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Combating Desertification: An Overview of Effective Strategies and Solutions

Jan 24, 2023 | 0 comments

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Jan 24, 2023 | Essays | 0 comments


The earth’s soil is disappearing at an alarming rate. Indeed, a thin layer of soil may take centuries to develop but can be washed away in a few seasons. Desertification is a major world concern since of the link between the decline in food production and dry land degradation. Desertification has been linked to scenarios poverty and drought that has resulted to instances of insecurity and misery across drylands of Asia and Africa. Reports by United Nation Secretariat for Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), over 250 million of people across the world have already been harmed by desertification and other 750 million people at high risk. More than 30 percent of drylands across the world are found in susceptible drylands in S developing countries in Africa. Frank uses his own experiences to explain how technology has grown and is developing Africa, and Asia (Were et al. 56). The dry lands in these affected areas are under threat from soil erosion, deforestation, recurrent drought, nutrient mining, and International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change. According to UNCCD, desertification is and degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry, humid areas that accrue due to several factors, including human activities and climatic variations (Thomas et al. 34). Desertification leads to a downward spiral of lost productivity that result to ramifications such as refugee flights, conflict and social alienation, atmospheric pollution, and damage of global marine resources and fresh activities that result to physical healthiness. For example, proper diet, ensuring that all meals are balanced and taking a lot of water. There are numerous factors that trigger desertification. Therefore, this paper provides a literature review of dissertation concern. In doing so, this paper analyzes the causes of dissertation, controlling desertification based on the programs previously formulated and implemented. Further, it offers literature on the countries affected by desertification and various mitigations previously employed.

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The problem of land degradation is by no means a new concern, despite the attention channeled upon it in the previous years. While the rapidly developing world population and climatic conditions has massively exacerbated the situation, the topic of desertification is not a new phenomenon. Evidence based on historical facts according to Maestre et al. (90) shows extensive and serious land degradation that have occurred in previous centuries in arid lands had occurred; however, in a small extent. Research by Yongkang et al. (123) mentions that desertification in developing countries began long before 1969. In particular, the desertification in West proposal and thesis writing. Nairobi. Kenya. Pauline’s Publications Africa resulted from forest degradation that leads to land erosion that leaves barren land or rocks at its final stage. Desertification has affected nearly all the arid lands, though to varying degrees, with exception for the extremely arid climatic deserts such as Atacama, Sahara and, Taklimakan. Africa had severe Sahelian drought in 1969 emphasized on the attention of the world on the human aspects of land degradation. Yongkang et al. (124) writes that this led to the convening of the 1977 United Nations Conference on Desertification. However, drought is not the direct cause of desertification as it results to climatic changes and human activities. While it is difficult to estimate the exact area covered by desertification, Oñate et al. (87) writes that the basic consensus among the scholars projects an average of 60 percent of the land subjected to desertification. Some places are worse than others, for example, the forests in Ghana have been degraded to savanna that is speedily turning into deserts.

