Oct 24, 2018 | 0 comments

Oct 24, 2018 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments


Security communication prevents authorized persons or interceptors from accessing the communication message in the intelligible form while relaying the content to the recipients intended. According to Rosner et al (76), communication is secure when two entities are making communication and does not want any intruder or a third party to listen to them. For that reason, they communicate in a manner that cannot be eavesdropped on or intercepted.

According to Cartwright (117), for success to be realized in a project, a great deal of communication is required. It is the benchmark of all interactions in the world. To keep the communication skills secure and sharp, the following do’s and don’ts are essential. The Do’s include being direct and clear. That means that an individual needs to speak or write the message without ambiguity and direct to the point. The second dos are to paraphrase to be clear and to ensure the receiver understands. Be respectful is also important. This means looking in the face, using the name of the other person, and nodding to show you understand. Furthermore, the communicator can also tailor the conversation according to the target audience. Lastly is to communicate face to face when the information to be conveyed may result in questions or id difficult (Rosner et al, 97).

According to Cartwright (121), the don’ts of communication include not giving much attention to phones than the people. Constant texting and checking of phones are not right. Secondly, abbreviations should not be overused. Additionally, monopolization of the communication should be avoided. The communication should flow both ways. A person should not get upset or react as it will make one not think clearly and create a bad impression. Lastly, do not interrupt and allow every one his share (Rosner et al, 101).

Cartwright (123) suggested that to eliminate any communication breakdowns on performance is to first eliminate perception differences and to use simple language. This includes clear and simple words well emphasized. Furthermore, to eliminate the breakdowns in communication, an individual should reduce or eliminate the levels of noise and listen actively. Active listening implies a proper understanding of the information or message that is heard.

Similarly, one should control the emotional state and use body language to relay points. Information overload should be avoided during communication in addition to giving back constructive feedback. Lastly, to eliminate the communication breakdown, the medium of communication should be selected properly.

According to Rosner (116), evaluations should be set every quarter to communicate well. In an organization, the processes that make employees understand clearly and execute their expectations of performance have these components:

  1. The strategic planning process for the organization defines the overall objectives and directions.
  2. A strategy of communication that shows every employee where their work and the required outcomes align within the larger strategy of the company
  3. A goal-setting process, feedback, evaluation, and accountability that allows employees to understand how they are doing
  4. Total organizational support for the significance of clear expectations of performance communicated through the cultural expectations, responsibilities of the manager, recognition and reward, and organization folklore on heroic accomplishments.

The four flows of communication

The four flows concentrate on how communication is conducted within and outside the organization. I think in any relationship especially in an organizational relationship communication is very important. Through communication, process decisions are made and errors corrected. The self-structuring flow, for instance, is said to guide resource allocation, procedures creation of rules. Organizations are structured to complete the task and; therefore, this kind of communication flow assists the organizations set the ground rules on how the work is to be completed. Organizational structures and departments need to communicate with each other to avoid chaos and confusion. Therefore, a network of communication that allows the constant and free flow of information is necessary. For the reasons the four flows of communication are necessary for an organization to exist, they define the purpose of the organization’s existence, mode, and content of the communication, and they consider internal and external interactions of the organization.

A church is an example of where all the four flows of communication are present, for instance, the clergy have to communicate on the activities of the church (self-structuring), and the communication is then passed to the leader of the church choir who then passes the same to the choir members. Another is the school; communication usually takes the form of the four follows but is not an organization.

I cannot nonetheless think that any organization can exist without the four flows of communication. The four flows make up for the reason the organization is formed. Communication is, therefore, central to any organization. Perhaps the only change is the mode of communication formal or informal.

