Organization and Behavior

Contents

Introduction. 3

LO 1 Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture. 4

1.1 Define and explain any three organizational structure and cultures. 4

1.2.1 Explain how an organization structure and culture can impact on the performance of a business. 5

1.2 Using an organization or example of your choice to illustrate your point 6

1.3 List and briefly discuss the factors which influence the behaviour of an individual at work. 6

LO 2 Understand different approaches to management and leadership. 7

2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles   in different organizations. 7

2.1.1 Compares the effectiveness of two different leadership styles using specific organizations of your choice. 8

2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management 9

2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations. 9

2.4 List and explain two functions of management. 10

2.5 Use an organization of your choice to illustrate the nature of managerial approaches used in an organization. 11

LO 3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations. 11

3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change. 11

3.2 Discuss the application of Maslow’s motivational theory within the workplace. 12

3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of motivation theories to Managers. 12

3.4 Apply suitable motivational theories in a workplace using two of the motivational theories. 13

     McGregor’s Theory X and Y.. 13

     Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene theory. 13

LO 4 Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations. 14

4.1  Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations. 14

4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in   organisations  15

4.2.1 Give examples by reference to a work group to which you currently or have previously belonged. 16

4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization. 16

Conclusion. 16

References. 17

 

Introduction

An organization is recognized as a group set up that pursues its own collective objectives and controls its own performance through rational synchronization and power (McClelland, 2005, p.13). The objective of an organization is to survive and to make profits. Efficient control is necessary to make sure that organization sources are utilized for profitability.

LO 1 Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture

Organizational framework symbolizes the requested for arrangement of options of control and power, relationships flow and responsibilities within an organization. The organization framework works a important part in determining how power goes within the organization, delegation of responsibilities, the series of control and options of relationships are organized.

1.1 Define and explain any three organizational structure and cultures

There are several types of organization components that determine the performance of organization features and way of way of life.

Tall structure: This symbolizes an organization framework that is categorized by many levels of control. This is common in large, complex companies where there are many managers; each with a small span of control. The high framework usually results in developing a part way of way of life in the workplace. This symbolizes an environment where each employee’s responsibilities and responsibilities are completely assigned.

Flat structure: This organization framework is categorized by few levels of control, each controlling a broad number of employees. This results in a framework that has very few center level supervisors and a short series of control. This framework focuses primarily on on empowering employees and enabling them enough freedom in performance of responsibilities. The smooth framework normally results in a task targeted organization way of way of life. This is a way of way of life that focuses primarily on growth of categories and collaborative units for performance of responsibilities and solving problems (McClelland, 2005, p.25).

Centralized and Decentralized: This is an organization framework that is categorized on the basis of levels of choice. A central framework reserves all choice power with top level supervisors. There is little delegation of power especially in critical areas such as preparing, analysis and procurement. This organization framework results in a power culture; which focuses primarily on the part of the person with power. The decentralized framework operates by enabling flexibility in choice through delegation of powers. The top control sets overall goals and targets for each division and leaves the way to the division.

1.2.1 Explain how an organization structure and culture can impact on the performance of a business.

There is an impressive link between organization framework and way of way of life as well as of a organization. The organization way of way of life is best described as a set of values, beliefs and activities that are shared among individuals who employment together. The power, control and relationships framework in an organization works a big part in shaping the way of way of life. Organization framework and societies have different impacts on the employee inspiration as well as.

Organizations that have a near knit, employee targeted way of way of life experience excellent levels of performance (McClelland, 2005, p.75). Studies have revealed that employees want to feel as part of an organization. They want their views to be identified and appreciated by top control and co-workers. However, the organization way of way of life may rely on the type of organization. Companies may allow different division to type their own way of way of life if it leads to enhanced performance.

1.2 Using an organization or example of your choice to illustrate your point

Apple Inc. is one of the best exemplifications that indeed display the near association between organization framework, way of way of life as well as. The apple organization is an American multinational that deals in production and sale of technology such as  cell phones, tablets, desktops and work laptops.