Causes of Desertification

There are numerous factors that might lead to desertification, including fragile soils, unpredictable effects of drought, and geological erosion (Fuller 67). Likewise, the human activities that may result into desertification includes nutrient mining, livestock pressures, inadequate property and tenure rights, growing population, inadequate land distribution, market access, poor infrastructure among other many factors (Gonzalez 32). Despite the immense public claims on the robust role of human in desertification, scholars have proved in previous research the climatic changes and its effects on arid lands. Particularly, the Africa’s drylands are currently under a threat from soil erosion as a result of climatic changes that have resulted to desertification, land degradation, and aggravated poverty (Philip 34). Scholars have documented sustainable agricultural practices based on innovations to be the pillar of limiting adverse environmental impacts on the livelihoods of the populations in arid areas. According to the global study done by Phillips (43), Africa has not surfed from more natural calamities than other continents. However, Glantz et al. (48) indicates that there is extreme weather impacts present in high percentages in work opportunities is still a major issue that need requires attention in New Zeeland. Some nations, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa that announces the wake of desertification. A global study based on the losses from draught establishes that drought has resulted to high rates of mortality in the affected regions (Adams 78).
n.a (1) reports that the conditions of climatic variations observed in the Sahel from 1970s and 1980s have primarily resulted due to changes in climatic conditions. The reported rainfall decrease that has had profound repercussions on the flows of natural water bodies such as rivers has further worsened the situations of drought in arid areas. According to Paylore (89), the declines of flows of the main rivers and runoffs have contributed to the shrinking of large impact on our environment. Sometimes I find myself moving from the city and take a walk in the countryside where we have trees and fresh water bodies. For instance, the shrinking of Lake Chad, one of the largest lakes in Africa resulted from a decrease in rainfall and river flows into the lake. While recent reports have documented a slight improvement in the river volume, Paylore (89), indicates that the direct effect on reduced rainfall across the world arid lands has led to instances of desertification. Likewise, Johnson (33) reports that climatic changes have translated into a rise in sea level in some countries in Africa. While the level of sea level rise is still uncertain, according to him, sea level rise has affected the countries such as Guinea-Bissau and Gambia that has reported a loss in approximately 1-meter rise in the sea level. As established, a major economic and ecological consequence of sea level rise in such regions has affected the mangroves and wetlands that are the current provider of livelihoods to the coastal populations (Kassas 73).
The temperature increment in arid lands and the changed patterns of rainfall have affected the agricultural sector. This happens when it leads to the changes in geographical distribution of areas favorable for different crops. Recent research emphasizing on the biophysical effects of climate change such as, temperature and precipitation suggests that arid areas, Africa for example, would be mostly affected with climate change from agricultural productivity point of view (Kovda et al. 12). A global study of the semi-arid lands highlights that human activities puts 6 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually (Kovda et al. 12). According to Mabbutt et al. (221), this has led to high levels of global warming due to an increase in greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gas acts like a blanket around the planet that is responsible for stopping energy from escaping from the surface of the earth and atmosphere. Pérez-Sirvent et al. (para. 2) explains that the decrease in rainfall in the arid lands makes a greater percentage of the land vulnerable for desertification. Also, the high temperatures coupled with rainfall decline resulting from global warming, Pérez-Sirvent et al. (para. 7) further indicates, leads to the drying up of effects of company privatization in productivity growth and performance output. This article discusses about the water bodies and to droughts. Therefore, the natural vegetation and crops poorly perform in times of drought and high temperatures forcing people to crop to compensate for the lower agricultural produce. The ultimate result of global warming, therefore, is desertification.
Despite the robust effects of climatic changes such as temperature increase, reduction in rainfall and controlling desertification occurrences of droughts, there are socio-economic factors that trigger desertification. As Saiko et al. (177) establishes, human actions such as overgrazing that occurs where herd sizes exceeds the carrying capacity. This leads to the changes of vegetation and reduction in soil quality. The practice of grazing animals breaks down and compact the soil structure, which increases the vulnerability for erosion. Likewise, over-cultivation that results from an increase in population that in turn increases food demands. When the population increases, demand for meeting the consumer needs. In the case of the café, the consumers often need to eat, fresh and tastefully prepared food increases to offer support for the growing population. Also, the study outlines deforestation and excessive fuel wood cutting where the forests are cleared for wood fuel and agricultural use. This reduces the area covered by shade greater soil desiccation, increased use of dung, and lowered organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water table (Oyama et al. 112). The overall resultant loss of organic matter leads to the reduction of both stickiness of the soil pads and the capacity of the soil to hold organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water, thus increasing its erodibility (Polgreen et al. 112). Finally, Helldén et al. (23) provides inappropriate practices of irrigation that leads to the reduction of soil fertility through salinization and waterlogging. A combination of biological, organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water, and soil factors and the aforementioned factors lead to desertification (Glenn et al. 99).
The traditional practice of growing grass and desert has documented to revive the land. Research by Sheridan (67) that tried different species of trees that can be used in controlling desertification in arid lands, Rosenthal (67), concluded that Acacia Senegal and Acacia India provided 83 and 65 percent of survival in the desert respectively. However, other trees such as Colophospermum mopane and Hardwickia binate showed a lower survival rate in the desert. Likewise, a significant achievement has resulted from mass production of nutritive fodder for desert livestock, according to (Ma, Qiang 332). He mentions that this is a voluntary grass has significantly helped in stabilizing the blowing sand dunes, development of good rangeland and expansion of desert. A case study of the Thar Desert reports significant benefits of growing grass and planting trees as a measure of controlling desertification. In particular, Sadao et al. (43) highlights that use of grass and trees in Thar Desert that launched a program for cultivating 200 hectares of green fodder produced results in controlling desertification. Researcher establishes that safeguarding the common property of land resources such as natural woodland and good pasture land are some of the traditional desert control strategies that have yielded benefits in controlling desertification (Sadao 67).
Furthermore, a case study of Israel in an attempt to adhere to the international standards of control of desertification highlights various channels of control. According to Lal (69), in the previous years, the country has planted over 260 million trees covering 200 ha in semi-arid climates (Lal 69). Rendering to the research case study, Israel committed itself to implementing the international agreements of environmental protection and afforestation, such as agenda 21 in combating desertification. The strategy of afforestation in dry lands plays a fundamental role in the overall control of desertification (Cao 76). The establishment of forests to the lands that were previously degraded as a result of deforestation or historic overgrazing is essential for control of dissertation. Furthermore, afforestation contributed to direct soil conservation as well as providing measures of seasonal grazing practices hence reducing the grazing pressures. As Cao (79) indicated, planting of trees and reduced grazing promotes the rehabilitation of the indigenous vegetation in arid lands that Trafford (79) explains to further contribute to soil conservation. In a parallel study, Pakparvar (67) documents that the afforestation improves the infiltration of precipitation, thus promoting local aquifer recharge and soil moisture. A study conducted on the effectiveness of afforestation in Israel provided that it is significant for preventing bank erosion and gully erosion through planting along the creeks, for reducing wind and dust impacts, stabilizing sand dunes, and for recreation and leisure activities (Pakparvar 69).
