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Preserving Biodiversity: Addressing Environmental Impacts

Jul 24, 2023 | 0 comments

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Jul 24, 2023 | Essays | 0 comments


Endangered species are defined as species that are facing the risk of going extinct. This is as a result of an abrupt reduction in its population or the loss of its habitat. Almost 99% of species that are threatened are so as a result of various human activities like deforestation of agricultural land. As early as the 21st century, it was noted that the biggest threat to biodiversity is human beings (Early et al., 2016). Recently, there has been a great reduction in the population of amphibians all over the world. They have been known for their global indication of environmental health. However, they have experienced the highest decline in population as compared to the rest of the population. Amphibians include frogs, newts, tadpoles, salamanders, and many more. The research that was done by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List process shows that these animals are really affected and they do not survive tough environmental conditions. Amphibians are very sensitive when it comes to environmental changes and are majorly at risk when it comes to the destruction of habitats, climate change, and pollution.


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Many disappearances of amphibians all over the world are a result of habitat degradation or destruction. In the new world’s tropics, as plenty as more than 200 species of amphibians have disappeared abruptly or refused higher elevation precipitations more so those that are living in places that have a lot of human impacts and those in streams (Collins, Crump & Lovejoy, 2009). Amphibians are not good survivors when it comes to adverse environmental effects like global warming and that has majorly led to their extinction. It has been demonstrated recently that high-temperature degrees at tropical latitudes led to the scattering of frogs across South America. It was then concluded that these extinctions occur mostly after unusually warm years which offered very favorable conditions for pathogens that attacked the amphibians. These among others are just but examples of how global warming is proving to be a very harmful course. If people took care of the environment as much as they take care of themselves, then we would still enjoy the beautiful nature that was once there. The various and different species diversity like the dinosaurs would still be available and if we are not careful, in the next 100 years, many more would be extinct. As much as these animals might die from diseases caused by pathogens, climate change has taken the lead in clearing them.

The breeding timing of amphibians is mostly driven by environmental factors like moisture and temperature. Putting this into consideration as a major factor, global warming has a direct impact on amphibian’s breeding phenology. Amphibians that live in temperate regions are more susceptible to temperature increases. Majority of species that are temperate life their lives inactive for years either escaping the cold winter seasons or the hot summer seasons. When there is a sudden increase in temperature, these amphibians are forced to come out from their hiding places whereby after they emerge; they are made to migrate to streams or ponds for them to breed. Global warming forces amphibians to have early breeding when the average temperature goes higher. In cases where they breed earlier in the season, they and their young ones become very vulnerable to floods that are a result of slow melt. However, some amphibians are capable of having early breeding even though it’s a small percentage of them. The majority of them cannot survive these abrupt changes in temperature and the breeding confusion that comes along with it and this is why most of them are becoming extinct (Pounds et al., 2011).

Ecological diversity is the specific number of various species in a particular community. It can also be defined as the complicated network between various species that are living in a separate ecosystem and their dynamic interaction. An ecosystem is constituted of organisms from different species that live together and interact with one another in a particular area and the nutrients and energy act as their source of connection (Newsome, Moore & Dowling, 2012). In almost all ecosystems, energy from the sun is the main provider of energy. There are however various factors that have negatively had effects on ecological diversity and this may include; first and foremost there is climate change. The climate is for the benefit of all it belongs to all members of the ecosystem. It is however discussed as a complicated system that is associated with different conditions that are very essential to the lives of people. A scientific consensus however shows that we are undergoing a very disturbing climatic system warming. This does not make surviving easy for many plants and animals therefore needs to be done before it is too late (Corbera, Brown & Adger, 2011).

Previously, this warming was associated with rising sea levels, and in most cases, it seemed to occur with the increase of events during extreme weather. Not even scientific studies can be used to determine the causes of each phenomenon. Humanity needs to come to recognition for a lifestyle change, consumption, and production so that this warming can be combated. It is for a fact that different other factors interfere with biodiversity like volcanic eruptions but different studies show that the climatic change takes the lead because of the Green House Gases effect. These gases released largely by human activities include methane, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and many others. These gases concentrate in the atmosphere then contain the heat escape that sunlight produces. When fossil fuel, the heart of the energy system of the world is used, it facilitates this process. Deforestation is also another factor that has led to climate change. People all over the world are clearing forests to get agricultural land they do not know how much harm they are causing in the ecosystem. They forget these forests are home to other living things that get affected when clearing is done.

Climate change can be described as a global problem that is really affecting the environmental, political, social, and economic good distribution. The people who will experience the worst effects of climate change are the developing countries in these coming years. Most areas that experience climate change are those that majorly depend on the services of the ecosystem like agriculture as their main source of food and income and fishery. When climate changes are to the extreme and animals cannot adapt, in most cases, the majority of these plants and animals move from that place to find better and suitable places. Global warming is also another factor that contributes to climate change. It has a major effect on the carbon cycle. It is responsible for the creation of a vicious circle that provokes the situation and therefore has effects on resources that are very essential like energy and drinking water which in return causes extinction on the planet’s biodiversity. Things are worsening due to the loss of tropical forests which in return facilitates climate change.

