Personal Psychology WEbsite


My name is Crystal Bevil, a psychology student at Ashford University. I have been a student in the psychology field for the past three years and had extensive experience in the field. As a psychologist, I have experience in understanding human beings, their emotions, motivations and their thought processes. This has been achieved both theoretical ad practically since I have volunteered and worked as an intern in different psychology clinics and field that requires expertise in psychology.

As a student in a psychology program in Ashford University, I have numerous experiences for the past three years. Through the program, I have learnt different subjects in psychology such as human development, physiology, research and statistics, group dynamics as well as current theories and experience with the psychology program have been of a journey, an exploration, and interesting. From my experience in the program, I am able to analyse mental processes and human behaviours, theories in psychology evaluate personal development theories and research methods in psychology. Lastly, I can demonstrate consistent communication behaviours with the psychology study and practice.

When I graduate, I would like to be a professional mental health counsellor. As a counsellor, I will be able to provide effective group and individual therapies/counselling in different community settings. With my professional preparation after graduation that includes skills, knowledge, and identity development and supervised clinical experiences, I believe I would make a professional counsellor who addresses and understand social justice to improve my client’s well-being.



Psychology as a field of study is very wide and it is very important in our day to day lives. A number of ethical issues are observed by psychologists include: being competent, ensuring that confidentiality is maintained, having an informed consent on psychological issues and ensuring that one has close relationship with the vulnerable in the society.

Relationship counseling and Health psychologists are the two types of professionals that engage themselves in ethical issues in psychology. The field of relationship counseling began in 1920’s and was started in Germany however this practice came into existence in the United States of America in 1930’s. Qualified relationship counselors deal with relationship issues such as marriage problems among others. On the other hand, Health Psychologist began in 20th century but it became prominent in mid of 20th century 91970s). Some of carriers of these individuals include: study of risk behaviors and study of psychological aspects of illness


Relationship counselors play a vital role in our society especially when it comes to issues that are related to relationship. According to relationship counselors, being truthful is very important and ethical issues should be utilized in the provision of counseling to individuals with relationship problems (Kaplan & Allison, 1994). In this respect, social intervention is very important, thus relationship counselors should use educational and organizational counseling to handle relationship issues.


Health psychologist are concerned with health issues and to them informed consent is very important. In addition to this, health psychologists respect the dignity of the patients whom they handle and above all they ensure that there is balance between the rights of the patients and that of the family members (Vasquez, 1988).


The relationship counselor and the Health Psychologists value ethical issues that are related to psychologists. Informed consent is very important for the two professionals and in addition to this, truthfulness and respect to clients is valued by health psychologists and relationship counselors


Peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research and directly relate to Ethical issues in Psychology


Therapists Anger, hate, Fear and Sexual Feelings: national Survey of Therapist responses, clients Characteristics, Critical events, Formal Complaints, and Training by Pope & Tabachnick

Therapists reported incidences of experiencing twenty instances of feeling hate, anger, sexual arousal or attraction and fear; encountering 16 events of client (such as client disrobing, client orgasm, client assault to third party or on therapist, client suicide); and engaging 27 behaviours (such as kissing clients, avoiding clients with HIV, using weapons, massaging clients or calling police to provide protection from clients). There were differences in response from the gender of the therapists, (for instance, more male therapists than females experienced suicides of patients, and faced ethics, malpractices and complaints of licensing),client gender (for instance more females were noticed as attractive physically and cradled or hugged by therapists), and theoretical orientation. Similarly, more participants rated training of graduates on sexual arousal, fear, and anger as inadequate.


Dual Relationships between Therapists and Client: A National Study of Psychologists, Psychiatrists, and Social Workers by Borys & Pope

This was a survey study which surveyed 4800 psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to examine practices and attitudes regarding social involvements, dual professional roles, incidental involvements, and financial involvements. Half of the participants rate the extent to which every behaviour was ethical, and the other remaining half indicated how often they get engaged in every behaviour. Results indicated that majority were of the opinion that under most conditions, dual role behaviours were unethical. Moreover, most reported that they had never or had rarely engaged in the behaviours. Moreover, 10 factors (gender, therapist, age, profession, and marital status, and experience, client gender region of residence, theoretical orientation, practice locale and practice setting) were examined for their behaviours and beliefs relation. A high proportion of males compared to female therapists engaged in non-sexual and sexual dual relationships


Psychological Torture – the CIA and the APA. PsycCRITIQUES, by Arrigo 

After the terrorist attack in 1-11, detainees were being interaogated by United States in settings such as Guantanamo, Bagram and Abu Ghraib. The American Psychologist Association (APA) fully supported involvement of the psychologists in the interrogations. This article highlighted key decisions, procedures, policies, documents and public statements by APA in a need to rethink and make suggestions to useful questions in a serious assessment such as, “were interrogation policies of APA ethically sound?” “ were there available other approaches that would have addressed issues of interrogation more comprehensively, directly that were more ethical and based in science, that wold have been more successful?” and lastly, “should APA continue endorsing its interrogation policies of post 9-11?”



Arrigo, J. M. (2006). Psychological Torture – the CIA and the APA. PsycCRITIQUES, 51(30)

Kaplan, D., & Allison, M. C. (1994). Family Ethics. Family Journal, 2(2), 146-147.

Middleton, R. A., Ergüner-Tekinalp, B., Williams, N. F., Stadler, H. A., & Dow, J. E. (2011). Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Counseling Competencies of White Mental Health Practitioners. International Journal Of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 11(2), 201-218

Vasquez, M. T. (1988). Counselor-Client Sexual Contact: Implications for Ethics Training. Journal Of Counseling & Development,67(4), 238.

Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S. (January 01, 1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 5, 283-293.

Pope, K. S., & Tabachnick, B. G. (January 01, 1993). Therapists’ anger, hate, fear, and sexual feelings: National survey of therapist responses, client characteristics, critical events, formal complaints, and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 2, 142-152.



There are similar themes in the American Art Therapy Association and American Dance Therapy Association websites are that they are all geared towards the health well-being of individuals of all ages. American Art Therapy Association`s theme is using creative processes to assist people improve their health and their emotional well-being. On the other hand, the theme of ADTA is use movement in furthering the emotive, social, and physical and cognitive growth of a person. The programs that they offer are meant to help individuals with psychological disorders express themselves, hence the programs are meant to ensure health well-being of individuals as well.

The distinct themes for the two organizations are that while the American Art Therapy Association is concerned about the well-being of all the individuals irrespective of their ages while the American Dance Therapy Association is only concerned with specific population who are special. Furthermore, American Art Therapy Association is concerned with the overall health of individuals while ADTA is concerned about the well-being of individuals with psychological disorders (Johnson & Emunah, 2009).

A professional in American Art Therapy Association could assist in the treatment of depression by directing their activities, which includes exploring people’s feelings, reconciling their emotional conflicts, nurturing self-awareness, helping them manage their behaviors as well as addictions, nurturing their social skills, decreasing anxiety and increasing their self-esteem. These activities offered by the organization with the assistance of a professional should be translated to be fun and interesting and to possess the ability to make individuals happy, hence helping in finding a cure depression in individuals (Junge, 2008). Aside, the ADTA profession can help reduce depression by talking to and with the clients, assisting them when necessary and giving the ample time to express their inner emotions.



Johnson, D. R., & Emunah, R. (2009). Current approaches in drama therapy. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas.

Junge, M. B. (2008). Mourning, Memory and Life Itself: Essays by an Art Therapist. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, LTD.