Moreover, the practice of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water management is essential for controlling desertification in the drylands. According to Yong Zhong (97), the reuse of waste water for agricultural infrastructure in the dry lands has proved to conserve water. As established, organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water is a scares natural resource in the dry lands with reduced volumes and shrinking of the main water bodies across dry lands (Yong Zhong 98). The practice of recycling organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water in semi-arid regions such as Israel constitutes the largest single irrigation water source. Sinha et al. (71) indicates that the response to desertification through waste water reuse in dry lands for irrigation strengthens agriculture that in turn maximizes safety as well as minimizing the environmental risks related to wastewater reuse. However, due to the pathogens present in wastewater, irrigation should be restricted to specific crops thereby disqualifying vegetables. The heavy presence of chloride, sodium, and boron salts damages crops, pollutes ground water, and salinized soils. Furthermore, efforts to manage organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water in the dry lands mention the application of subsurface drip irrigation (Tamir et al. 73). The technologically innovated approach to water management in deserts highlights the provision of water and nutrients to plants and at the same time maintaining a dry surface, Sinha et al. (73) explains. According to him, subsurface organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water irrigation positioned 7-30 centimeters beneath the soil assists in the control of weeds, increase longevity of emitters and laterals, maintain a dry surface, and minimize evaporation and runoff.
Falloux et al. (97) and Olsson et al. (78) recommendations on the practices that is geared towards control of climatic conditions leading to desertification highlight numerous practices. Particularly, the use of unviable agricultural practices and has resulted to the emissions of greenhouse gasses. As a result, there has been increased global warming that led to low rainfall, high temperatures, and destructive sunlight energy. Therefore, corporations, non-governmental organizations and governments around the world have implemented the limits of carbon dioxide emissions to the environment by factories, automobiles, and power plants. Accordingly, Falloux et al. (99) clarifies that these implemented measures have provided approaches for recycling carbon dioxide, though, the practice have received less support and attention from the international stakeholders. The process of carbon sequestration that aims to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is fundamental for indirect control of desertification. Furthermore, soil carbon sequestration provides an immediate and important sink for eliminating atmospheric carbon dioxide that instrumentally mitigates climate change and global warming (Falloux et al. 101). According to the scholar, the managed soils are capable of converting carbon dioxide from the greenhouse gas to an asset of capital for individuals to venture into the grocery vending business using carts as advised by Michimi & Wimberl (2010). They would aid bring healthy food production. Falloux et al. (101) explains further that the application of soil sequestration and sequestration of non-agricultural land is potential for land to hold carbon besides acting as a sink for greenhouse gas.
A study by Kirmse et al. (67) titled soil can make a difference in the fight against International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change also offers measures of desertification control. According to him, the increased attention to soil and land linkages to International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change would enrich the conceptual and substantive debates on effective procedures of carbon sequestration. Likewise, the approach that has received anonymous support from numerous environmental agencies and other international bodies provides that it would also result into innovative and highly interesting platform for the affected countries to subscribe to the mitigation and adaptation agendas (Kirmse et al. 68). This is essentially true based on the fact that most of the affected countries are developing and as such, soil is the single most significant natural resource for support of livelihood. As Ahmad et al. (68) indicates, one concrete way forward is to expand Clean Development Mechanism coverage towards use of land for agricultural production. As such, this includes projects that focus on carbon sequestration in soil.
Breman (17) reports on the policies and programs implemented in an effort of controlling desertification. According to the report, the economic depression in the 1980s and economic downturns made the international organizations dealing with environmental programs to take strong measures by implementing agricultural long-term structural adjustment program. Therefore, numerous far-reaching and substantial changes in the overall sectorial and economic policies have been arrived at (Breman 19). The programs implemented to primarily increase the production of self-reliance food, manage and utilize the available production inputs such as labor, land, and water in an economically efficient manner. Likewise, the implemented agricultural programs aimed at increasing profitability of the agricultural sector and orient food production for domestic demand, local and international market (Anonymous 19). According to the report, creating a favorable environment to ensure a full functioning marketplace, including monitoring frameworks and necessary regulatory measures encourages the sector of agribusiness to paly a significant role in the development of agriculture. Also, (Breman (19) recommends the practice of agroforestry, which integrates high-value shrubs and multi-purpose trees into farming systems. This will employ the use of riparian buffer strips, windbreaks, and forest farming.
Conferring to Shengyue et al. (89) empowering women promotes gender equality that is vital for substance economies. Indeed, women are the major water, food, and fuel suppliers for their families, yet their access to land is declining. Therefore, as Shengyue et al. (89) writes, investing in skeletal muscles. In a study conducted by (), the findings indicated that HRT improves the functions of muscles in women provides the best way to increase food security, relieve pressure on the environment and reduce the growth of population. Furthermore, skeletal muscles. In a study conducted by (), the findings indicated that HRT improves the functions of muscles in women are the developers of cash crops in both local and rural markets. Promotion of salt-resistant drought resistant crops and the development of rural markets further increases control of desertification Reynolds (23) in the affected areas. According to him, it is essential to growing plants in variations that suit the local conditions. Essentially, crop biodiversity assists to ensure capital for individuals to venture into the grocery vending business using carts as advised by Michimi & Wimberl (2010). They would aid bring healthy food security and healthy soil. A study by Lal (532) concludes that organic growing is beneficial since the system reduces land damage as well as alleviating some of the negative impacts of monocropping. Likewise, the establishment of local markets encourages local trade and the production of agricultural and non-agricultural local goods. Essentially, focus on the export of unopposed commodities, Lal (535) reinstates, has a detrimental local on local economics. Therefore, changing the situation provides more income without necessarily damaging the soil.
Additionally, Moulin et al. (71) indicates that the National Strategy for Agriculture Development (NSAD) prepared by the Consultative Economic Council emphasized on protection of natural resources and sustainable agriculture. The strategic and operational programs according to Moulin et al. (71), comprehensively covers most issues of sustainable use and biodiversity conservation in combating desertification. The study provides that the identified environmental added values and benefits that are achievable through implementation. The study further provides examples of actions necessary for the implementations. The conservation of land, natural vegetation, and organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water through sustainable utilization is essential since it ensures long-term production of agricultural products (Xue 31). Also, programs such as improvement of managerial and technological capabilities of the agricultural sector ensures implementation of programs that copes with the probable environmental and climatic changes and hence absorb their consequences (Pickup 37). The approach of combating desertification and protecting agro-biodiversity, environment, and agricultural resources ensures securing the requirements for sustainable development. Finally, Pickup (38) explains that agricultural land conservation through soil erosion control in steep and mountainous regions through innovated water conservation measures and agricultural practices is further significant for environmental protection.