Importance of Vertical Communication in Regards to Pay Raise

In an organization, effective communication is essential. How we present suggestions, interest, and complaints influence the management’s responses. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a reasonable communication strategy to address sensitive matters like a petition for pay raise by employees. Most researchers have recommended vertical communication, which is the up and down movement of information along the chain of command, as an effective method of addressing these delicate matters in an organization.
Petition for a pay rise by employees is a sensitive matter that may result in conflict if mishandled or unaddressed. Its chances of success rely on several factors including how it is conveyed, timing, and organizational policies. Most of the time, the top managers of an organization are frequently busy and often forget to address particular issues especially if not presented by departmental heads. However, if conveyed through the chain of command, the issue may be one of the agendas in their meeting and would be given the attention it deserves (Bruce 2). Or the supervisors could include the petition in their monthly or annual report to be addressed according to the company’s policies.
According to Nanda (para. 2), vertical communication helps in assigning jobs and evaluating the performance of employees. Therefore, making it easy for the management to assess the overall performance and contribution of each employee to the organization’s goals. This assists them to determine whether the employees petitioning for a raise have earned it and in making the appropriate decision that would be of benefit to all parties involved
In conclusion, vertical communication is indeed essential in the petition for sensitive matters like a pay raise as it makes the evaluation of employee performance transparent and easier therefore decision-making concerning the subject. Also, it minimizes the chances of ignoring the plea as it is addressed formally in a report to the top management or discussed in a meeting.

Language as a Communication Tool

Recent research shows that a significant percentage of our communication in our day to day lives is non-verbal communication (Sinha 3). According to Sinha research further proves that there is a wide range of types of non-verbal communication that have been identified and defined (3).

Facial expressions are amongst the key non-verbal communication. Key states that facial expressions are defined as the communication done by using an individual’s face; often as a reaction to a certain situation or emotion (10). Facial expressions are similar across all cultures around the world. Facial expressions communicate sadness, happiness, fear, and even anger (Key 10).

Fig. 1. Illustration of Facial Expressions

Gestures are defined as signals and deliberate movements towards communication (Sinha 6). Commonly used gestures include pointing, waving, as well as using fingers as an indication of numerical quantities. Gestures, however, may hold different meanings, for instance waving could mean a greeting or to say goodbye. According to Sinha some gestures, however, are arbitrary and even culturally related (6).

Fig. 2. Illustration of Gestures

Paralinguistic is defined as vocal communication categories under non-verbal communication. Riggio and Robert indicate that paralinguistic consists of factors such as loudness, the tone of voice, pitch as well as inflection (15). For instance, a hesitant tone in a voice conveys disapproval as well as a lack of interest.

Posture and body language convey significant information and thus is a vital form of non-verbal communication. Body language and posture include arm crossing, defensive postures as well as leg crossing; they portray attitudes and feelings (Key 12).

Fig. 3. Illustration of Posture and Body Language

Proxemics is defined more commonly as an individual’s need for their ‘personal space.’ Riggio and Robert further explain that the distance we need as individuals; together with the perceived amount of space that belongs to us as individuals are substantially influenced by numerous key factors such as social norms, cultural expectations, personality characteristics, level of familiarity as well as situational factors (14).

Fig. 4. Illustrations of Proxemics

Eye gaze is a key non-verbal communication that includes staring, looking, and blinking (Sinha 16). Whenever a person encounters something they like their pupils dilate and their blinking rate increases. Furthermore, an eye gaze indicates a wide range of emotions such as interest, hostility as well as attraction.

Appearance is yet another form of non-verbal communication; it involves an individual’s choice of clothing, color, hairstyles, amongst other key factors that affect appearance (Key 20). According to Key, different colors tend to evoke distinct and different moods (20). Research shows that an individual’s appearance alters other people’s interpretations, judgments, and physiological reactions.

Works cited

Cartwright, Roger. Communication. Oxford, U.K: Capstone Pub, 2002. Internet resource.

Rosner, Bob, Allan R. Halcrow, and Alan S. Levins. Communication. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Internet resource.

Sinha, Mosam. Non-Verbal Communication. Jaipur: Pointer Publishers, 2012. Print.

Key, Mary R. The Relationship of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2011. Internet resource.

Riggio, Ronald E, and Robert S. Feldman. Applications of Nonverbal Communication. Mahwah, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2005. Internet resource.

Bruce, Berger. “Employee / Organizational Communications.” The Science Beneath the Art of Public Relations. (2011). Internet Source.[Research Library]

Nanda, Thierry. “Organizational Communication: Vertical, Horizontal, and Diagonal Communications.” (2007). Internet Source.