Crystal Bevil

400 N Bluff Blvd, Clinton,

IA 52732, United States
(563) 242-4023




To find a position challenging to meet my education, skills, capabilities, competencies, and experience.



Ashford University: College Of Health, Human Sciences and Science

  • Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

Alameda High School, California



Student Intern at Heritage oaks Hospital, Sacramento Northern California, spring 200x

  • I worked closely for 15 weeks in the mental health facility mostly with children aged between 9 to 11 years who have been diagnosed with emotionally disturbed behaviour
  • Assisted with the socialization and therapeutic  objectives set for the by psychological support team and IEPs
  • Compared case files and conducted individual research to understand better mental health


Student volunteer at Child Development Lab, Ashford University, California

  • Closely worked with 15 children aged between 3-5 years in a pre-school laboratory classroom that is inclusive
  • Produced new programming that is comprehensive to be implemented in the lab classroom
  • Completed a detailed development portfolio  for 3 children, and highlighting their cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and language progress
  • Attended classroom sessions weekly to discuss new strategies to be implemented



Ashford University Red Cross Club, Member

  • I have been a member of Red cross Club from First year I the campus
  • Currently serving as the secretary of the club, keeping records and mobilizing volunteers
  • Volunteer weekly in community services such as clean ups, visiting children homes and mental hospitals,
  • Developing training program for new club members.


Habitat for Humanity, California, participant

  • Assisted in campus wide fund raising
  • Travelled last year along with 10 peers, 2013,  to Jonestown, Mississippi for an excursion for one week to help in houses construction in the Mississippi delta



Skills:  skilful in Microsoft Office (Word, excel, and PowerPoint), Certified First Aider with Red Cross

Interests: social trends, sports, languages, travel



American Psychological Association
This is a mega site for scholars and studies searching for psychology scholarly materials. The website offers services such as various documents on psychology, description and listing of APA books, information about graduate and undergraduate education in psychology, conferences, journals, job listings, APA divisions’ information and much more. The members of APA can search online for PsycINFO database that contain thousands of journals and books dating back to 1960s. On a monthly basis, about 4000 new entries are made (APA, 2014).


This is an interdisciplinary and refereed international electronic journal on an experimental basis and sponsored by American Psychological Association. The website publishes articles, book reviews, brief reports and commentary is almost all psychology areas such as neuroscience, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, behavioural biology, linguistics, robotics/vision and philosophy (n.a, 2014).

National Institute of Mental Health

This is a government website and has information on mental disorders and also their treatment, research updates, conference proceedings, upcoming events and news (NIH, 2014).

The Observer

This is a journal published by Association for Psychological Science ten times in a year. The journal informs and educates the association on matters and issues that affects the academic, research and applied psychology disciplines, promotes APS members scientific values, comments and reports on national interest issues to the community of psychological scientists. Lastly, it provides an avenue for information dissemination on APS (APS, 2014).

American Behavioural Scientist (ABS)

This is a peer-reviewed journal published fourteen times in a year, and has valuable source of information for researchers, scholars, professionals and the students. The journal provides in-depth perspectives on contemporary topics that are intriguing throughout the behavioural and social sciences. Each of the published issues offers an analysis of a single topic that is comprehensive, important, examining inter-disciplinary, and diverse areas (ABS, 2014).

Review of General Psychology

This journal publishes innovative conceptual, theoretical or methodological articles cutting across the traditional psychology sub-disciplines. The journal contains articles advancing theory, integrate and evaluate research literatures, provide new analysis of history, or discusses new psychology methodological developments as a whole. Specifically, Review General Psychology is interested in articles bridging gaps between psychology sub-disciplines as well as the related fields focusing on topics transcending traditional sub-disciplinary boundaries (APA, 2014). The manuscripts become of high interest to this journal when they provide to the prevailing or customary views a provocative challenge. It encourages intellectual risk-taking (APA, 2014).

Psychological Sciences (PSS).

In psychology, this is the highest empirically ranked journal, is a monthly peer-reviewed journal with short reports, cutting-edge research articles, and research reports that span the entire science of the psychology spectrum. This journal is also the source of the latest social, cognitive, health and developmental psychology findings, as well as biopsychology and behavioural neuroscience. Moreover, Psychology Science is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (Psychological Science, 2014).

Psychological Bulletin

This an APA publication that publishes integrative and evaluative research reviews and issues interpretations in scientific psychology. Both quantitative (meta-analytic) and qualitative (narrative) reviews are considered by this journal depending on the database nature under consideration for review. Research synthesis or integrative reviews focus on empirical studies and seek to make a summary of the past research by making several conclusions from several separate investigations addressing identical or related hypothesis. Moreover, the journal welcomes manuscripts that deal with the topics at the psychological sciences interface and society, evaluations of the programs, applied psychological therapies and interventions (APA, 2014).

Perspective on Psychological Science (PPS)

This is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed journal with integrative reviews, meta-analyses, overview of research programs, book reviews, theoretical statements and articles that are broad on topics such as science philosophy, opinion pieces about psychological field major issues, senior members autobiographical reflections in the field of psychology, in addition to humorous sketches and essays. Moreover, Perspective on Psychological Science (PPS) is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (APS, 2014).

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied

This is an APA journal that publishes empirical investigations that are original in experimental psychology that bridges psychological theory and practical problems. The articles considered for publication in this journal are those that significantly contribute to important topics in applied experimental psychology. However, the primary focus of the journal is always on experimental investigations conducted in field or laboratory settings. The traditional most prevalent articles in this journal have been applied questions in memory, perception, learning, decision making, human performance, and attention. However, the journal also welcomes researches on any area of applied experimental psychology including investigations from fields as diverse as cognitive, abnormal, educational, and developmental, health, forensic, social, human factors, sport or organizational psychology (APA, 2014).


APA (2014). American Psychological Association. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

n.a (2014). HyperPSYCOLOQUY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

NIH (2014). National Institute of Mental Health. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APS (2014). Observer. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

ABS (2014). American Behavioral Scientist. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Review of General Psychology. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

Psychological Science (2014). A journal of the Association for Psychological Science. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Psychological Bulletin. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APS (2014). Perspectives on Psychological Science. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].


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Creating a business plan

Creating a business plan

Creating a business plan is the most daunting task for both small and large business owner. Taking time and starting to draw a business plan is never easy for most entrepreneurs. However, there a factor of tips that cans the process much easy. Before starting the process, it is comparative to spend some time brainstorming, even before you put a pen o the business plan paper (Khatibi, 2002). Note down anything that occurs to the business environment. A business plan is a document that projects the roadmap of the business in the next 3-5 years ahead. It documents the road a business intends to employ to generate revenues.

Executive summary

As the name signifies, business plan executive summary contains all the information in the rest of the document. It is a snapshot of the business plan and documents the company key goals and profile. In a nutshell, an executive summary should be written last after all the other sections of the business plan have been covered.

Organization and management

Documentation of the best organization structure and management for the business indicate the key players in the management are outlined, together with their resumes.The business owner should use this section to certify to the investors that the team behind the management is indeed professionally competent for the assigned roles. However, it is considered unethical for the owner to lie about the management competency (Mirandola et al 2011).In case any position is vacant, indicate how the issue is going to be managed, for instance by outsourcing the functions of the lacking position holder, e.g. account docket.

Funding request

In case the business is seeking other sources of funds, indicate the potential firms or stakeholders to approach for the funds and document any necessary information about the funding process.

Company Description

Include the products of the business, the difference of the business from others and the market it intends to serve. This is the section that covers all the business idea behind the business plan inclusive of the legal formation of the business.