Areas Mostly Affected by Desertification

The research by Schlesinger et al. (57) that intended to investigate the geo facts of causes and control of desertification highlights most of the globally affected areas. According to the study, the Sahel desert that is a transition zone between Sahara desert in the north and the southern savannahs covers 650, 000 square kilometers. The region has witnessed long lasting precipitation decline over the past 50 years making it a long lasting desert around the globe. Likewise, the most affected areas include Rajastan in India, Chad, Burkina Faso in West Africa, the Kalahari in southern Africa, and Gobi in China (Gutiérrez 112). While the desertification trend has long been predominant in developing countries, the world has worked in collaboration with one another to provide solutions to the consequences of desertification in these countries. In the event, various international organizations have embarked on control measures as such as education on sustainable environment, proper use of land for agricultural production, and reduction of water wastage. Since the implementation of the aforementioned mitigations, reasonable gains, (Zhang et al. 45) reports have been reported in the countries. For instance, in Burkina Faso, West Africa, the building of walls of stones known as the magic stones were placed in the field to trap topsoil that would otherwise have been washed away (Wang et al. 121).


Desertification is a global problem that requires collaboration of all stakeholders for proper mitigation. The Washington Post (2013) indicates that some institutional matters including social, legislative and economic issues are necessary for controlling desertification. The top decision-makers should embark of the land use laws that prevent further urbanization and fragmentation of the ecologically fragile lands. Furthermore, public participation and enforcement of traditional knowledge and practices provides amicable developments in controlling desertification. Currently, most countries affected by desertification have focused on local communities based in specific geographical areas under implementation. Also, exchange of knowledge and information among the various institution, technological know-how, and collaboration of activities requires speedy implementation to provide public awareness on mitigation measures. In a nutshell, the consequences of desertification are severe and numerous. Therefore, speedy solutions based on water management and adoption of favorable irrigation practices is essential for reclaiming the already affected dry lands.


Work Cited

Were, Miriam K. “”EcologicalUpheavals with Special Reference to Desertification and Predicting Health Impact.” Social Science & Medicine 29.3 (1989): 357-67. Print.

The source points out how desertification is one of the most disturbing ecological upheaval. It further talks about the reasons for desertification and human involvement. Lastly, it talks about scientific interventions that could prevent and reverse desertification. I would like to use the information about the scientific interventions.

Thomas, David S. G., and Nick Middleton. Desertification: Exploding the Myth. Chichester: Wiley, 1994. Print.