Secondly, another factor that really affecting ecological diversity is environmental pollution. Most forms of pollution are from the daily activities of human beings. When the atmosphere is exposed to pollutants, there is the production of different health hazardous products that cause lots of deaths to not only humans but also living things. Pollution from transport, fertilizers, industrial fumes, insecticides, fungicides acidifies water and soil and thus affecting the animals and plants that live in these areas. Every year, a lot of non-biodegradable, radioactive, and highly toxic wastes are generated from hospitals, factories, homes, construction sites, and many more and released into the environment. Chemical products and wastes from industries used in agricultural areas and different cities cause bioaccumulation in the different living things that are in that particular population. Mostly, no measures or very little measures are taken when the problem is immature; they only do so when most people have been affected. The only way that has the capability of solving this problem is technology.

Most of these problems are associated with our culture of throwing away wastes which has a lot of effects on the excluded population as much as it has the ability to reduce a beautiful environment to rubbish. A very good example of this case scenario is that most of our paper industries instead of recycling paper wastes are usually thrown away. People do not accept how the natural environment works; plants make their own food and these nutrient are used as a source of food to the herbivores, the herbivorous animals become food for the carnivorous animals, the carnivores, in turn, excretes organic waste which when decomposes, are used as manure that helps in the generation of new plants and the cycle continues. This when compared to our industrial system, is far much better than us because the industrial system is not made in a way that is capable of absorbing and reusing wastes after production. We have not managed to come up with a circular way of production where resources are preserved for the future and current generation, recycled and reused and their efficient use is maximized. If this can be managed, then the environmental pollution can really be limited and cases of extinctions can as well be forgotten. These strategies if implemented can help in reducing pollution all over the world.

Thirdly, overharvesting is another problem that is greatly affecting biodiversity. It causes destruction of resources, extinction at the level of population and it leads to the extinction of a particular group of species. When certain amounts of resources are depleted, the quality of that particular resource can change times. Overharvesting does not only affect the harvested resource but it also has direct impacts on humans and other living things. Inappropriate and unregulated harvesting has the potential of causing ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, and overexploitation. It can also have negative effects on community rights and the different states that receive the resources.

An ecosystem is constituted of organisms from different species that live together and interact with one another in a particular area and the nutrients and energy act as their source of connection. The radiant energy of the sun is used by plants for the process of photosynthesis after its conversion to chemical energy. The ecological importance of biodiversity may include the following; firstly, biodiversity is important for the coexistence of different species. The different species that live together in a habitat coexist with one another with the help of mutual adjustments. These species are interrelated and have all sorts of interactions with one another. These types of interactions include exploitation, mutualism, competition, and neutralism. Exploitation is defined as a case where a particular species survives at another species’ expense. Mutualism is defined as the relationship where species that coexist gain from their relationship; competition, on the other hand, is when there is a competition between coexisting species for the resources that are available and lastly neutralism is when the species that coexist depend on each other.

Secondly, interdependency is another important of ecological biodiversity. In this case, the various species in a particular community are interdependent on one another and undergo the same environmental conditions. Another importance is that it offers the dominance of different species. Normally, not every species that is found in a community are many. Just a few are found in plenty either by biomass or by their number and the bigger part of these species is very rare. It also offers succession. In this case, species that interact with one another in the ecosystem are specified by replacement and death which are processes that are continuous. By doing this, the ecosystem’s shape and composition remain dynamic. These changes keep recurring until there is an establishment of a complete balance between the environment and the species. Lastly, it brings about species diversity. Biodiversity shows all the natural collection of a huge number of animals and plant species in a particular area. A unique area that has similar habitat conditions and has supportive characteristics is called a biotope. Every species in a community has various ranges when it comes to tolerance towards biological and physical conditions of the environment of that particular habitat.


The environmental impacts are the major cause of plant and animal extinction. The effects it has been more than we human beings think. Something needs to be done faster and sooner before it is too late for everyone. We might not see it but if we are not careful our future generation will not have much of beautiful nature to enjoy. To reduce pollution, companies, and factories that manufacture products should find ways of recycling their wastes instead of realizing them directly to the environment. Releasing wastes directly into water bodies has diverse effects on aquatic plants and animals and if we are not very careful fish and other aquatic animals will no longer be there. We should be like plants and animals; plants make their own food which feeds herbivores who are then fed on by the carnivores and through excretion, they release their waste which when decomposes, assists new plants to grow. The environment needs to be taken care of by everyone so that we can have a beautiful nature and the health of everyone can be safe.


Corbera, E., Brown, K., & Adger, W. N. (2011). The equity and legitimacy of markets for ecosystem services. Development and Change, 38(4), 587-613.

Collins, J. P., Crump, M. L., & Lovejoy III, T. E. (2009). Extinction in our times: global amphibian decline. Oxford University Press.

Early, R., Bradley, B. A., Dukes, J. S., Lawler, J. J., Olden, J. D., Blumenthal, D. M., … & Sorte, C. J. (2016). Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities. Nature Communications, 7, 12485.

Newsome, D., Moore, S. A., & Dowling, R. K. (2012). Natural area tourism: Ecology, impacts, and management (Vol. 58). Channel view publications.

Pounds, J. A., Bustamante, M. R., Coloma, L. A., Consuegra, J. A., Fogden, M. P., Foster, P. N., … & Ron, S. R. (2011). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439(7073), 161.

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