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CTLLS Understanding Assessment in Education and Training
Assessment is the act of appraisal, assessing or evaluation of the achievement of a student on a course (Johnson, Mims-Cox, & Doyle-Nichols, 2006). Similarly, Gravells (2013) defined assessment as the act of judging something or the process of observing students behavior samples and drawing inferences about the abilities and knowledge of the students. Educational assessment, on the other hand, is the process of documenting beliefs, attitudes, skills and knowledge usually in measurable terms. The educational assessment can focus on the learning community, individual learner, the education system, and the institution. When the teachers are doing assessments, they look at the behavior of the student’s by using variety of types of assessment in order to get the most accurate of the overall progress of the shared the history, views and values and whose sign language is the first language. In Saudi Arabia, classification of the students (SQA, 2014).
The purposes of types of assessment used in education and training
- Individual assessment-this is conducted prior intervention or instruction to establish the basis from which the individual growth of the student can be measured. The purpose of this type of assessment is to know the skill level of the student about a project and in helping the teacher in explaining the material more efficiently (SQA, 2001).
- Formative assessment– this is carried out throughout the project or course in general. The purpose of formative assessment is to aid learning and provide the teacher with the feedback of the work of the students (SQA, 2014).
- Summative assessment– this is carried out at the end of the project or course generally and are evaluative in nature. The purpose of summative assessment is to assign a course grade to the students and to summarize everything the students have learnt and in finding out if they understood it well.
- Diagnostic assessment– the purpose of diagnostic assessment is to improve the experience of the learner and their achievement level (SQA, 2014).
- Informal assessment– these result from the day-to-day spontaneous observations of the teachers of how the students perform and behave in class. The purpose of informal assessment is for the teacher to learn important insights into the abilities, inabilities and misconceptions of the students that might not be accurately represented through other formal assessments (SQA, 2001).
The effectiveness of assessment methods used in education and training in relation to meeting the individual needs of learners
- Observation- formative peer observation helps in the improvement of teaching (Johnson, Mims-Cox, & Doyle-Nichols, 2006). Summative peer observation, on the other hand, involves evaluation of the effectiveness of teaching used for tenure, promotion and merit of decisions. Peer classroom observations are effective because they offer insights regarding improvement of the individual needs of the learners and in improvement of teaching. Moreover, the teachers will gain new perspectives and ideas about teaching through observation from their colleagues. This will improve the ability of teaching (Johnson, Mims-Cox, & Doyle-Nichols, 2006)
- questioning- it is one of the assessment methods used by teaches naturally daily in classroom in testing whether the learners have, understood, learnt and progressed ultimately against the defined learning objectives at the start of the session (Gravells, 2013).
- Tests- these are undertaken while the learning of the students is taking place with the purpose of improving learning and teaching of the individual students. They are effective since it capture the progress of the student in a program or in the institution (SQA, 2001).
- Professional discussion– it provides a holistic approach when conducting knowledge assessment and understanding. The method is useful and effective in determining the performance of the candidate and also the candidates’ abilities in decision making and SQA (2001) asserted that professional discussion method is one of the best ways of testing reliability and validity of the candidates evidence
- Witness testimony– it is one of the most reliable
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