This book talks about scientific, social, and political issues surrounding desertification. It also addresses causes of desertification, the history of desertification and the desertification myth. I would use this book’s general background about desertification.

Maestre, Fernando T., Matthew A. Bowker, María D. Puche, M. Belén Hinojosa, Isabel Martínez, Pablo García-Palacios, Andrea P. Castillo, Santiago Soliveres, Arántzazu L. Luzuriaga, Ana M. Sánchez, José A. Carreira, Antonio Gallardo, and Adrián Escudero. “Shrub Encroachment Can Reverse Desertification in Semi-arid Mediterranean Grasslands.” Ecology Letters 12.9 (2009): 930-41. Print.

The article studies the Mediterranean grasslands dominated by Stipa tenacissima. It also point outs the encroachment of shrubs in this area, that is not caused by desertification. This article talks about how desertification can be reduced through shrub encroachment. I would use this article to elaborate how to prevent desertification.

Yongkang X. Xue, and Jagadish S. Shukla. “The Influence of Land Surface Properties on Sahel Climate. Part 1: Desertification.” Journal of Climate 6.1 (1993): 2232-245. Print.

This article examines the repercussions of the Sahel drought brought by desertification. The article shows that desertification causes a change in a number of things like hydrological cycle and extent of moisture and rainfall in the affected area. I would like to use this article to show the changes brought by desertification.

Oñate, Juan J., and Begoña Peco. “Policy Impact on Desertification: Stakeholders’ Perceptions in Southeast Spain.” Land Use Policy 22.2 (2005): 103-14. Print.

This article traces the effects of the past policies on desertification. It shows us how the implemented policies are geared towards economic development rather than sustainable development and thus not addressing key issues like desertification. I would like to use this article to show how the government neglects desertification.

Fuller, Theodore D. “”Resettlement as a Desertification Control Measure: A Case Study in Darfur Region, Sudan—Part I: Review of the Problem.” Agricultural Administration and Extension 25.4 (1987): 215-34. Print.

The source points out how farmers migrated from Northern Darfur to Southern Darfur because of desertification. The article further discusses government-sponsored resettlement plans. It assesses each plan on its advantages and disadvantages and the availability of resources and skill. I would like to use the discussion about government-sponsored plan. And how it resulted in the migration of people.

Gonzalez, P. “Desertification and a Shift of Forest Species in the West Factors influencing job satisfaction among public sector employees: an empirical exploration. South African Sahel.” Climate Research 17 (2001): 217-28. Print.

This article provides affected by mental or physical health disability. However, research evidence about desertification in Sahel. It measures the changes caused by desertification like forest species richness and tree density. Furthermore, it also shows how due to desertification the vegetation area shifted from Sahel to areas with higher rainfall. I would like to cite this article to show the changes the brought down by desertification.

Philip M. Boffey Special to The New York Times. “Spread of Deserts seen as a Catastrophe Underlying Famine: Relentless Process Goes on Even when Droughts have Passed. Relentless Spread of the Deserts.” The New York Times: C1. 1985.

The source talks about desertification and the fact that desertification has not been addressed properly as yet by the government. Furthermore, it points out that humans are the main reason for desertification. Finally, it talks about the going on estimates, threat for the people and data gathered from satellite. I would like to use the statistics and graphs present in the source

Glantz, Michael H., and N. S. Orlovsky. “Desertification: A review of the concept.” Desertification Control Bulletin 9 (1983): 15-22.

This article talks about desertification in general like the definition, location, forms of change, location of change, reversibility, why does it occur and human activities that lead to desertification. I would like to use general background of the source.

Adams, Robert. Dry Lands: Man and Plants. London: Architectural, 1978. Print.

This article sheds light on how to avoid and prevent desertification. Also, characteristics of arid and semi-arid environments are reviewed like general vegetation groups, plant selection, plant species and plant uses. Furthermore, everything related to development of these regions is kept in mind like environmental considerations for economic development. I would like to use general background of the article.

n.a “Effects of Desertification Presented.” AllAfrica.com 2014.

The source talks about the World Day to Combat Desertification. It points out that it was on this day that revealed that one-fifth of the earth was facing desertification. Furthermore, Tansi Laban Bambo turned the vicious cycle of climate change and desertification into a virtuous cycle of production in greenhouse gas emissions. I would like to use the general background of this source.

Paylore, Patricia, and Richard A. Haney. Desertification: Process, Problems, Perspectives: Papers Presented during a 14-week Seminar Series. Tucson, AZ: U of Arizona, Office of Arid Land Studies, 1976. Print.

This book talks about how to combat and prevent desertification, especially in poorer areas of the world, and the effects of desertification. The book also examines the cause and effect relationship of certain practices to reduce desertification. I would like to use this article for its cause and effect relationships.

Johnson, Douglas L. “The human dimensions of desertification.” Economic Geography (1977): 317-321.