Apple Inc. is a well known example of a organization that embraces the awesome way of way of life in ideation, growth and creation of items. The organization produces top quality, sleek design items that appeal to excellent and center income consumers. The organization stratified into divisions for different purposes. The surroundings at the Apple Organization is very relaxed since the organization encourages creativity in performance. The company’s tag wide range for employees is ‘Think Different’. This tagline captures and reinforces the organization way of way of life and allows freedom of operate. All employees are greatly regarded and empowered to create options in their place of power.

The awesome way of way of life at the Apple Organization has led it to become one of the very best Fortune 100 the United States companies. From 2008 to 2012, the apple organization company organization company Inc. held the title of most admired organization on the world. It is the most traded group organization with a market capitalization of nearly seven hundred billion dollars.

1.3 List and briefly discuss the factors which influence the behaviour of an individual at work

The activities of employees are influenced by inner and external factors. External factors are influences that occur outside the organization but have direct impact on the workplace. Illustrations include; power design, co-workers, and the results of performance, technology and deal. Internal factors impact the employee from within e.g. inspiration. Employers need to see the relationship between these factors as well as of employees.

LO 2 Understand different approaches to management and leadership

2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles   in different organizations.

Leadership is best described as the process through which a leader inspires employees to employment their responsibilities willingly, competently and with enthusiasm. There are 3 main categories of power styles.

  1. Autocratic Style: In this technique, all power and choice power is vested with the leader. The system makes options and exercises control through benefits and costs. The technique needs conformity and subordination without questioning the options of the leader. While this technique ensures fast choice as well as in operate, employees may be dissatisfied due to their passive part in the organization.
  2. Democratic or participative style: This technique is developed to achieve efficient cooperation and involvement of employees in attaining organization goals. Employees employment a impressive part in components of suggestions and choice. This design does not relieve the leader off his choice part, but recognizes that employees can participate positively in choice. As such, it creates excellent emotions and inspiration among employees, but may result to slow and ineffective choice.
  3. Laissez Faire Style (Free Reign): This technique does not rely on control to provide inspiration or guidance. Successfully, the leader symbolizes the place of a group member. The overall goals are set and employees are left to achieve them using their own indicates. This increases employee freedom but the deficiency of impressive power may result in chaos.

2.1.1 Compares the effectiveness of two different leadership styles using specific organizations of your choice.

Autocratic power is best shown by CEO of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, Martha Stewart. Martha is a popular television personality and business magnate who has tasks in many options of organization including; television, electronic commerce, publishing and merchandising. She is known for her extremely demanding and meticulous design of power. Her organization has limited options of vertical relationships and power. The leader is keen with information and needs excellent levels of professionalism from all employees. Martha Stewart embodies the idea of benefits and costs to self-discipline deviant employees.

Democratic power design is embraced at Rabbit Inc. This is a UK-based digital engagement agency that styles and runs group public media campaigns for other companies. Rabbit Inc. has a transparency charter that explicitly outlines how organization stakeholders treat each other. The organization practices openness in all matters and encourages contributions of all stakeholders. This has in impact fast tracked the popularity as well as of this organization. The organization was launched four years ago but has risen quickly across the ranks to become one of the very best tasks in the group public media industry.

2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management

Understanding organization idea is important to the exercise of efficient control. Management revolves around preparing, preparing, leading and directing resources within a organization to achieve set goals. Organization ideas provide support to handling activities. These ideas have been tested and tried by supervisors from all over the world and proven to operate. Since control is a skill that can be learnt through imitation and observation, duplication of organization ideas may cause to enhanced performance in a organization.

2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations

Using the following methods to management;

  1. Scientific control approach: This is a control technique that centered on determining how best jobs could be organized to maximize employee performance. This system, developed by Fredrick Taylor, focuses primarily on one best technique of doing a job to increase performance. Taylor introduced the differential pay rate system that remunerates the most productive employees at higher costs. The main tenets of this idea include; allocating tasks to the best suited employees, medical education and growth of employees, and cordial relationships between supervisors and employees.
  2. Classical control approach: This idea was developed by Henry Fayol who believed that efficient control was not a personal trait, but rather skills that could be learned through formal training. According to Fayol, efficient control methods must embrace self-discipline, great deal based on performance, unity of direction, series of control, centralization, division of based on personal competencies, stability of tenure and a scalar series.