Service or product line

Indicate what the company sells, how it will benefit the customers, the product lifecycle and cover a brief story about the product or service for awareness purposes.

Financial projections

Suppose the business needs external financial support, provide a clear financial projections in this section. This is critical back up for the financial requests. Incorporate all the necessary information in the financial projections including the amount in possession and the amount needed to kick off the business. 

SWOT Analysis

This is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Compound on the SWOT of the business and indicate a structure to mitigate on each of them.


Market Analysis

Indicate the research strategies for the business industry, targeted market and the potential competitors in the market.

Marketing and sales

This section incorporates the marketing plans, sales strategies of the business. In a nutshell, indicate how the products will reach the consumers.

Supporting documentation

In this section, any relevant document to the company is supplied that might interest the readers of the plan. Include awards, certifications and perceived risk mitigation.


This section is optional but it is useful to include any other information such as certificate of the business, that is, if the business operates in an environment that needs certification. Include the management resumes, permits and leases. 

Works cited

Ali, Khatibi. “How Companies Can Sustain Growth and Avoid Pitfalls Creating Knowledge.” Strategic Management Conference (2002 : Kuala Lumpur). (2002): 3. Print.

Development of a Product Model for Manufacturing Planning and Control in a Made-to-Order Business. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. (Bingley, United Kingdom, n.d..Internet resource.

Mirandola, Carlos M. S. “Solving Global Financial Imbalances: A Plan for a World Financial Authority.” Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 31.3 (2011): 535-591. Print.

Mirandola, Carlos M. S. “Solving Global Financial Imbalances: A Plan for a World Financial Authority.” Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 31.3 (2011): 535-591. Print.

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Computer Mouse

A mouse is a computer hardware input device that controls cursor movements on the screen of a computer (Price, 2011). It is a tiny object that is rolled along a flat and hard surface to control the pointer on the screen. The name was derived from its size since it resembles a mouse and it has also a long tiny wire that resembles the tail of a mouse. The computer mouse moves the cursor on the screen in the same direction to which the user moves it. Mice composed of at least one button and at most three buttons each with dissimilar functions depending on the program it runs. The advanced mice also have a wheel that is used for scroll the pages up and down in the documents (Burnett-Stuart & Taylor, 2001).

Bardini (2000) indicated that Douglas Engelbart, a researcher in the Stanford Research Center invented the first mice in 1963 and was later pioneered by Xerox in 1970s. The three basics types of mice include; mechanical which hasa metal ball or a rubber underneath that roll at 360 degrees. It is fitted with mechanical sensors that automatically detect the direction of the ball and in turn move the cursor as directed by the user. Secondly, the optomechanical mouse resembles the mechanical mouse but detect the direction of the cursor by use of optical sensors. Lastly, there is the optical mouse that detects the direction of the cursor using laser. Unlike others, the optical mouse has got no mechanical moving parts and they are quicker than the opto-mechanical and mechanical mice (Price, 2011).

Market need and Product Design Specification.

The market need of the computer mouse is very dynamic with the bulging technology. However, before a consumer makes a purchase, there are various factors to consider. Firstly, it is comparative to consider the price of the item, condition and the purchasing purposes. There are variety of options that a client can chose from incase of a purchase is to be made. In the old days, before the GUI, computer was operated through text commands. Therefore, to use a computer by then, one needed to have a computer programmer. The Apple GUI discovery allowed the user to enjoy the unparalleled productivity improvements. Currently, the new interface provides the user with easy time and fewer sills to work with a computer (McCarthy & Perreault, 1990).

However, the market demands of the mouse are on the rise with the advancements on the technology. According to the report by XXX and YYYY, there is a 41% rise in computer mouse unit sales from the month of May 1998 to May 1999. It indicates that more than 3.2 million mice were bought separately exclusive of those fixed with the new computer systems. This represented over $60 million dollars. Presently, Microsoft enjoys 22.8 % of the mouse in the market while Logitech and Kensington having 21.3 % and 6.6 % respectively (Cusumano & Selby, 2005). The rest is controlled by other manufactures worldwide.

The Product Design Specification can be categorized into two broad characteristics.

  1. Operational and Physical Characteristics

Performance requirements- the device must permit the user to access the computer fully at least 8 hours daily. It must also require least movements of the parts. The input device and thearm support must both function efficiently without unnecessary adjustments.

Safety- both the arm support and the input device should not irritate the user’s skin.

Accuracy and reliability-the cursor must move to where the client directs it while displaying extreme sensitivity.

Ergonomics- the device for arm support must have height than gets adjustable.

Size and weight -the mouse must fit the hands of the client proportionally and the weight must not strain the user for at least 8 hours daily.

  1. Product Characteristics

Quantity- only one device is needed.

Cost of production- efficient budget of one unit is sufficient.

The mouse systems are currently improving with new products being manufactured. The use of the mouse is normal and fairly simple. When the mouse is powered, it runs through the calibrator.

Connection of the mouse to the computer.

The mouse is connected through the plug inn port that already exists in the computer or into the RS-232 interface box. To connect, the user must plug the 25-pin connector to the computer and the other end plugged into the interface box.

Mouse use.

The mouse works best when aligned within 45 degrees from the normal orientation. However, most users place their wrist on the surface of the mouse and grasp it using their little and thumb finger. The mouse is potable and can be lifted and its position changed. Therefore, the cursor on the screen can always appear anywhere on the computer screen even without moving the wrist (Mouse (Computer, 2012).

DIP switches.

The deep switches of a mouse use various tools, for example, the paper clip. The orientation of the pad can be adjusted on the desk space and fit accordingly. At 90 degrees, the mouse is hardly sensitive compared to its original position.

Opening the mouse.

The device must always be opened to change the DIP settings of the switch. To open, one removes the twin screws bellow the mouse when on the table and finally the top is removed. The mouse consists of four parts namely; two lenses, rubber light shield and a PC board. The LEDs and the mirror are extremely fragile and should not be touched. The LEDs are positioned funnily to illuminate the paper efficiently (Burnett-Stuart & Taylor, 2001).

Power-cycling the mouse.

To power cycle the mouse, its advisable to take at least 5 seconds before plugging it back. This will permit adequate duration for the micro compressor to reset the capacitor and discharge it.

Calibration sequence.

Bardini (2000) pointed out that the circuit and the micro compressor are verified anytime the mouse is powered. The mouse the attempts to calibrate each lead in sequence through selection of the internal DIP switch. The calibrated LEDs are then turned on and since the IR LEDs cannot be seen, when the button is pressed both the red LEDs to function. This shows that the mouse is powered and calibration goes on.However, any button should not be pressed when the mouse is still calibrating.

Moreover, the mouse must always be moved constantly with comfortable speed for proper calibration of the LEDs. The IR LEDs are responsible for detecting the crossing green lines while the red LEDs detect the blue lines crossing over. Additionally, it is advisable to move the mouse with wide circles to complete the calibrations. Otherwise, the mouse only calibrates on high contrast ratio surfaces like the mouse pad. When the one LED is on it shows that the calibration process has been finalized and there exists no difference when the button switch is pressed and the cursor on the screen of the computer will start moving. On non-rotatable mode, the mouse only shows one red LED on while in rotatable, both LEDs are on (Price, 2011).

Advanced surface material

Most recent mice use infrared imaging to locate specific points where the hand meets the surface of the mouse. Advanced materials are applied to each zone to improve the durability and comfort. Additionally, to take care of heat and moisture that is built up, durable hydrophobic coating is added in the area around the palm. In case of heavy zones of contact, coating that are fingerprint-resistant are put on the bottom of the mouse.