This book identifies the process and measures the extent of desertification, impact of desertification at a human scale and coping with desertification in the future. I would like to use this book for the information provided on the impact of desertification on humans.

Kassas, M. “Arid and Semi-arid Lands: Problems and Prospects.” Agro-Ecosystems 3 (1976): 185-204. Print.

This book talks about the general overview of desertification. I would like to use this book for the negative impacts on desertification and the detailed process of how to go about the desertification problem.

Kovda, Viktor Abramovich. Land Aridization and Drought Control. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1980. Print.

The author talks about the salts and minerals of the soil, human involvement and the over-looming problem of drought. I will use the information in this book about irrigation like the effect of irrigation water on soils and landscapes and quality of irrigation water.


Mabbutt, J. A., and Andrew W. Wilson. Social and Environmental Aspects of Desertification: Proceedings of an Inter-Congress Meeting of the International Geographical Union Working Group on Desertification In and Around Arid Lands, Held in Conjunction with the Arid Lands Sub-programme of the United Nations University Natural Resources Programme, and the UNESCO/MAB Programme, 3-8 January 1979, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations U, 1980. Print.

The book reports the research of the members of International Geographical Union Working Group on Desertification in and around Arid Lands. I would like to use this book because of how it shows the variations in the causes and effects of desertification and highlights the need for an inter-disciplinary action.


Pérez-Sirvent, C., M.j. Martı́nez-Sánchez, J. Vidal, and A. Sánchez. “The Role of Low-quality Irrigation organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water in the Desertification of Semi-arid Zones in Murcia, SE Spain.” Geoderma 113.1-2 (2003): 109-25. Web.

This article studies water-soluble ion balance in the soils in a given time frame to determine soil quality changes. I will use this book to show how human involvement results in desertification like effect of the use of low quality water in irrigation.


Saiko, Tatyana A., and Igor S. Zonn. “Irrigation Expansion and Dynamics of Desertification in the Circum-Aral Region of Central Asia.” Applied Geography 20.4 (2000): 349-67. Print.

The article tells us about the causes and the fundamentals of desertification in the Aral Sea region. The article further talks about processes that reduce desertification and the causes behind it. I would use the general background of this article.


Oyama, Marcos Daisuke, and Carlos Afonso Nobre. “Climatic Consequences of a Large-Scale Desertification in Northeast Brazil: A GCM Simulation Study.” Journal of Climate 17.16 (2004): 3203-213. Print.

This article measures the climate impact on Northeast Brazil due to desertification. I would like to use this book because it discusses climate impacts because of desertification which is a part of the changes brought by desertification.

Polgreen, Lydia. “In Niger, Trees and Crops Turn Back the Desert: A Poor American literature drew much of its influence from their culture and history. For instance, the African Nation Uses a Simple Mix to Grow Greener.” New York Times (1923-Current file): 1. 2007.

Reynolds, James F., et al. “Global desertification: building a science for dryland development.” science 316.5826 (2007): 847-851.

The source talks about how through plantation the deserted area of Niger was brought back to life. The author points out that this happened because of the change in the outlook of farmers towards crops. Furthermore, the author concludes that improving conditions in Sahel region is not in despair. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Glenn, E., M. Stafford Smith, and V. Squires. “”On Our Failure to Control Desertification: Implications for Global Change Issues, and a Research Agenda for the Future.” Environmental Science & Policy 1.2 (1998): 71-78. Print.

The article examines our failures to control desertification. It also looks at the lessons learned from our efforts and establishes link between desertification and global change research. I would like to use this article because of it is analysis of the control measures.


Sheridan, David. Desertification of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Council on Environmental Quality, 1981. Print.

This book discusses effects, processes and consequences of desertification in USA. It concludes by saying that the need for remedies is imminent. I would like to use this book because it informs about the effect of desertification in USA that would broaden the scope of my paper.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. “Likely Spread of Deserts to Fertile Land Requires Quick Response, U.N. Report Says.” New York Times: A.6. 2007.

This source talks about how International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change leads to desertification of fertile lands. It further says that due to this desertification of fertile lands people migrate from these areas. I would like to use this newspaper article to talk about how International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change leads to desertification.


Ma, Qiang. “Appraisal of Tree Planting Options to Control Desertification: Experiences from the Three-North Shelterbelt Programme.” Latest TOC RSS. Commonwealth Forestry Association, Dec. 2004. Print. 30 Nov. 2014.

The article assesses the cost-benefit relationship of the various afforestation models that were formulated to combat desertification in China. The cost-benefit analysis also considers the cost of desertification. Through the analysis, it seems that revegetation is the best option despite its high financial cost. I would like to this information to help increase the strength of my argument about control measures.


Sadao, Hattori, and Handa Norihiko. “Use of Super-safe, Small, and Simple LMRs to Create Green Belts in Desertifi….” (1989): n. pag. Print.