III.       Bureaucratic approach: This is an organization system that has limited rules to control the performance of responsibilities. Under this system, there is a requested for framework based on formal power. Division of is exercised and supervisors have apparent shops of control.

  1. Human relationships approach: This control technique focuses primarily on the relationships between supervisors and employees to create a feasible workplace. This technique is centered on developing a good workplace that boosts staff emotions as well as.
  2. Systems approach: This idea symbolizes that companies operate as part of a bigger sub-system. The notion of a system is most useful to supervisors who view their companies as a system. The inputs, raw materials, control and other components of the system integrate to receive views from the external environment which is designed up of clients, government and other stakeholders.
  3. Contingency approach: This technique stipulates that control activities differ based on the situation present at the time. What this means is that there is not a universally acceptable control design since activities rely on present circumstances.

2.4 List and explain two functions of management.

(a) Planning: This is identified as the process of determining the organization’s goals and deciding how to attain them. This involves efficient allocation of resources to departments and monitoring features to create sure that they are in wide range with the set goals. The plan is a blueprint that shows how the organization is developed to achieve its goals.

(b) Organizing: This symbolizes the process of grouping activities and resources in a logical manner. This is best achieved by drawing an organization chart which shows the series of control, allocation of responsibilities, employment flow, and relationships shops.

2.5 Use an organization of your choice to illustrate the nature of managerial approaches used in an organization.

The military is an example of organization that uses a limited, bureaucratic handling technique. The Commander in Chief is usually the leader of features and gives out purchases to officers below the series. Orders are followed completely and without question by employees. There is a limited wide range of control and relationships go vertically along a framework. Strict bureaucracy maintains order, allows synchronization and promotes performance of an organization.

LO 3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations

3.1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change.

Autocratic leadership: This power design vests all the choice power in the leader. This technique allows fast options which may improve organization performance. However, employees may resort to resistance where the options designed do not consider their passions (McClelland, 2005, p.67).

Democratic leadership: This is a power design that allows cooperation of both control and employees in components of suggestions and choice. The employees employment a proactive participatory part in the organization. This may cause to top quality of options, higher wide range of alternatives, creativity and acceptance of changes among employees (McClelland, 2005, p.68).

3.2 Discuss the application of Maslow’s motivational theory within the workplace.

Abraham Maslow (1970, p.34) developed a idea that classifies employee needs into five unique categories. These are; Physiological needs, Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem and Self-actualization. According to Marslow, these needs are arranged in a framework. For an employee to be pleased and get satisfaction at the work place, they must have their most basic needs (food, shelter and clothing) fulfilled. After attainment of one set of needs, a personal climbs the rung to the next set of needs. As a personal goes up the framework of needs, the motivators shift from external to inner factors.

Marslow (1970, p.35) states that this idea is important to supervisors who must learn to identify the motivating factors for different classes of employees. For instance, senior level employees are not motivated to employment to pay bills and buy food; instead, they look for recognition and appreciation from their co-workers. While the classes may sometimes overlap, supervisors who can correctly identify the resources of inspiration are better placed to motivate employees.

3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of motivation theories to Managers.

Motivation is one of the key facets of power. Managers are required to employment a key part in inspiration of employees to employment toward success of goals. Extremely motivated employees are likely to have low costs of turnover, absenteeism and can thus manage higher performance (McClelland, 2005, p.69).

 

3.4 Apply suitable motivational theories in a workplace using two of the motivational theories

·                     McGregor’s Theory X and Y

Theory X is based on the assumption that humans are lazy, they avoid responsibilities, are not awesome, prefer security and will therefore not look for power. This idea suggests that the lone method to motivate employees is by punishment and enforcing limited, authoritarian ideas in the workplace. What this means is that employees have to be directed with little leeway to think creatively.

Theory Y symbolizes the other of idea X. It symbolizes that employee’s look for employment, they are committed, self-motivated and awesome. Under the right circumstances, individuals will proactively look for power positions. Management under the Concept Y idea favors the democratic design of power. Personnel are given freedom to find their own methods to get the goals of the organization.