Light weight design.

The mice are designed with lightest weight possible. This allows the user to hold and rotate the mouse more comfortably without using much energy. Ideally, the mouse should be used for at least eight hours daily without causing fatigue to the user.

Manufacturing of the mouse parts.

To manufacture a mouse, various procedures have to be followed simultaneously to make the units of the mouse. Firstly, the printed circuit board gets cut from the material and prepared. This is a resin-coated, flat sheet of considerable amount of surface. The surface-mount version has to be assembled by the machine (McCarthy & Perreault, 1990). Thereafter, the computer controlled sequencer which is always automatic is used to place the ­­­­­­­­­­­electrical components on the board in a proper manner depending on the pattern.

Furthermore, the encoder mechanism is assembled in a separate unit. Plastic parts are manufactured through injection-molding considering the specific model required. Then, the unit gets assembled, fastened to the PCB by use of screw. At this stage the board is completely assembled and therefore goes to the electronic tests of quality control (Mouse (Computer), 2012).

The tail of the mouse is manufactured using electrical wires, rubber cover and shielding. It has strain relieve devices that assists in the prevention of the cable from detaching from either the mouse or the plugging port.

Additionally, the outer shell is inspected by electrical experts after molding, surface treatment and trimming just before the assembly. The outer covering is assembled in four stages: PCB and encoder are inserted at the shell bottom and finally put together using automatic screw drivers (Brown, 2002).

Final performance and electronic inspection is done when the assembly is complete afterwhich rubber is pre applied on the added side of the mouse.

The process of manufacturing a mouse is short but requires competence of high level to achieve. Scholars have foreseen that advanced mice is yet to be produced with manufacturing firms currently working on it.


Bardini, T. (2000). Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, coevolution, and the origins of personal computing. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Brown, D. E. (2002). Inventing modern America: From the microwave to the mouse. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Burnett-Stuart, N., & Taylor, L. (2001). The Magic computer mouse. Genoa: Black Cat Pub.

Cusumano, M. A., & Selby, R. W. (2005). Microsoft secrets: How the world’s most powerful software company creates technology, shapes markets, and manages people. New York: Free Press.

McCarthy, E. J., & Perreault, W. D. (1990). Basic marketing: A managerial approach. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Mouse (Computer). (2012).

Price, M. (2011). Computer basics. Southam, U.K: Easy Steps Limited.

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Boxing Coaching Experience


Ever since I developed interest in coaching boxing, I have realized that it is one of the most enriching and rewarding experiences an individual can possess. In my decision to become a boxing coach, my commitment is to fully utilize my knowledge and skills to ensure success of boxing coaching to realize perennial affirmative impression on the lives of boxing sportspersons. As a coach, I have committed to being a teacher, mentor, leader and role model. Indeed, numerous athletes will seek my expertise and guidance their coach. Besides, many scholars admit that a coach is a role model that allows athletes to develop both social skills and sports related skills needed for success of the sport in life (Cave 2001).

Boxing Coaching Experience
Teaching Skills

As a volunteer coach for boxing, I have gained robust teaching skills in the sport of boxing. Williams (2008) indicated that a great coach is the one who inspires the love for the sport and enables the athletes develop self- respect and respect for their opponents regardless of the outcome. As an aspiring legend coach, I inspire and teach the athletes inside and outside the ring and constantly learn through sharing of knowledge for the better development of boxing and other stakeholders involved in the sport. During the entire coaching experience, I gained robust knowledge in the following areas of teaching the participants.

Firstly, I experienced immense teaching skills of boxing basic techniques through a non- contact course. Under this technique, there were teaching experiences on movement of the body, balance and coordination, defense and striking skills. The core of this experience was to develop key strategies in teaching of boxing to varying ability and age of athletes.

Additionally, I gained experience in the guidelines of delivering of the boxing awards to learning institutions, boxing clubs, community sport projects and youth groups. There was also the basic principle of sports practice and planning necessary for the delivery of sessions in the context of boxing set by the National Occupation Standards. Lastly, the key area of coaching experience was procedures on how to develop and maintain a deep relationship with the local amateur community for boxing.

Professionalism in Boxing coaching

Child Protection Policy Experiences in Boxing

During the entire coaching experience, I gained experiences on coaching protection policy as required by the ABA. Safety and welfare of young athletes, particularly below 18 years, cannot be compromised in any sport coaching practices. Szabo, (2008) observed that every member of the sports committee, officials, and coach, volunteer and boxing tutor has a moral and corporate responsibility to promote and safeguard every athlete’s welfare. The experience gained incorporated athlete child protection regardless of the ability, age, religion, race and sexual orientation. To sum up, the children have the right to learn, enjoy and participate in boxing awards for free of abuse or fear from anybody.

Contents of the Gained Experience

Warm up

The warm up session consisted of;
Ice breakers– the class introduces themselves to one another swiftly and any athlete observed to be contrasting may provide a song and dance individually. They are expected to say hello and shake hands and say hello to one another.
Mobilization– it starts with joint mobilization; wrists, elbows, figures, neck, shoulder, ankles, knees, hips and toes.
First phase– slow jogging, slide step, big stride movements, high knees, kick-backs, backward jogging, change of direction punching in the air in all directions.

Upper Body stretching

The participants should be kept moving when stretching with toe to heel on the spot. The athletes should also learn the groups of the muscles. This stretching takes 8 seconds for each muscle groups. 


Anadian Amateur Boxing Association, & National Coaching Certification Program (Canada). (1983). Boxing coaching manual, level 1: National Coaching Certification Program. Ottawa, Ont, Canadian Amateur Boxing Association.

Cave, E. (2001). Kick boxing. Guilford, CT., Lyons Press.

Szabo, S. (2008). Mentoring literacy professionals: continuing the spirit of CRA/ALER after 50 years.

Williams, M. (2008). Boxing Clever. Coaching Edge. 32-34.


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Business plan Essay Writing

Idea one

Business plan for disposable coffee cups in United States

The coffee company is determined to supply the local coffee shops and resaturants that serve people who like coffee, a place to look forward to as you try to leave the daily life stressors, and a nice place to read your book or to meet your family or friends. With the great demand for great service and coffee of high quality, the company will capitalize on its location in the city centers to build a core group store partners. The company will offer the best disposable coffee cups to the city restaurants, hotels and coffee stores. This will be complimented with free delivery that makes the patrons to enjoy. The company will be a partnership of two investors (Collins & Lazier, 1992).


The company will be located in the first floor of the commercial building in New York. The floor plan includes a 300 square feet of office and 2200 square feet of the operations are who also include the store and wash rooms. The premises have the necessary electricity and water will only require slight remodeling to accommodate the store and the kitchen

Target market

The target market for our products will be the local restaurants, coffee shops and hotels that serve coffee. Our company will serve them with the disposable cups for serving coffee for the customers who wish to carry coffee home. The business is friendly to the environment as the products are easily disposable and therefore will result to reduction of environmental pollution (Floyd, 2005). 


The company will offer our clients the best coffee disposal cups. This will be achieved by sourcing aesthetic and unique designs, light and environmentally friendly raw materials, and products. The products will be aimed at making our clients attract many customers to their stores (Wickham, 2006).


