Fifth Disease: prognosis method of physical examination

May 1, 2016 | 0 comments

May 1, 2016 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

Introduction

The identified practical issue the paper will address is the prognosis method of physical examination used in predicting fifth disease among children below the age of 15 years. Fifth disease is very common among children aged 5 years to 15 years and is characterised with distinctive red rash on the children’s faces. The red rashes then spreads to the other parts of the body such as the legs, arms and trunk. Health care professionals usually predict fifth disease by the unique rashes on the body or the face of the child. This is done by physically examining the body of the infected patient. However, studies indicate that fifth disease starts with headache, fever and mild cold like symptoms or the runny or stuffy nose. Eventually these symptoms disappear and the disease seems to have gone away until days later when rash appear. These bright red rashes normally start on the face of the child and days later it spreads and extend to the arms, legs and the trunk (yyyy, uuuu, gggg). Furthermore, noted that an individual with parvovirus infection is very contagious before the appearance of the rashes. This implies that before the appeared of the rashes on the body and face, fifth disease is very contagious during incubation (period before onset of symptoms after infection) and when the child is experiencing mild respiratory symptoms. The current method for prognosis of fifth disease depends on physical examination after red rashes has appeared. The method is useful only after the incubation period of the virus and after the patient has passed the contagious phase of the disease.

Also referred to as erythema infectiosum, the disease is usually mild and spreads through the respiratory droplets entering the air from sneezes and coughs of an infected person or through blood. According to (), fifth disease is a viral disease that most children quickly recover from without any complications. Various studies indicate that despite the fact that40%-60% of adults globally show laboratory evidence of having parvovirus B19 in the past, most of them cannot remember experiencing the fifth disease symptoms. Therefore, it is believed by the medical experts that most people infected with parvovirus B19 have no symptoms at all or have very mild symptoms (ffff,gggg.kkk). () pointed out that fifth disease occurs everywhere and mostly it tend outbreak during early spring and late winter. However, there could be some sporadic cases of fifth disease throughout a year. () noted that these rashes normally spares the soles of the feet and the palms of the hand. As the rashes begin to disappear, they takes on an appearance that is lacy net like. According to (), older children complain sometimes that the rashes itch. Moreover, certain stimuli such as the stress, exercise, heat and sunlight may reactivate the rashes before it fades completely. For the rashes to completely heal, it may take about 1-3 weeks. Other symptoms that occurs sometimes with fifth disease include red eyes, swollen glands, diarrhoea, sore throat and rarely skin rashes that appear like bruises or blisters.

Despite the fact that healthcare professionals majorly depend on physical examination of the patient as a prognosis method for fifth disease, there is limited understanding on the physical examination prognosis method for fifth disease before appearance of the red rashes. As such, physical examination variables for prognosis of fifth disease before the onset of the red rashes varies significantly between the physicians. Although the doctors beliefs and the characteristics of the patient likely account for some of the disparity, it is likely that many cases of fifth disease will need minimal examination of the red rashes if the disease is to be detected in its incubation period to prevent it from spreading. To examine properly the physical characteristics of fifth disease in its incubation stage, it is necessary to consider the following factors; physical characterises, the severity of the characteristics, and the duration the characteristics has manifested themselves.

Blood testing of the parvovirus B19 allows the doctors to detect the virus at its initial stage put adequate measures to prevent the spread of the disease and to better manage it during its incubation stage. Fifth disease is caused by parvovirus B19 which is a human virus, and is not the same virus that affects the pets like dogs and cannot be transmitted from animals to humans or from human to animals.

Aim of project: this project seeks to introduce blood testing for parvovirus B19 as the best prognosis method for fifth disease among children. The paper hope to achieve the following improved outcomes:

  1. Reduced rate of spread of fifth disease among the children from the time of infection to the period of the onset of symptoms (incubation period). This will also be helpful in taking precautionary measures to prevent the spread of the disease
  2. Reduce intervention time from the period the child is infected to the time the child begins experiencing the symptoms

PICOT Question

In children 5-15 years (P), how does blood testing of the parvovirus B19 (I)compared to physical examination the body (C) influence reduction in the severity and spread of the disease (O) over 4 days (T).

(P)- Population: This describes a group of patients and uses factors such as gender, age group, having a condition or disease, ethnicity. In the study, the population will comprise of children 5-15 years suspected to be ailing from fifth disease and who have not shown red rashes on their body

(I)-intervention: This describes the intervention being considered such as a diagnostic/prognostic test or treatment method. In the study, the blood of the subjects will be tested for parvovirus B19. The subjects will also receive physical examination prognosis done to the control group who will not be blood tested or quarantined

(C)- Comparison: This is the identified alternative treatment for comparison. In the study, a standardised comparative prognosis sheet will be used. All the participants regardless of the group, would be tested using physical examination for fifth disease symptoms. However, the active group will be tested for parvovirus B19 on their blood unlike the control group

(O)- Outcome: This describes the effect desired or the patient outcome. Changes in the number of newly reported cases of fifth disease will be measured from the quarantined blood tested subjects and the free control groups

(T)-Time: This is a specific period of time over which the population will be observed and the outcome measured. In the study the outcome will be measured after 1 week

The practical issue of physical examination as a prognosis of fifth disease is significant in numerous ways. First of all, the outcomes of the method is poor and unreliable compared to blood testing of parvovirus B19. The method cannot be used when the fifth disease is still in its incubation period or before the symptoms start manifesting themselves. However, cost wise the method is cheap compared to blood testing since it does not involve any costs. Furthermore, the method can be applied by anybody unlike blood testing of parvovirus B19 which needs qualified medical personal (). According to (), physical examination also does not require any equipment for testing. On the other hand, blood testing of parvovirus B19 requires laboratory equipment for accurate prognosis.