·   Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene theory

This is an external inspiration idea that posits that the manager is in control of factors that cause employee satisfaction or frustration. Herzberg found out that factors that cause satisfaction and frustration are not on reverse ends of the continuum. The factors that dissatisfies include; supervision, job security organization policy, salary, status, control, operating circumstances, and interpersonal relationships. Satisfiers include; success, growth, recognition, responsibility and growth.

According to Herzberg, the first step in employee inspiration is to eliminate dissatisfaction factors then improve satisfiers. This idea however fails to identify the different categories of employees and their different needs.

LO 4 Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations

4.1 Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations

Groups and categories are important part of organization components. Activities within an organization require synchronization through categories. For a manager to effectively motivate and control individuals in an organization, they must have knowledge of group dynamics.

Work categories are divided into; formal and informal categories. Formal categories are established by control for the success of particular goals. These categories are formal in the sense that they are provided with power and resources to conduct their responsibilities. Informal categories are employee centered and have no appointed leader. These categories mainly exist for transmission of information through the grapevine, for amusement and inter-social relationships.

Groups, both formal and informal, have a important part to employment in enhancing the performance of an organization. Managers have to be aware of how to technique the interactions in categories. It is important look at the intrinsic inspiration for growth of categories and factors that create relationships among affiliates (Jing, & Avery, 2008, p.134).

4.2 Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in   organisations

Organizations are designed up of categories that employment together to achieve common goals. Achieving a extremely impressive group is an indicator of excellent power. Managers employment to put together resources and individuals type diverse backgrounds to employment together. However, efficient group relationships are limited by several factors.

(a)        Lack of focus on objectives: For a group to employment efficiently, they must have unity of direction. Group affiliates must have a common vision and apparent knowing of what they will continue to employment toward.

(b)        Inter-group conflict: Disagreement among affiliates is a common feature of categories. Issue may arise due to multiple value resources, competition and interdependence.

(c)        Communication: Effective synchronization as well as in a group may be limited by deficiency of a apparent relationships channel. Flow of information within the group may be limited due to activities or deficiency of a apparent framework. Open relationships allows fast decision-making and reduces duplication of employment.

(d)       Compensation: Perform done as a group poses challenges in terms of agreement. Different affiliates provide different levels of views to the group, thus developing it hard to estimate each member’s output. A apparent agreement scheme should be drawn up before commencement of employment.

4.2.1 Give examples by reference to a work group to which you currently or have previously belonged.

Effective cooperation in employment categories is a challenge that faces many categories. For example, in school study discussions and group assignments, performance may be suffering from distractions and deficiency of unique power. Furthermore, since such categories are really informal, and based on trust and friendship, performance may be suffering from personal passions. Egos and personal traits also employment a important part in determining the performance and relationships of a group.

4.3 Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization

Technology symbolizes applications that ease the performance of responsibilities. The rapid growth of technologies in the place of information and relationships has had excellent impact on group relationships. The internet has provided tools such as instant messaging, email and chat that allow fast, reliable relationships over long distances. Telephones and cellular mobile cell mobile phones allow voice relationships with affiliates out of the workplace, on trips and out in the place. Tech companies have gone ahead to create groupware that allows categories to collaborate on tasks, plan meetings and communicate in a virtual environment from anywhere on the world. This has drastically increased the performance as well as of categories.

Conclusion

For an organization to operate, the supervisors must achieve a correct blend of inspiration and power. The manager must identify that the workers are the most essential part of organizational resource. Power over a group may be challenging, but results in higher performance and satisfaction of employees.

References

Cole G.A. 2008. Organizational Behaviour. New York: Irwin McGraw Hill

Dubrin, A., J. 2007. Leadership research findings, practice, and skills. 5th edition, Houghton Mifflin Company.

Jing, F.F. & Avery, G.C. 2008. Missing Links in Understanding the Relationship Between

Leadership and Organizational Performance. International Business & Economics Research Journal. Vol.7, No. 5.

Maslow, A. H. 1970.Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row

McClelland, D. C. 2005. Human Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman Pub.

Northouse, P., G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice. (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.