Ebola

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Ebola Virus: Human Immunity

  1. Describe how the Ebola virus infects a human

The Ebola virus is very infectious. According to Quammen (2014), if one Ebola particle enters the bloodstream of a person it may be fatal. The most common entry route is believed to be the inner surface wet membrane of the eyelid, which a person with a contaminated fingertip may touch. However, the Ebola virus, in particular, is believed to be transmitted through contact with blood and sweat, which contain high Ebola particles concentration (Quammen 2014).

Once the particles of Ebola enters the bloodstream of a person, it drifts and sticks to a cell of the host. The particle gets pulled inside the cell taking control of the machinery of the cell and causing the cell to begin making copies of the virus. Hart (2004) pointed out that many cold viruses replicate in the throat and the sinuses. Ebola virus attacks many body tissues at once, except the bones and the skeletal muscles. It has an affinity that is special to the cells that line the psychological effects. For example, blood vessels, especially in the liver. Hart (2004) stated that after eighteen hours, the cells that are infected release thousands of new particles of Ebola, which sprout in threads from the cell until the cell appears like a tangled yarn ball. The Ebola particles detach and are transported in the bloodstream, and start attaching everywhere in the body to more cells. The cells that are infected begin spewing out a large number of Ebola particles, hence infecting more cells until the virus reaches amplification crescendo. The infected cells die leading to tissue destruction throughout the body. Many organs fail, and the patient goes into a steep, sudden decline ending in death.

Similarly, once inside the body, the Ebola virus attacks monocytes and macrophages, and relies on host antibodies and complementing component 1 to infect efficiently(Takada et al 2003).In response, the white management of the patients who are hospitalized. The infections linked to the intravenous therapy may affect the blood cells release proinflammatory cytokines in large amounts that increase vascular endothelium permeability, hence facilitating the easier entry of the Ebola virus to the endothelial cells, the secondary targets(Takada et al 2003). Moreover, the cytokines also released recruit more macrophages to the area, and this maximizes the cell number that Ebola uses in spreading in the body entirely(Geisbert et al 2003).

2. Complete the test on the lymphatic system and tissue tolerance


(a) The test on the lymphatic system

In testing the lymphatic system, the doctor will perform the following tests: MRI or CT scan, lymphoscintigraphy, and Lymphangiography (Wordinger et al 2012).
MRI scan– this uses radio waves and magnetic field and produces 3-D images of high resolution
Computed tomography (CT) scan– this is an x-ray technique that produces cross-sectional detailed images of the structures of the body. CT scan can show the lymphatic system blockages
Doppler Ultrasound-this conventional ultrasound variation looks at pressure and blood flow by bouncing sound waves (ultrasound) of the high frequency of the red blood cells. Doppler ultrasound helps find obstructions.
Lymphoscintigraphy– during the process of testing, the patient is injected with radioactive dye and scanned by a machine. The images will show the moving dye through the lymph vessels, and highlight the blockages (Wordinger et al 2012).
Lymphangiography– the Lymphangiogram is a special lymph node and lymph vessels x-ray. Lymph nodes produce lymphocytes that help in fighting infections, and filter and trap the cells of cancer. Wordinger et al (2012) indicated that lymph vessels and nodes cannot be seen on a normal x-ray. Therefore a radioisotope or dye is injected into the patient’s body to highlight areas under study.

(b) The test of tissue tolerance

Tissue tolerance is the skin and supporting structure able to withstand the unrelieved pressure effects (Leading Age n.d). Before the start of the test on tissue tolerance, observe and record any area or breakdown or redness

Phase I

The resident is positioned in bed or chair (note position on back or side) for an interval of one hour.

  • After an interval of 1-hour, the resident is repositioned off the exposed area to pressure and observe and document any redness areas
  • After 30-45 minutes, the area is rechecked
  • Is there persistent redness or did the redness resolve?
  • The test is STOPPED if the redness has persisted. This area is considered to be stage The resident repositions at an interval that is shorter than one hour.............

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