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According to Emergency Management Institute (2003), emergency planning provides a definite plan to help in major emergencies. It provides guidance during emergency and help in discovering hazardous conditions that are unrecognized and would aggravate a situation. Therefore, the planning process highlight deficiencies such as inadequate resources like supplies, personnel and equipment. Additionally, emergency plan shows commitment of the organization to workers safety besides promoting safety awareness (Perry & Lindell, 2007).
Overall objective of emergency plan
The emergency plan outlines procedures for facing sudden unexpected situations. The objective is to minimize possible consequences by:
- Preventing injuries and fatalities.
- Reducing damage to equipment, stocks and building.
- Accelerating normal operations resumptions (Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1986).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) suggested that the potential environmental impacts and the community should be considered in the plan. Plan development begins with assessment of the vulnerabilities.
Emergencies are sudden events but prediction to their occurrence can be done with some certainty degree. The initial step is to find hazards that pose a threat. This can be gotten from occupational experiences and past incidents (Lescota & Westcott Communications, 1993).
Series of decisions and events that should be given consideration
According to Jourdan & California (1994), after identifying the hazards, the major events that are possible should then be itemized:
- Sequential events for instance fire explosion
- Plant infrastructure damage
- Loss of vital documents/records
- Work disruption
- Equipment damage
The required actions based on the events are determined. For instance:
- Sound the alert
- Declare emergency
- Close key shutoffs
- Start rescue operations, call for aid
- Fight fire.
- Attend to casualties (Handmer & Dovers, 2013).
Lastly, location of the resources needed should be considered:
- Auxiliary equipments for communication
- Medical supplies
- Power generators
- Mobile equipment
- Radiation and chemical detection equipment
- Firefighting equipment
- Protective Clothing
- Rescue equipment
- Trained personnel (Emergency Management Institute , 2003).
Elements of the emergency plan
According to Perry & Lindell (2007), the elements in the emergency plan include:
- All possible consequences, emergencies, written procedures, required actions and the available resources.
- Detailed personnel list including their responsibilities and duties, home telephone numbers.
- Floor plans.
- Large scale maps detailing service conduits and evacuation routes.
Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (1986) pointed out that the plan should give the staff written instructions on their emergency duties. The parts of the emergency plan include:
It is the purpose of the plan in brief; that is, to minimize property damage and human injury in an emergency. It further specifies the staffs who implement the .............
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