The book of Hirschman of “The Passions and the Interests” provides out a little record of the capitalism idea by bringing out an argument that is impressive to the protestant concepts of Weber. Hirschman (1977p, 130) pointed out that capitalism activities became suggested among the educated and the upper class people not because their activities for earning cash were accepted, but because they were considered to be beneficial. That is, they kept the involved men out of strike, violence and issues. However, it had the advantages particularly of creating limitations on the princely caprice, foreign policies that were adventurous and irrelevant countries. The book of the Passions and The Interests by Hirschman seemed to be interested on how the concepts and over described statements were being used in the government and political conversations. The work done by Hirschman antagonized well known and popular idea of max Weber that capitalism sprouted due to the Calvinistic salvation search. Contrary to that, Hirschman (1977) suggested that the educated class and the key thinkers recognized capitalism s a mechanism through which violence and aggressive propensities in the communities and men could be domesticated through expansion of the commercial activities. The aspect that the statements developed by David Steuart, Montesquieu did not develop in their way that was expected does not vitiate the value of their arguments or over described statements. The important dissertation of Hirschman was that the crucial aspect that legitimizes pre-capitalist and capitalists action was the requirements that individuals would be saved the enthusiastic activities and the conventional incidents, especially in the wish for glory and respect and its worker strike. However, the obvious paradox is when one creates an assessment of the lively interpretation of making profits, with the results that are serious and acquainted to all the sociologists. Furthermore, it is not that the complete capitalism frustrated, but it did of course. However, Hirschman (1977) was able to show effectively that the primary critique of latest capitalism, which is the esthetic/moral one, which focuses on dimensionally the other repressive one, was actually anticipated in concepts of the lovers of commerce in 1700s. Actually, they suggested taking a place in the character aspect, because their overall looks were seemed to be risky.
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Capitalism is an image kind of a system because capitalism has become like the water we take, air breathe, like alcohol and the need for cash. In common, individuals think capitalism is the societal natural order of things (Meadows & Wright, 2008; Norman, 2002)). Researchers suggested that the record of capitalism is comprehensive beginning at around Fourteenth and Seventeenth centuries. Capitalism emerged within the feudal communities and was recognized with violence, strike, pain, distorting of the existing community relationships with the development of the new classes in society, which includes the working classes, and the oppression of people in factories. With the intensification of the market sections, the exploitation and development of the consumer products, the global market became limited. Consequently, the capitalism products are developed to keep individuals atomized. All the projects were separated up into the component elements, and the time of employees managed continually (Meadows & Wright, 2008). This has been ongoing until lately when by use of a computers at the work places supervised everything. Norman (2002) described that capitalism is a system because it needs a primary power for synchronization and for decision making. Without the program, the necessary manufacturing infrastructures like the railways, streets, tracks would not have been developed. Different designs used by companies did various duties for the capitalism system. For example, Norman (2002) described that the elements of the state helps in the management of the contradiction of the capitalists between competitors and monopoly. It also protects the development and production methods, through development and violence. In conclusion, capitalism is the system where we are in, and has not been successful in meeting the needs of most people. In the system of capitalism, minority of people control and manage all the sources and cash globally. They have gathered power and success and control their cash and factories to keep wages low and their income high.
The procedure by which an organization or organization settle on a decision is very complicated just like the way customer arrives at their decisions. In making important decisions, an organization relies on the microeconomic details. These could either mean success or the failure of the organization. According to Silbiger (1993), companies need to balance the important need and the purpose of companies in making profits, counter the procedure of handling many individuals. Silbiger (1993) offered the idea and reasoning behind ethical management in companies. Principles of an organization provide the system for different work concepts, companies and business, which improve the organization and individual primary issues far beyond the conventional objectives of making profits for benefiting the investors. Business decisions developed by companies should follow the ethical concepts. Management of business and individuals of the organization should be prioritized, and this also includes involving the organization in the corporate social responsibilities and community obligations.
In the book of the Art of Negotiation, the best substitute to the conventional styles or methods to negotiations have been presented. The conventional styles of negotiation that have been in existence for long include the “win-win” approach, and the “hard bargaining approach” (Michael, 2013). The “one-size-fits-all” approach of negotiation that is very impressive was offered by Michael (2013). The style has methods that make arbitrators be successful in a dilemma of issues and problems. They perform under versatile techniques and have the understanding of the negotiation process, influence, adjust and comprehend. This makes the arbitrators or the negotiators achieve agreements easily while others would be still kept in tedious negotiations.
Fisher & Patton (1991), however, offered another style of negotiation in his book known as “principled negotiation” approach. In adopting this approach during the process of negotiations, accepted alternatives are gotten by identifying the needs that are set, and the needs that are versatile for the arbitrators. This approach is based on five important propositions, that is: separating the people from the problem, working on the interest and not roles, options research for the common gain, use purposive objectives and lastly understanding the best substitute to the agreement described. In contrasting and comparing the styles of “principled conversation ” and the approach of “one-size-fits-all,” one is able to know that the principled approach of negotiation are mostly used in the non adversarial negotiations. This is useful if it is used or used in educational institutions to allow the learners, panel conferences, committees among others. On the other aspect, “one-size-fits-all” negotiation style is used in resolutions of conflicts, negotiations between companies.
Fisher, R., Ury, W., & Patton, B. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. New York, N.Y: Penguin Books.
Hirschman, A. O. (1977). The passions and the interests: Political arguments for capitalism before its triumph. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
Meadows, D. H., & Wright, D. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer. White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green Pub.
Michael, W. (2013). The Art of Negotiation: How to Improvise Agreement in a Chaotic World. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Norman, D. A. (2002). The Design of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.
Silbiger, S. (1993). The ten-day MBA. New York: W. Morrow.
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