levels are of course much higher than those found in the girls. Based on this (Domer et al 1975) found that as a prenatal hormone, testosterone cannot be controlled in terms of embryo exposure. Young boys who are exposed to more testosterone than is normal during the pregnancy may be expected to show early development during puberty, and extreme manlike features such as hairy bodies. However, there is also an effect that has come to light and this is the attraction to testosterone in men making them homosexual. In this case, while other men respond to estrogen and female like features, these men respond at least sexually towards the testosterone found in other men. From a young age, they may seek out other young men even though without proper understanding. As they grow and reach puberty, these in turn translates to seeking out sexual relations with other men. They begin to show signs that they are attracted to men sexually.

(Gray et al 2002) therefore states that these men are not attracted to the men per se, but rather the testosterone hormones that they were exposed to during pregnancy seek out the testosterone in other men. Although they may try to hide such desires, and even seek alternative treatments for what many in society consider misguided behavior; they often find that there is no solution. Even when suppressed, such desires often tend to arise even after decades, simply when the excess testosterone is triggered by another male. (Mazur et al 1992) goes further to state that excess exposure to testosterone could be credited for epigenetic changes that are concurrent with homosexuality traversing across generations. Such features can either suppress or increase the desires of the child in terms of sexual orientations. According to this presumption therefore parents who suppress their own desires that arise from their own exposure to various hormones including testosterone are most likely to pass along the genes to the child. In this case, the desires become much stronger and cannot be easily quelled. Marks set in the parental gene could alter a child’s response to the genders and brain activation areas involved with sexual attraction and preferences. Such a child could therefore easily translate information that members of the same sex are to be revered and loved romantically. However, it is important to note that this theory has had much controversy, with many of the scientists finding it hard to prove and some even insisting that it is built purely on fiction rather than any form of fact.

Scientists have for long attempted to understand homosexuality as a preference. In the 1950’s such studies were crippled by the fact that at the time, homosexuality was considered a form of deviance that should be rooted in society. The studies, therefore, lacked participants and drew fewer and fewer scientists. Today, however, studies have focused more on understanding homosexuality rather than condemning homosexual men. These studies are therefore more informed and reliable.  The idea that homosexuality may stem and begin at the womb has in fact drawn more interest than any other study.  However, it is important to also note that some scientists and studies have critiqued the view that exposure to testosterone could lead to homosexuality. Such studies argue in fact that sometimes young girls and even other young boys are overly exposed to a higher level of testosterone, yet they proceed to become highly heterosexual. According to the proponents of this theory, however, such as () this can be credited more towards social orientation rather than biologically acquired behavior. Such individuals are only suppressing the desires that they feel, and have learned such suppression from society so that they are mechanized into heterosexuality. (Burnham et al  2003) concludes that epi-marks carried from parents to the children of the opposite sex often suppress the desires of the child about the parent of the opposite gender. This, in turn, leads to the development of sexual desires during puberty which is directed to individuals of his own gender.

REFERENCES

Burnham, T. C., Chapman, J. F., Gray, P. B., McIntyre, M. H., Lipson, S. F., & Ellison, P. T. (2003). Men in committed, romantic relationships have lower testosterone. Hormones and Behavior, 44, 119–122.

Buvat, J., Lemaire, A., & Ratajczyk, J. (1996). [Role of hormones in sexual dysfunctions, homosexuality, transsexualism, and deviant sexual behavior: diagnostic and therapeutic consequences]. Contraception, fertility, sexuality (1992)24(11), 834-846.

Dörner, G., Rohde, W., Stahl, F., Krell, L., & Masius, W. G. (1975). A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior4(1), 1-8.

Gray, P. B., Kahlenberg, S. M., Barrett, E. S., Lipson, S. F., & Ellison, P. T. (2002). Marriage and fatherhood are associated with lower testosterone in males. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 193–201.

Marchant-Haycox, S. E., McManus, I. C., & Wilson, G. D. (1991). Left-handedness, homosexuality, HIV infection, and AIDS. Cortex27(1), 49-56.

Mazur, A., Booth, A., & Dabbs, J. M. (1992). Testosterone and Chess Competition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 70–77.

McIntyre, M., Gangestad, S. W., Gray, P. B., Chapman, J. F., Burnham, T. C., O’Rourke, M. T., & Thornhill, R. (2006). Romantic involvement often reduces men’s testosterone levels–but not always: The moderating role of extrapair sexual interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 642–651

Neave, N., Menaged, M., & Weightman, D. R. (1999). Sex differences in cognition: the role of testosterone and sexual orientation. Brain and Cognition,41(3), 245-262.

Robinson, S. J., & Manning, J. T. (2000). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and male homosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior21(5), 333-345.

Roper, W. G. (1996). The etiology of male homosexuality. Medical hypotheses,46(2), 85-88.