Business idea 2

Ad agency

The advertising industry is facing a major downfall of late. The clients who used to turn to major advertising companies are now turning to the small and friendly specialized agencies in the cities. The proposed advertising agency will incorporate latest technological advancements in advertising like using the online platform that has not been embraced with the major advertisement brokers. This ad agency will be will be one person sole proprietorship business that will combine savvy marketing (Floyd, 2005).


  • The business will be situated within the city centre although it will mostly be outdoor marketing and advertising for the brand
  • Networking within the community will be used to establish the business among potential clients
  • Ads will also be placed in different publications that cater different chosen fields
  • Direct mails will also be sent to companies with creative contents


Given that the potential clients will rely solely on the provided ideas from the company, the business will come up with winning ads that will be placed in the media spots that are proper. Some of the products will be:

  • Writing ads for companies and other business on different industries
  • Placing online adverts
  • Graphic designing of ads (Wickham, 2006).

The target market

  • The potential clients for the business will be any organization or businesses that I will choose to go after
  • The business will start with small organizations or the companies that I have some acquaintances
  • Because the business will be situated within the city centre, I will start with businesses that are situated at the city centers such as the fast foods outlets, restaurants and boutiques (Collins & Lazier, 1992).


Collins, J. C., & Lazier, W. C. (1992). Beyond entrepreneurship: Turning your business into an                           enduring great company. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Floyd, S. W. (2005). Innovating strategy process. Malden, MA: BlackweLl Pub.

Timmons, J. A., & Spinelli, S. (2007). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the       21st century. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Wickham, P. A. (2006). Strategic entrepreneurship. Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice  Hall.

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Short Biography

Upon reflection on my vocation, it is the hand of the almighty God that made, shaped and entrusted me to my loving family, friends and people I have met. I was born in Vinhlong city, Vietnam and brought up in the catholic faith my family is entrenched. It is still a mystery how I ended up in sisterhood. However much I desired to be sister, I lacked courage to admit. However, I believe the God’s spirit which touched my heart, the inspiration from the young Vietnamese sisters, holy witness f mother Teresa and our Holy Father John Paul II, who entrusted us the young people with hope and responsibility to build the future, ignited the flame in me to serve the mankind.

I was an accountant for one year after college graduation and lived in California where I discovered my true life passions and love. However, while still lost in the world with meetings, socializing, problem solving that drew me away from God, He continually and patiently whispered to me.

I boasted in the Lord for my short time success and achievements of the “American dream.” He blessed me but felt emptiness and feeling of lost in a great abyss with no one to fill the void. Daily mass temporarily sustained me, but I felt the desire to do something with my life.

God broke my deafness and shouted just like Saint Augustine, “He flashed, shone and dispelled my blindness.” This marked my beginning for spiritual thirst and often shed tears on hearing gospels related to calling. I started reading spiritual and vocational books, praying and mediating early mornings. Upon realization of my true calling, God sent Holy Cross Sister whom I felt attracted to and felt very content with my desire.

Sometimes I feel discouraged at my sinfulness, unworthiness, weakness and fear at being unable to let go my loved ones and worldly attractions. However, our lady of help assigned her son, Jesus, as my spiritual mentor who has continually reassured me that I am His and He chose me.

One Wednesday on 1st August, I made a decision and joined the Holy Cross Convent accompanied by my loving and supportive family. Joyfully singing Magnificat every evening, it allowed sisters to follow charism and spirituality of its founder by directing the heart, mind and life crucified by Jesus Christ. It also enables living as a disciple with a mission to evangelize and participate in local church building.

The community life naturally has joys and challenges but by Gods assurance, I keep moving. I am overwhelmed with joy and immense gratitude to God. Finally my life’s emptiness is filled with tender love and the Living Word. Daily liturgical celebrations chanting of psalms and scriptural Sunday daily quench my thirst. I am totally contented with my desires and ambitions to comfort Jesus, embrace church’s needs and any afflicted person of the world. My friend asks what the source of all my happiness is, but I answer by famous words of the psalmist:

“What can bring us happiness? Many say. Let the light of your face shine on us, oh Lord.”


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George Washington University Hospital Process of Care Paper

The George Washington University Hospital refers to a general surgical and medical in Washington, DC. The hospital performs at the level of national ranking in the United States. Available data shows that the hospital has 367 beds with nearly 18, 097 admissions in the latest year. Furthermore, the hospital performed approximately 5, 287 inpatients annually and 6, 942 surgeries for outpatients. In the previous year, the hospital had 74, 539 emergency cases for which it fairly addressed all the cases, indicates the data. George Washington University Hospital is also used for teaching the upcoming healthcare professionals. The hospital also boasts the accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF). The hospital has excellent services that give it a competitive edge against the competitors namely Medstar Georgetown university hospital and Washington Adventist Hospital.

High Quality Stroke Care

George Washington University Hospital gets the competitive edge by delivering High Quality Stroke Care for patients. The hospital has received an award for Stroke Gold quality Achievement With Target Honor Roll Award given by the American Heart Association (AHA). This award indicates the hospital’s expertise in high quality stroke care. Only hospitals with outstanding services in the care of stroke are usually legible for the award following the AHA Performance Achievement Indicators for at least 12 months in compliance with AHA quality measures. “ We are pleased to receive this recognition, which reflects the dedication and commitment of George Washington Hospital’s stroke team in providing high-quality care to patients suffering from a stroke,” observed Gary Little, Managing Director, chief medical director for George Washington Hospital. The hospital had previously been recognized for its door-to-needle times, which is the duration between when a patient gets admitted in the hospital and when a patient receives an anticlotting medication. Dr. Little maintained that the award reflected on the hospital’s accomplishment on their heart stroke program.

To qualify for the AHA’s stroke achievement award, usually, hospitals must achieve a certain level of patient care. These may incorporate ensuring that stroke patients who visit the hospital receive clot dissolving medication on the onset of the symptoms within two hours of admission. Moreover, the hospitals must advice the patients who smoke are advised to cease smoking immediately (Lafferty, 2003). Quality stroke encompasses rehabilitation programs and stroke education to the patients and other involved individuals in the cardiovascular complications. George Washington University Hospital medical team is constantly in search of best practices based on evidence for them to meet or exceed the national care metrics used in the definition of stroke patients quality care.

Timely and Effective Care

            According to Lafferty (2003) the indicator measures the percentage of hospital patients who visit the hospital and receive treatments for best results for surgical procedures and other general medical conditions. The measure also mentions the time taken for the hospital to completely deal with an emergency medical case. In George Washington University Hospital, patients with stroke conditions are attended to immediately and in an approximate of two hours the visiting patient shall have received anticlotting medications. Al the patients, children and adults both in the Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) and the Outpatient Prospective Payment system (OPPS) are regarded for reporting time and effectiveness care.

Patient Safety

The hospital provides high quality for adults and children hospitalized and potentially focus on eliminating iatrogenic events and complications. The patient safety in The George Washington University Hospital has enabled it to safeguard its patients from preventable conditions that may cause serious health consequences such as adverse events and infections during their stay in the hospital. This has helped the hospital to protect the patients from additional injury and hence gain a competitive edge in the market indicates van & Rutte, (2009).

Structural Measures

The hospital has robust structural measures such as electronic health record. The hospital uses computerized online data entry procedures. This allows for easy access of the patient data as well as enhancing security and privacy of the data. The refreshed structural data of The George Washington University Hospital shows that the hospital has improved its operations through adoption of the online electronic data system. Although this system is also adopted by the hospital’s competitor, the George Washington University Hospital has employed competent professionals to scale up the efficiency of the electronic operation system in the hospital.

