Cervical Cancer Screening

Jun 10, 2019 | 0 comments

Jun 10, 2019 | Miscellaneous | 0 comments

Cervical Cancer Screening

Cervical cancer is defined as a form of cancer that has its occurrence in the cervix cells (Stern & Kitchener, 2008). Stern and Kitchener (2008) define the cervix as the connection between the uterus and the vagina and are therefore found on the lower side of the uterus.

According to Barker (1987), the major cause of cervical cancer is the resulting strains of a sexually transmitted infection; the human papillomavirus is commonly known as HPV. Barker (1987) further explains that when a female’s immune system is exposed to HPV, it naturally fights the virus in an attempt to prevent it from causing any harm. Nevertheless, in a minimal percentage of the female population, the HPV virus remains resilient and survives for several years, thus leading to a menacing process which results in the cells on the cervix surface to be cancerous cells (Barker, 1987).

World Health Organization (2014) however points out that, the risk of cervical cancer development can significantly be decreased by taking Cervical Cancer Screening tests as well as vaccination against the HPV infection.

Spencer (2007) states that the human papillomavirus emerged within the recent past decades and had established itself as the major candidate and aetiological factor concerning sexual transition in cervical cancer. Spencer (2007) further explains that papillomavirus types 16, as well as 18, appear to be significantly associated with the greater risk of the more advanced cervical neoplasia. World Health Organization (2014) states that a good number of the evidence is retrieved from studies that tend not to satisfy the most basic epidemiological requirements, thus making interpretation difficult. World Health Organization (2014) points out that, the primary problems include selection bias of study objects, small sample sizes, difficulties in the cytological identifying of the precancerous lesions, particularly from the cervix papilloma infection, as well as the undefined sensitivity and specificity of the vast range of hybridization methods utilized in the determination of the papillomavirus infection status. Besides, the statistical analysis and the presentation reports of the test results (World Health Organization, 2014).

Therefore Holcomb and Runowic (2005) conclude that, as per the existing studies, one will be forced to conclude that, whereas the experimental data tends to suggest an oncogenic potential for HPV. Holcomb and Runowic (2005) point out that the existing epidemiological evidence that implicates it as a primary cause of cervical neoplasia remains significantly limited.

Nevertheless, the World Health Organization (2014) studies show significantly firm epidemiological evidence, which brings a conclusion that HPV stands not only as a central cause amongst other causes of cervical cancer but also as a highly necessary cause globally.

Significant steps have been undertaken to furthering the policies to efficiently promote the population health in regards to cervical cancer (Luce & United States, 1981). It is therefore vital to be aware of the signs and neither symptoms of cervical cancer, noting however that the earlier stages of cervical cancer present neither signs nor symptoms. According to Spencer (2007), the advanced stages of cervical cancer exhibit the following signs and symptoms; pelvic pain especially during sexual intercourse, a heavy vaginal discharge that is watery, bloody, and producing a foul odor, and vaginal bleeding between periods, after menopause as well as after sexual intercourse.

It is therefore important to encourage women to go for the ‘pap test’. Stern and Kitchener (2008) state that, the ‘pap test’ is carried out by scraping off come cervix cells and subsequently sending them for the cytologic assessment at the laboratory. World Health Organization (2014) however points out that, there are newer and more recent screening methods utilized for cervical cancer; these include computer-assisted screening, thin-layer preparations, as well as HPV testing. Although the ‘pap test’ is the most recommended amongst all FDA approved tests (World Health Organization, 2014).

Utilization of the vaccination guidelines that were developed by the national advisory groups is encouraged towards the successful implementation of a health promotion structure, particularly against cervical cancer (Holcomb & Runowic, 2005). Spencer (2007) points out that vaccination against HPV was readily available in the United States as of 2006, and is encouraged especially for the female population from the age of 11 as well as 12. It thus requires a functional infrastructure as well as the significant cooperation of the Government, the providers, patients as well as clinicians. Spencer (2007) further explains that with effective collaboration relevant programs shall be put in place to create awareness as well as the essential testing, vaccination, and treatment.

Moreover, with the Government’s support facing the HPV testing reimbursement issues will be minimal. Furthermore, according to Stern and Kitchener (2008), it is vital to embrace and effectively implement and utilize multi-component interventions, this consists of education, communications, and media, barriers reduction, an enhancement to care access which will enable employees’ efficient awareness as well as significant participating in the prevention, screening as well as treatment.

All in all, cervical cancer stands as one of the most preventable female cancers, as a result of the existence of a vaccine as well as screening test available. Moreover, cervical cancer is significantly curable when discovered as well as treated early.


Barker, G. H. (1987). Your smear test: A guide to screening, colposcopy, and the prevention of cervical cancer. London: Adamson.

Holcomb, K., & Runowicz, C. D. (January 01, 2005). Cervical Cancer Screening. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, 14, 4, 777-797.

Luce, B. R., & United States. (1981). Allocating costs and benefits in disease prevention programs: An application to cervical cancer screening. Washington, D.C: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment.

The organization, W. H. (2014). WHO Guidelines for Screening and Treatment of Precancerous Lesions for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Spencer, J. V. (2007). Cervical cancer. New York, NY: Chelsea House.

Stern, P. L., & Kitchener, H. C. (2008). Vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.