Domestic violence is among the most complex vices hailing the society that has proven difficult to stem given that it occurs predominantly within the privacy of people’s homes. Domestic violence has lingering negative impacts on both the victims and the entire society as it contributes to the development of violent behavior, affects physical and mental health, and in worst scenarios leads to death but it is still perceived as a normal occurrence. The journal suggests that to fight the vice, it is imperative for people to fully understand its contributing factors plus victims and shed the misconception that victims are women and perpetrators men. Men, women, children, and seniors can all be victims and culprits.
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It is not really clear exactly what motivates a person to physically or emotionally abuse a loved one. Domestic violence is associated with a wide range of challenges that make it difficult to detect and prove its existence making it a serious threat. Tittlová & Papáček (2018) highlight multiple factors that instigate and drive domestic violence which includes individual, social and environmental aspects. the journal looks into risk factors associated with each class of victims. The major factors contributing to the initiation and acceptance of domestic violence are deeply rooted in cultural norms associated with the ideology of dominance and authoritarianism. The ideology that a man is the head of the household and therefore the sole decision-maker makes women and children vulnerable. The perception that the boy child is more valuable makes the girl child susceptible (Tittlová & Papáček, 2018). Alcoholism, addiction to narcotics, and low income also contribute to violence against loved ones. Other factors include mental illnesses, disorders, history of violent behavior, and psychological plus physical immaturity. The community’s disinterest and failure to acknowledge the problem are some of the key aspects of nourishing domestic violence. The absence of comprehensive legislation dealing with the challenge is an issue as well.
Biological sex differences in violence
In his book, Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle (2008) discusses why males are more involved in violent crime compared to females. Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle (2008) question why people who are exposed to the same environment, either male or female, turn out differently. Females have lower rates of violence compared to the males in all countries, ethnic and racial groups.
Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle (2008) explained that the females in the society are not less aggressive, but tend to display their aggressiveness in less physical and more covert ways, also referred to as passive-aggressive behavior. For instance, females may show more verbal aggression. On the other hand, Wright pointed out that males have a higher likelihood of using physical aggression more than women. However, in the context of marriages and dating, the physical aggression rate tends to be similar for both women and men. But in cases of physical aggression during domestic violence, men tend to inflict a higher percentage of injuries
Biological sex differences in violence can also be explained by social cognition development. How a person responds to life even that is stressful or a risk factor depends on how the individual perceives the event, which also in turn depends on the cognitive processes of an individual. One of the suggestions put forward by Wright, why females have lower violence rates, is because they acquire earlier the social-cognitive skills in life compared to the males (Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle, 2008). The skills for social information processing allow the people to encode information, then interpret before considering the benefits or risks of action, and then determine an appropriate response. This does not imply that deficiency in cogitative capabilities causes violent crimes, but instead that some social cognitive structures of the memory and ways of social information processing helps in protecting a person from social, personal, situational, or environmental pressures towards violence or criminal behavior (Wright, Tibbetts & Daigle, 2008).
Wright, J. P., Tibbetts, S. G., & Daigle, L. E. (2008). Criminals in the making: Criminality across the life course. Los Angeles: Sage.
Tittlová, M., & Papáček, P. (2018). Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, 6(2), 117-124. doi:10.2478/ijek-2018-0019
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