Hospital Value Based Purchasing (HVBP)

            The hospital has HVBP is an outstanding effort to link the quality of the Medicare and payment. The patients pay for the acute care services of the hospital based on the patient care. The patients are evaluated on their opinions on the value of the Medicare they received while was under the hospital’s custody. This also incorporates clinical care processes in which the available data indicates that the hospital scores well above 70 percent.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Publicity of Performance Indicators

Highlighting performance indicators for the hospitals may have both good and bad sides. Firstly, publication the indicators can be used as a marketing tool for the hospital. When the hospital conducts an internal research and goes public about it, it shows the competency of the medical team in the hospital. This acts as a tool for signing additional clients as mass medical is a reliable source of information (Ming, 1998). However, this may work to the disadvantage of the hospital since the competitors will be conversant with their strengths and make further adjustments. Such data may inform the competitor of the service quality and the secret behind them. Hence, work hard and gain a competitive edge by innovating on higher medical procedures. 


Lafferty, C. L. (2003). Organizational trust in hospital nursing staffs and its relationship to three performance indicators of organizational effectiveness.

Ming, W. (September 01, 1998). Competitor and Supporter for the United States. Japanese Economy, 26, 5, 27-82.

van, . G. E., van, T. H. F. J. M., & Rutte, C. G. (November 01, 2009). Performance management in healthcare: Performance indicator development, task uncertainty, and types of performance indicators. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 10, 1523-1530.

Vidmar, G., Blagus, R., Střelec, L., & Stehlík, M. (January 01, 2012). Business indicators of healthcare quality: Outlier detection in small samples. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 28, 3, 282-295.

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American Cuisine Culture and Traditions From Around the World

American Food Culture and Traditions From Around the World

Culture is defined as the beliefs, customs, knowledge, and habits a set of people share (Smith, 15). These are learned and not inherited behaviors. Culture is transferred from families to families down the lines. Each tribal group has its specific culturally cuisines and food habits (Para 5). According to Terry, a cuisine is a particular set of cooking practices and traditions, often related with a definite culture (4). Each cuisine encompasses food preparation in a specific style, of drink and food of particular types, to produce exclusively expended items or individual meals. A cuisine is normally named after the place or region where it was invented (Para 3). American cuisine has been inclined by Native Americans and Europeans in its early history. When compared to the northern settlements, the southern settlements were quite assorted in their agricultural diet and neither did they have a central expanse of culture.

In the 19th and 18th centuries, Americans came up with many new foods for instance; the Progressive Era (1890–1920) food presentation and production became more developed (Smith, 26). One trait of American cooking is the combination of multiple tribal or regional methodologies into entirely new cooking styles. During the 1980s, famous restaurants introduced method of combining cuisines that comprised of American styles of cookery with foreign essentials, universally referred as New American cuisine (Terry, 28).

The modern cuisine of the United States in the 21st century is mostly regional in other words, the foods of ordinary culture have been affected by the presence of these distinct cultures hence; the American food is a blend of many cuisines and cultures. In order to understand it, one must not only study the native foods and food habits of the many marginal sets, but also the relations between the mainstream culture and the way of life of these minor groups (Smith ,35).

Today, several foods are commonly considered as American, these are hamburgers, potato chips, hot-dogs, macaroni and cheese and meat loaf. There are also methods of cooking and forms of foods that are unique to a region. Southern-style cooking is called American comfort food and comprises of foods such as fried chicken. Tex-Mex, distinct in the Southwest and Texas, is a mix of Mexican and Spanish cooking cuisines and includes foods such as chili and burritos and depends heavily on frayed cheese and beans (Para,5). Majority American culinary methods are same to those in Western nations. Corn and wheat are the prime cereal grains. Traditional American cooking uses items such as turkey and indigenous foods used by American Indians and early European colonists. Italian-American cuisine often finally appears; in the form of Vietnamese cuisine, Thai cuisine, and Korean cuisine. German cuisine has a major impact on American cuisine, most especially mid-western cooking, with potatoes, roasts, noodles, stews and pastries being the most popular ingredients in both cuisines (Smith, 46).

The state of Louisiana, for instance, is known for its Creole and Cajun cooking. Cajun and Creole cooking are affected by French, Haitian and Acadian cooking, although the foods themselves are unique and original (Para, 7). Soul food, established by African slaves during the colonial period, is widespread around the South and among African Americans. Americans commonly prefer coffee to tea, with approximately half the adult population drinking at least a cup a day.

New England, also a cuisine in America is marked for having a major stress on seafood, a heritage inherited from coastal tribal groups like the Narragansett and Wampanoag, who similarly used the abundant fishing banks offshore for survival (Terry, 49). Meat is present though not as common, and is stewed in dishes. The Hawaiian and pacific cuisine is often considered to be one of the most culturally varied in the U.S. states, and also being the only state with an Asian mainstream population (4). resulting to the Hawaiian cuisine borrowing ingredients of a variety of cuisines, mainly those of Pacific-rim  and Asian cultures, as well as  native Hawaiian and a few adds from the Americans .Midwest Midwestern cuisine  in America, includes everything from barbecue to the hot dog Chicago-style. African impacts came with slaves from West Africa (Smith, 67). Foods such as eggplant, chili pepper and many varied kinds of melons were carried with them from along with the incredibly significant starter of rice to the Carolinas and later to Louisiana and Texas where it became main grain of the region and till today (Para, 6).

Traditionally around the world. Italian Meal of the Seven Fishes, which originated from Southern Italy, has the Italian-American families celebrating the custom with multicourse seafood feasts of baccal, calamari and chockfull of seven kinds of fish (Morgan, 22). French reveillon is In French speaking countries. The feasts deep into the night and comprises of lobster, escargots, foie gras or oysters. Peruvian Noche Buena is found In Spain, the Philippines and Latin America. Peruvians decide on roast pig or turkey with a range of side foods like rice, fresh salads and apple sauce (Para 3). In the UK, Boxing Day, occasionally a day for awarding workers with presents, is celebrated after Christmas with a simple curry centric buffet mainly made from leftovers (Morgan, 35). German dinner goes down with roasted goose with potatoes, vegetables and confections like fruitcake. Irish dinner is similar to holiday feasts of the Americans; roasted poultry, potatoes, ham, and pudding are main meals. 

Works Cited

Andrew F Smith. Eating history: 30 turning points in the making of American cuisine. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print.

Bryant Terry. Vegan Soul kitchen: fresh, healthy, and creative African American cuisine. Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2009. Print.

James L Morgan. Culinary creation: an introduction to foodservice and world cuisine .Boston: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. Print.

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Brief description of Camberwell High School

Camberwell high school is a district with a total population of 1200 students. The school has a reputation for a diverse and rich curriculum and co-curriculum programs. The school is located near Canterbury on 3.2 hectares of land with an accessible public transport. In a plan to strategically place the school in the fore front in leadership and educational provision, it will open up a new innovative centre. Metaphorically, Camberwell high school is a giant on its own because of its establishments and achievements (Hughes, 2012).

Transformation efforts in education involve critical stakeholders to achieve the change desired as asserted by Hughes (2012). To better understand the stakeholder’s role in the education, the paper will attempt to give an explanation to the six distinct stakeholders of education who are involved closely in the Camberwell high school operations overly. Furthermore, the paper will give a description to the influential factors to very role of the stakeholder to better understand their current roles to their roles in learning organizations.

  • Students

In the education process they play the leading role and therefore should participate in the education process. Their primary role is that of recipient, but should be encouraged to exercise their role of decision making in education process, hence making them an integral part. Empowering them increases their responsibilities and choices for their learning.