The author of the article acknowledges that desertification occurs in areas with low precipitation. So, the author suggests that green belts should be constructed in front of the deserted area. The green belt would provide a double benefit of reducing desertification and fuel as well. I would like to use this as an example to control desertification.



Lal, R. “Potential of Desertification Control to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect.” International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, Climate Change 51.1 (n.d.): 35-72. Print.

The article sites that one of the major consequences of desertification is the transfer of carbon from land to the atmosphere. The article informs about the benefits of carbon and encourages that use desertification measures would increase carbon in the soil. I would use this article to support my argument about control measures also for it is negative impact of desertification.


Cao, Shixiong. “Why large-scale afforestation efforts in China have failed to solve the desertification problem.” Environmental science & technology 42.6 (2008): 1826-1831.

The article informs us why afforestation failed in China. The reason being mainly that vegetation in China was not properly implemented. The author also concluded that if human involvement is controlled then the eco-systems could self-repair. I would use the general background of this article about how China failed to strengthen my argument about how to control desertification.




Trafford, Abigail. “”Let a Billion Trees Bloom: Can a Great Green Wall of Trees Stop China’Spreading Desert? (Posted 2013-11-26 00:17:20): A Former Ambassador to China is Trying to Grown a Great Wall of Trees to Stop the Kubiqi Desert from Spreading.” The Washington Post 2013.

The source points out how desertification affects Asian countries more. The source also discusses about a Kwon project that is a green belt project. I will use this source for the information provided about the effects of desertification.


Pakparvar, M. “Desert research and control desertification in Iran.” Proceedings of the International Symposium, New Technologies to Combat Desertification. Tehran, Iran. 1998.

The author tells us that after a long period of time and massive amount of research a deserted area in Iran is finally hospitable. The author says that main reason that was possible was by rational management of water and through the pilot flood-spreading project. I would like to use the information about the flood-spreading project that resulted in the hospitable land to support my argument about controlling desertification.


Su, Yong Zhong, et al. “”Ecological effects of desertification control and desertified land reclamation in an oasis–desert ecotone in an arid region: a case study in Hexi Corridor, northwest China.” Ecological Engineering 29.2 (2007): 117-124.

The article talks about how the stability of oases, caused by decertification of land, is maintained through ecological restoration. The article also mentions various techniques to control desertification and the benefits of controlling it. I would use the information about controlling desertification and its benefits to strengthen my argument.


Sinha, Rajiv K., Sonu Bhatia, and Ritu Vishnoi. “”Desertification control and rangeland management in the Thar desert of India.” RALA Report No 200 (1996): 115-123.

The source informs us that efforts were made to reclaim the productivity of Thar Desert in India. It tells us that Thar Desert should have become lush green when the canal was made for irrigation had it not been for overgrazing, extraction of fuelwood etc. Furthermore, it discusses how fast growing species of fauna introduced, resulted in the controlling desertification. I will like to use this source to strengthen my argument about controlling desertification.


Tamir, Josef. “Combating Desertification.” Jerusalem Post: 06. 1994.

The source talks about the desertification of Eretz Yisreal. The source also talks about failure in governmental planning that led to the destruction of crops. The source advocates plans for solving the desertification problem in the above-mentioned region. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Falloux, Francois, and Aleki Mukendi. Desertification control and renewal resource management in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones of West Africa. No. 70. 1987.

The aim of this article was to develop guidelines to prevent depletion of resources in Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. The source illustrates many recommendations to control desertification in the affected region. Like, incentives were given to the residents of the region to decrease deforestation. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Olsson, Lennart. “Desertification in Africa? A Critique and an Alternative Approach.” GeoJournal 31.1 (1993): 23-31. Print.

This book examines the international debate, status, repercussions and causes of desertification. The book also discusses an alternative approach to the study of desertification. I would like to use the general background of this book specifically about the alternative approach.


Ahmad Saeed Bhatti,Dr Shahid Mahboob Rana & Ayesha Saeed. “Averting Desertification.” The Nation, sec. XXIV: 2010. e 64.3-4 (2008): 169-76. Print.

The source talks about how the Green Revolution has led to widespread loss of the fertile topsoil in most parts of the world due to the use of chemical pesticides. The authors advocate different approaches that could control desertification all over the world. For instance, the author mentions the Decade of Landcare Initiative, a program to control desertification in Australia. I would like to use this source for its information on human involvement and control measures.


Breman, Henk. “Desertification control, the West Gender differences in aspects of psychological well-being. South African case; prevention is better than cure.” Biotropica (1992): 328-334.

The source uses methods to identify the main reasons for desertification in areas where agriculture is the vital. It points out that overpopulation is one of the main reasons for desertification as it leads to overexploitation of resources. It then assesses how to control desertification. I would use the general background of this source.


Anonymous. “Africa’s “Great Wall” Aims To Slow Desertification.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, sec. 91: 1167. 2010.

