According to Emergency Management Institute (2003), emergency planning provides a definite plan to help in major emergencies. It provides guidance during emergency and help in discovering hazardous conditions that are unrecognized and would aggravate a situation. Therefore, the planning process highlight deficiencies such as inadequate resources like supplies, personnel and equipment. Additionally, emergency plan shows commitment of the organization to workers safety besides promoting safety awareness (Perry & Lindell, 2007).
Overall objective of emergency plan
The emergency plan outlines procedures for facing sudden unexpected situations. The objective is to minimize possible consequences by:
- Preventing injuries and fatalities.
- Reducing damage to equipment, stocks and building.
- Accelerating normal operations resumptions (Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1986).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) suggested that the potential environmental impacts and the community should be considered in the plan. Plan development begins with assessment of the vulnerabilities.
Emergencies are sudden events but prediction to their occurrence can be done with some certainty degree. The initial step is to find hazards that pose a threat. This can be gotten from occupational experiences and past incidents (Lescota & Westcott Communications, 1993).
Series of decisions and events that should be given consideration
According to Jourdan & California (1994), after identifying the hazards, the major events that are possible should then be itemized:
- Sequential events for instance fire explosion
- Plant infrastructure damage
- Loss of vital documents/records
- Work disruption
- Equipment damage
The required actions based on the events are determined. For instance:
- Sound the alert
- Declare emergency
- Close key shutoffs
- Start rescue operations, call for aid
- Fight fire.
- Attend to casualties (Handmer & Dovers, 2013).
Lastly, location of the resources needed should be considered:
- Auxiliary equipments for communication
- Medical supplies
- Power generators
- Mobile equipment
- Radiation and chemical detection equipment
- Firefighting equipment
- Protective Clothing
- Rescue equipment
- Trained personnel (Emergency Management Institute , 2003).
Elements of the emergency plan
According to Perry & Lindell (2007), the elements in the emergency plan include:
- All possible consequences, emergencies, written procedures, required actions and the available resources.
- Detailed personnel list including their responsibilities and duties, home telephone numbers.
- Floor plans.
- Large scale maps detailing service conduits and evacuation routes.
Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (1986) pointed out that the plan should give the staff written instructions on their emergency duties. The parts of the emergency plan include:
It is the purpose of the plan in brief; that is, to minimize property damage and human injury in an emergency. It further specifies the staffs who implement the plan.
An individual should be trained and appointed as coordinator of emergency. They are key in an emergency site to ensure efficient and prompt action to reduce loss. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) pointed out those specific responsibilities, duties, resources and authority must be defined clearly. Some of the assigned responsibilities include:
- Emergency reporting
- Emergency plan activation
- Assumption of overall command
- Communication establishment
- Alerting staff
- Evacuation order
- Alerting other external agencies
- Confirmation of evacuation completion
- Alerting the population outside of the possible risk
- External aid request
- Activities of various groups coordination
- Advising the casualties relatives
- Medical aid provision
- Closing of the emergency shut offs
- sounding the all clear
- Briefing the media
Where I researched the subject matter expert of law enforcement
In the internet on law enforcement and Subject Matter Experts
Chief William smith E. (ret)
His employer and his job title
Chief Smith is employed at Lake Worth, police department York FL. His job title is an Executive Subject Matter Expert (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
His qualification as a Subject Matter Expert
Chief Smith has a vast of experience and that qualifies him as an Executive Subject Matter Expert. In York Pennsylvanian and Lake Worth, Florida he has served as chief of police. In his 34 years career in law enforcement, he has experience as a chief for 16 years (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
On his educational qualifications, he has a Master of Science degree in Criminal Justice Administration/ Human Organization Science from Villanova University. Furthermore, he has Bachelor of Science degree from York college of PA in Police Science (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
Furthermore, smith is a graduate of the
- Criminal Justice Executive Institute of Law Enforcement Of Florida Department.