O’Brien et al (2009) suggests that in some education aspects students should be used as determinants. They determine the offers of educational services like especial education. Moreover, they possess the both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors.

  • Parents

They play a key role as stakeholders. Their primary objective is an assurance of quality education to their children (Hughes, 2012). They bring valuable quality to the children’s educational experience because of better understanding of their children and can influence the student’s behavior significantly such as study habits and time management, personal safety, eating habits and general welfare. Gross (2010) suggest they should provide resources to the school to assist the students and enhance community commitment and pride. For instance, they should get involved in their children education process by attending school functions, encouraging students, participating in decision making process, modeling desirable values and behaviors.

  • Teachers

Along with the students, the teachers play an interactive role in the process of education because of their dependency on each other. Empowerment of teachers takes the form of giving teachers significant roles in making decisions, control over their work conditions and environment, and opportunities to serve in different professional roles (O’Brien et al, 2009). Furthermore, teachers are mentors, counselors, supervisors and community leaders.

The motivating factors to teachers are related to the impact of their role in producing a person who is a community asset. The education ends have to be associated with things such as provision of culturally literate citizenry to the society, thinking and reasoning people, and a world class work force (Hughes, 2012).

  • Central office staff and principle

He or she represents the most influential single school stakeholder in the setting of the Camberwell high school. The central office staff is expected to set the tone of academic for students, staff, parents and members of the community through participatory leadership that is effective. Effective principle develops team approach that is collaborative to problem solving and decision making, while consistently and simultaneously maintain and develop policies and guidelines district wide (Gross, 2010).

O’Brien et al (2009) asserts that a successful central office staff should apply the distributive approach to routine operations of the Camberwell high school to ensure total involvement of other external and internal stakeholders. Finally, because the central office staff is subject to major influences by the cultures- implicit and explicit interactions among the Camberwell high school staff, this can act as determinant to his or her leadership effectiveness.

  • Superintendent

The school board in most cases selects the superintendent of the school district schools. The school district superintendent, with the help of the school board has the responsibility that of ensuring selection of personnel meet the state standard and impacts positively to the district with their experience in education. Hughes (2012) pointed out that the district superintendent makes important decisions for instance construction of new schools, districts finance, and significant part of teaching and curriculum going on in the schools of the district. Moreover, other responsibilities include creation of long term plans for educational delivery, technology and growth of districts.

Gross (2010) suggests a superintendent of the school district need to be committed to playing a leading role in the capacity building of the governing board and conducting business of the school. The selection committee should ask for the candidate’s educational initiatives the candidate will undertake in future and philosophy in terms of strategic planning, budgeting, performance monitoring of the employees and the district.

  • Camberwell high school board members

Board members are elected by the school district residents or the mayor. They have the power to to fire or hire administrators and teachers. According to Gross (2010), they are the guardians of the change policies that support the district or the district superintendent who has the responsibility of maintaining and implementing the policies lay by the board. Moreover, they take legal considerations when deciding on governing policies.

Five best practices for effective leadership

  1. Model the way

Leaders create principles on ways of treating people and manner goals should be pursued. They establish standards of excellence and set examples for others. Sometimes prospect of complex change can stifle action and overwhelm people; interim goals are set for people to achieve small wins as they aim for larger objectives (O’Brien et al, 2009).

  1. Inspire a vision shared

Leaders believe passionately they can make a change. They envision future, create unique and ideal image of what the organization is capable. Through their quite persuasion and magnetism, leaders put others in their dreams. Moreover, they make their visions lively and make people see future exciting possibilities.

  1. Challenge the process

Leaders look for chances to change the status quo by being innovative to improve the organization. By doing so, they risk as they experiment. Moreover, because they know taking of risks involve failures and mistakes, they accept the inevitable disappointments as opportunities for learning.

  1. Enable other people to act

Leaders build spirited teams and foster collaboration. They involve others actively. Furthermore, they know that mutual respect sustains exemplary efforts. Therefore, they strive to establish an atmosphere of human dignity and trust. They make others feel powerful and capable, strengthen them.

  1. Encourage the heart

Hard work is the way to do things in organization, to keep determination and hope alive, individual contributions are recognized by leaders (Hughes, 2012).



Hughes, L. W. (2012). Current issues in school leadership. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gross, S. J. (2010). Promises kept: Sustaining school and district leadership in a turbulent era. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

O’Brien, J., Draper, J., & Murphy, D. (2009). School leadership. Edinburgh: Dunedin.

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Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences



  1. Comparison of Phonology of English and Arabic
  2. Stress

Stress is defined as the relative prominence given to specific words in a phrase and to specific syllables in words. According to Halliday (1970), there are three word levels of stress in Arabic language. These include the primary, the secondary and the weak levels. Swan and smith (2001) pointed out that stress in the Arabic language is regular and predictable. This means that an individual can determine and predict the stress of the words in Arabic. Furthermore, Swan and smith (2001) asserted that the learners of Arabic often face difficulties in predicting stress in English language, specifically in the stress of word. The difficulty in word stress grasping in English may lead to changing of the word meaning. For example, a learner may try to pronounce the verb “con’vict” like the noun “convict” where the position of stress is different completely. Aiken & Pearce (1993) summarized the stress of Arabic in following way:

  1. If a word has super heavy syllable or even more, the stress falls on, as in the super heavy syllable
  2. If a word has light and heavy syllables, the stress falls on heavy syllable just before the final syllable s in (non-final heavy syllable).
  3. If a word has light syllables, the stress falls as in, on the first syllable
  4. If a word is a past or present verb, the stress falls as in on the first syllable
  5. If a word is a feminine or masculine Arabic noun, the stress falls as in, on the second syllable

Jenkins (2003) suggested that just like the Arabic language, the words of English are also predictable, and many sets of rules that are complex have been put forward for stress prediction. In English, stress is very important as it is the main feature that distinguishes certain word pairs. According to The New Englishness 13 Nation & Newton (2009), English has the following rules of stress:

  1. The majority of the two-syllable words, on the first syllable are where stress is placed. For example, many words have two different patterns of stress according to whether they are nouns or verbs, verbs or adjectives. For instance, the first syllable of adjectives and nouns are where stressing is done, while on the verbs, the second syllable is where stress is given.
  2. Derivational suffixes can be categorized into three types; that is stress-shifting, stress attracting, and stress preserving. Stress preserving suffixes does not change placement of stress in words. For example “–ful,” such as wonder changes to “wonderful.” moreover, stress attracting type gets primary stress. For example, “-ee,” such as, employ becomes “employ’ee.” Lastly, stress shifting type makes the stress to shift. For example “-ive,” such as reflex become “re’flexive” (Pennington 1996).
  1. Rhythm

Rhythm, in speech is defined as an effect that involves isochronous recurrence of some form of speech unit. Rhythm is also the regular recurrence in a speech of the stressed syllables (Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Griner. 2010). Yavas (2006) argued that the perception of various forms of rhythm as majorly to do with the syllable structure differences, type of stress and the vowel reduction. According to Couper (2006, p.47), Arabic and its different dialects are stress-timed all. From the different articles and studies, there is a consensus amongst writers and researchers that the listeners of Arabic make use of the rhythm of speech in distinguishing Arabic speakers from North Africa and the ones living in Middle East. Numerous studies have been conducted on the rhythm of Arabic. Dauer (2005, p.544) observed that one of the significant findings is the vocalic intervals highness, in the dialects of the eastern Arabs like the Palestine, unlike the western dialects of the Arabs such as Tunisia.