The source talks about the Grande Muraille Verte or Great Green Wall project. This project was formulated to prevent the desertification problem from reaching the Sub-Saharan Africa. The project aims to revitalize the soil by planting of trees. I would like to use the information provided about the project to strengthen my argument about controlling desertification.


Shengyue, Fan, and Zhou Lihua. “Desertification control in China: possible solutions.” AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 30.6 (2001): 384-385.

The sources analyses the problems resulting from the slow progress in desertification control such as planting trees and grasses and enclosing pastures. Furthermore, the source outlines an eco-economic model of desertification control that includes technical innovation, restoration of eco-systems, and industrial development. I would use the general background of this source.


Reynolds, James F., et al. “Global desertification: building a science for dryland development.” science 316.5826 (2007): 847-851.

The source tells us about the Drylands Development Paradigm. This paradigm is a framework that is developed from past mistakes and research about the functioning of drylands. This paradigm helps to understand the intricacy of desertification and to identify and utilize important factors. I would use this source for the information provided about Drylands Development Paradigm.


Lal, Rattan. “Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems.” Environmental management 33.4 (2004): 528-544.

The source informs us that loss in the concentration of organic carbon is caused by desertification. The source then lists various methods of controlling desertification in order to restore the carbon concentration. I would use this source for the chemical aspect present.


Moulin, Cyril, and Isabelle Chiapello. “Impact of human‐induced desertification on the intensification of Sahel dust emission and export over the last decades.” Geophysical Research Letters 33.18 (2006).

The source points out that doubling of population in Sahel caused soil degradation in Sahel. Apart from the effect of soil degradation on the environment, the author also talks about the how the dust intrusion affects the lives of the people. I will use this source because it informs us about the effects of desertification on people rather on only focusing on the environment.

Xue, Yongkang. “The impact of desertification in the Mongolian and the Inner Mongolian grassland on the regional climate.” Journal of Climate 9.9 (1996): 2173-2189.

The source is a study about the impact of biological feedback of desertification on the climate of the affected area. The study shows differences in the water and the surface impact on the natural environment. They mostly use green energy balances between the deserted area and the grasslands. I would like to use the general background of the source for the effects of desertification.


Pickup, G. “Desertification and climate change-the Australian perspective.” Climate Research 11.1 (1998): 51-63.

The source firstly talks about different perspective of desertification: Australian and international. Secondly, the source talks about the status of desertification such as from extent of degradation and impact on bio-diversity in Australia. Thirdly, it tries to link desertification with climate. Finally, it talks about policy implications. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Schlesinger, William H., et al. “Biological feedbacks in global desertification.” Science (Washington) 247.4946 (1990): 1043-1048.

The source studies environmental processes in the Jordana Experimental Range in Southern New Mexico. The author concludes that overgrazing of lands leads to heterogeneity of soil resources. This in turn leads to desertification of the area. I would like to use this source to strengthen my argument about human involvement.

Gutiérrez, JULIO R. “The effect of organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water, nitrogen, and human-induced desertification on the structure of ephemeral plant communities in the Chilean coastal desert.” Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat 66 (1993): 337-344.

The author talks out that water-limited-nitrogen-regulated plant growth hypothesis for desert ecosystems. The author points out that by applying organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water and nitrogen to experimental plots, the growth of plants became faster. However, human involvement in North American and Chilean deserts has led to desertification. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Zhang, Xiaoyou, Xunming Wang, and Ping Yan. “Re-evaluating the impacts of human activity and environmental change on desertification in the Minqin Oasis, China.” Environmental Geology 55.4 (2008): 705-715.

The source talks about how human involvement, mainly agriculture, was considered the main reason for desertification in Minqin Oasis and its adjacent regions in northern China. However, this fact is not entirely true because local geomorphological processes and decrease in the organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price water levels resulted in desertification. I would like to use this source to strengthen my argument that desertification is also caused by International Studies. (2011). Transatlantic energy futures: Strategic perspectives on energy security, climate change rather than only human involvement.


Phillips, Jonathan D. “Biophysical Feedbacks and the Risks of Desertification.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83.4 (1993): 630-40. Print.

The source shows that desertification is a result of inherent instability in the drylands using the resource heterogeneity model and bivariate feedbacks. The author gives four reasons to support his argument. He concludes the need of a quick and flexible response to prevent desertification. I would like to use the general background of this source.


Wang, Xunming, Fahu Chen, and Zhibao Dong. “The relative role of climatic and human factors in desertification in semiarid China.” Global Environmental Change 16.1 (2006): 48-57.

The source includes a study of a period from 1950 to 2000 to evaluate the reason of desertification in semi-arid China.. The study shows that although humans contributed towards desertification, the two main reasons of desertification were changes in climate. I would like to use this source to show that human involvement is not the sole reason for desertification and how it is caused by climate changes too.

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