- FBI National Academy, 195th
- Leadership Program of University Of Virginia at the Weldon Cooper Institute for Public Service (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
Chief Smith has an extensive technical expertise, experience and education in the areas of:
- Organizational culture.
- Policy development.
- Sexual harassment prevention and policy.
- Accreditation by national and state.
- Performance evaluation.
- Labor relations.
- Grievances procedures.
- Collective bargaining.
- Criminal analysis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
As a subject matter expert, he strengthens assessment exercises and exams in the areas of
- Media relations
- Community policing
- Gang investigations
- Patrol operations
- All law enforcement management and supervision topics
- Tactical response to crisis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
Furthermore, Chief Williams instructional experience includes in- service training and police academy courses on different subjects both in Pennsylvania and Florida. Currently, he is certified by Training Commission and Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Standards of Florida Department as a Law Enforcement Officers Instructor and Police Officer in Pennsylvania State (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).
Lessons learned from research on realm of law enforcement
The careers in law enforcement are highlighted by adventures and ventures. To become an expert, it takes persistence, money, time of more than just being merely a police officer. Generally, an expert is defined as an individual with more knowledge than an average person (Gray, 2010). Oklahoma (2007) asserts that a position of law enforcement does not in all areas guarantee expertise. Bejar (1981) suggested that an expert should always be ready to provide a statement of qualification, resume and information on all certificates and degrees.
According to Ohio State University., & Hamilton (1977), for one to increase or maintain skills in a certain area to become a Subject Matter Expert, he /she should enroll in appropriate seminars and trainings, write scholarly articles, present at conferences to give the resume a depth. On the other hand, the trickier is the Statement of Qualifications in which the expert clearly articulates the reasons they possess the expertise to come up with opinions in a court of law. To expand ones expertise, one should investigate and learn everything currently important in the enforcement of law. This can be done by attending conferences, reviewing periodicals, watching podcasts (McCain & American Society for Training and Development, 1999).
Similarly, one can join a professional associations as well as finding a mentor. Mentors can be found in a professional association, ones structure of work, seminar, training and in graduate or college-level educational experience. On can gain experience by offering assistance to the mentor who may have a large project. Furthermore, they provide support; career advice and assist in making one becomes a recognized expert (Smiderle, 1993).
Emergency Management Institute (U.S.). (2003). Emergency planning. Emmitsburg, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute.
Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (2007). Emergency planning. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Wuorinen, V., & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (1986). Emergency planning. Hamilton, Ont: Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), United States., & McKing Consulting Corp. (2008). A framework for improving cross-sector coordination for emergency preparedness and response: Action steps for public health, law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance.
Lescota, J., & Westcott Communications. (1993). Emergency preparedness & law enforcement. Carrollton, Tex.: Westcott Communications.
Jourdan, K. R., & California. (1994). Law enforcement guide for emergency operations planning. Sacramento, Calif: Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, Law Enforcement Division.
Handmer, J. W., & Dovers, S. (2013). Handbook of disaster policies and institutions: Improving emergency management and climate change adaptation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge/Earthscan.
Batten, D., & Gale Group. (2011). Gale encyclopedia of American law. Detroit, Mich: Gale.
Gray, W. (2010). Business change: The roles of change agents and subject matter experts in organization change and much more– : 101 world class expert facts, hints, tips and advice on change management. S.l: Emereo Pty Ltd.
Oklahoma. (2007). What are subject matter experts?. Oklahoma City: Dept. of Human Services.
Bejar, I. I. (1981). Subject matter experts’ assessment of item statistics. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Ohio State University., & Hamilton, J. B. (1977). Use subject matter experts to present information. Athens, Ga: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials.
McCain, D. V., & American Society for Training and Development. (1999). Creating training courses when you’re not a trainer: Quick course design, development, and delivery for subject matter experts, managers, and other nontrainers. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development.
Smiderle, D. (1993). The impact of discretion on rating differences among subject matter experts. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada.
Sullivan, L. E. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.