In English language, with the alternation of unstressed and stressed syllables, is actually stress-timed. Derwing (2008) asserted that rhythm is very important in English basically because many instances of miscommunication are attributed to the failure of a person to interpret words that are familiar as they are uttered with a rhythm pattern that is unfamiliar. As discussed earlier, words of English may contain one or several syllables. These words has stressed syllables that are clearer, louder than the unstressed others. Hansen & Zampini (2008, p.352) believed that combining of the stressed and unstressed syllables will result in the rhythms that are found in the words of English. This combination also brings out the pitch, length and strength of syllables. Furthermore, English sentences, just like words also have rhythm. Halliday (1970) stated that if a person wants to get a good rhythm of the sentence, he or she should know how to join together the syllables into bigger units, in addition to the clear difference between unstressed and stressed syllables. 

  1. Intonation

Yates & Zielinski (2009) indicated that definition of intonation difficult. However, in general, intonation is the speech melody or the falling and rising of the pitch of voice in conversation, and its analysis should be in terms of pitch variation. Intonation can point out different utterances types, such as questions, statement, attitudes commands, and the speaker’s emotions. Swan and smith (2001) indicted that English and Arabic have intonation patterns that are closely similar, especially in the contour and meaning. Ashby (2005) summarized the stress of Arabic in the following way:

  1. Falling intonation, in Arabic is used at the end of the declarative statements and in commands. In declarative statements is when it is on amid pitch, the voice starts, slightly rises on the syllable lastly stressed, and drop at the end to a low pitch as in. in command is when it is in the “Wh- questions.” That is the voice is high in the syllables stressed and quickly falls to mid pitch as in for the remaining part of the sentence.
  2. In Arabic, the rising-falling intonation is used normally at the end of the “yes-no questions as in,” and in the “vocatives as in.” In the yes-no questions, they are used in utterances that contain protest element and surprise element. That is the voice is flat and there is no fall or rise as in. in the vocatives, on the other hand, they are used in requests and the voice somewhat falls and rises, with as in optional pause.

Yavas (20011) summarized the rules of intonations in English in the following manner:

  1. Rising and falling intonation is usually used at the end of simple facts statements, which is the declarative statement. For example, commands or the questions that begins with the interrogative words.
  2. Rising intonations usually used in the following scenarios; for instance, at the end of the yes-no questions such as requests.
  3. In utterances that contain an element of surprise or protest


Learners Profile

I am a teacher who teaches English to 20 to 30 young SaudiArabia boys aged 13 to 15 years as their foreign language or second language. Some of my students study in private schools which use English as their mode of teaching. Other students also study in international schools which belong to people who work in Saudi Arabia and are from other overseas countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are special institutions that teach English in detail. This means different aspects of English are taught and they also develop positive attitude to learning of English language.

My students learn English only in school but they do not use it home or in the streets because they lack English speakers whom they can converse or talk with since the local language is Arabic. However, the slight chances of speaking English are in some hospitals and also in some restaurants, but not from the natives. Similarly, other places where an individual can hear or speak English are in the institutions of higher learning such as the universities, and some companies which use English as their mode of communication. These are mostly international companies and use a policy that English is the mode of communication in the company.

In these multinational companies, they often give scholarships to their employees who are interested of learning English or developing in their jobs to enhance their personalities. Moreover, learning English enable them to develop intellectually and in their professional abilities.

As a teacher, I am entitled to teach my students to:

  1. Learn the English language basics that would form the foundation of the languages mastery in future
  2. Learn the basic structures of the English sentences
  3. Learn and understand the vocabularies that are recommended to every stage of learning
  4. listen and understand the simple language of English
  5. Orally express themselves using the simple language of English
  6. Read and understand the materials of simple English language
  7. Write simple guided sentences in the language of English


Evaluation of Resources

The essay will evaluate two online resources for teaching prosody to the ESL/EFL learners. The resources include the Classical Arab Language and an online video resource.

  1. Arab Linguistics: an Introductory Classical Text with Translation and Notes

This resource has been written in both English and Arabic languages. This makes it beneficial to both the learners and the teacher who is teaching English to the Saudi Arabic students. The resource is also beneficial for learning since it uses simple English and Arabic languages that are suitable for the beginners. However, some of the limitation of the resource is that it does not detail all aspects of the prosody, thus it is limiting in terms of information.

Some of the elements of prosody that have been presented in this online learning resource include the accent and stress. The other elements have not been included, Stress and accent is very relevant in teaching English to the Saudi Arabic student especially to the young ones. Accent is important to the learners and the teachers because it is impossible to know where stress should be placed on a syllable in a word, and it become even more complicated in the English language since the stress can fall on any syllable (ShirbīNī & Carter 2014).

Although the resource has been written and explained in a continuous prose, the language is realistic, simple and easy to comprehend. The resource has also given the students opportunity to read, listen from the teacher, practice, receive feedback and to make pronunciation in a communicative way. This has been enabled by provision of clear guidelines with examples. This has simplified pronunciation for the students if they practices and also listen to the pronunciations.

Similarly, the resource by ShirbīNī & Carter (2014) has enhanced learning by making the prosody elements have different presentation. The resource has also used tables to present some data to the learners and also to make comparisons between the two languages. Lastly, after going through the guidelines, practicing, there are few exercises for the learner to do and get feedback of their progress and mastery of the two languages. This is good to the students and also to the teachers as it enables the learners gauges their level of understanding and also makes the teachers know the progress of their students.

  1. The Arabic guide to Standard English

This is an audio visual resource that explains in Arabic and in English. The audio and the visual video is helpful to the learners as it explains the English words to Arabic words. The elements of prosody that have been included in this online visual resource are the rhythm, stress and intonation.

The online visual resource has many benefits to the learner as well as the teacher. Some of the benefits it has to the learners are that it gives the visual pictures of objects and name them audibly in English. This is very beneficial to the learners as they learn to understand how to pronounce some English words and also where stress should be put in an English word. The resource also gives the sound that is required when teaching students ESL especially the young Saudi Arabia boys. However, the online video resource has some limitations. First, the video takes only seven minutes and also has limited resources that will equip a learning student. Averagely a lesson should go for 40minutes to 1 hour and therefore a resource of 7 minutes is limiting to the students (n.a 2014).

The presentation also contains new vocabularies for the students of my class. It shows new words in the lesson with their meaning in English. Similarly, there are also new grammar items for the visual lesson, new idioms, new phrasal verbs, proverbs and expressions. Lastly, the resource provided drills and practice for my students. This step is intended to reinforce the items the teacher has explained. The drills are in form of exercises, and there are also some exercises given to the students as part of their homework for them to apply what they have learned at school. The prosody elements that were presented were relevant and also comprehensible to young Saudi boys’ learners. The language used by the presenter is appropriate, realistic, easy and simple to understand by young learners of English. The video has used a monologue form of presentation where the presenter shows different words, pronounce and also explain some. Additionally, visual support have been provided to the leaner and these include; word spellings, visual objects, tables and the moving cursors that point and directs learners to objects and word for easy understanding.

This material by n.a (2014) gives by the students many opportunities to listen, to practice and also to get feedback. The audio part of the video is there for the students to listen and hear the words clearly and to comprehend. The students can also practice the words since the video can be rewinded and forwarded. The feedback part is left for the teacher since it has exercises for practice of the students. Lastly, the presentation of the video is made in a manner that is appropriate in pronunciation in a communicative manner.


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Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences

Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences

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