Embarking on the journey of scholarly research often requires a keen understanding of proper citation and referencing. In the realm of academia, adhering to the guidelines of the APA Bibliography Writing 7th Edition is of paramount importance. This comprehensive guide delves into the intricacies of crafting accurate in-text and reference list citations, providing invaluable insights for researchers, students, and writers alike. Navigating the evolving landscape of citation formats, this article equips you with the tools to master the art of APA Bibliography Writing, ensuring your work stands as a testament to meticulous scholarship and adherence to academic standards.
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Core Components of an APA Bibliography/Reference:
1. APA Bibliography Basics: Reference List
APA references follow specific conventions that distinguish them from other styles. There are many examples in the Publication Manual, but here is the most common one:
- Author’s last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page number range.
APA references must have the following:
- Author name(s)
- Publication year
- Article title (or chapter, conference paper, patent, etc.)
- Title of journal (or book etc.)
- Volume and issue number (if applicable)
- Page number
The article’s title is not boldfaced or underlined in APA bibliography style.
If a source has two authors, both authors’ names are included in the reference list entry. If there are more than two authors for a source, include all authors’ names in the citation or list the first author followed by “et al.”
You must include a retrieval date if you reference an article from a news source (e.g., CNN, NBC, Washington Post) or a site that may experience continuous updates.
Be on a new page at the end of the document
Be alphabetized by the name of the first Author
Contain full references for all in-text references used.
You can use an APA citation generator software like the Scribbr APA Citation Generator to simplify your work. We are not associated with them but believe they are credible websites that can generate accurate references.
2. APA Bibliography Basics: In-Text Citation
In-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to document your information’s source type briefly. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the reference list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the last name of the Author followed by a date. In addition, they also point to specific pages where the information was taken from, if applicable.
APA style uses the author-date system for citing references in the text of your paper. Each reference cited in the text must have a corresponding entry in the reference list.
The in-text citation includes the Author’s last name, year of publication, and, if applicable, page number, separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses.
For example; (Smith, 2019, p. 12)…or Smith (2017) states
When quoting another author’s work, place quotation marks around the quoted section and add a corresponding reference at the end of the paper.
APA bibliography style uses the author/date method of citation in which the Author’s last name and the year of the publication are inserted in the actual text of the paper.
Within your text, you will cite Joiner and Katz (1999) as follows:
Joiner and Katz (1999) have shown that
If the Author’s names are in parentheses, place the “and” inside the parentheses.
(Joiner & Katz, 1999)
Three, Four, or Five Authors:
When citing three to five authors, please list all the authors the first time you cite them. In subsequent citations, use the first Author’s name followed by “et al.” (Jones et al., 2019).
When no author is listed for a work, start the citation with the work’s title instead. Italicize or underline titles of books and reports; put quotation marks around titles of articles in journals and magazines.
For example: (“Effects of Grear Depression to Asia,” 2017).
Citing Authors With Multiple Works From One Year:
When an author writes multiple articles in the same year, place a lowercase letter after the year. These lowercase letters are assigned within the reference list, sorted alphabetically by the first Author’s surname.
In-text citation example:
(Smith, 2008a) or
Smith (2008a) found . . .
Reference list example:
Smith, J. (2008a). Title of the first article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp.
Smith, J. (2008b). Title of the second article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp.
Citing Multiple Works in One Parenthesis:
When multiple track sources provide evidence for a single claim or information, all sources must be cited. The parenthetical citation is placed at the end of the relevant information and includes a comma separating each component (Author’s last name and publication date).
If two authors have different surnames, include both, separated by an ampersand (&). If there are three or more authors, include only the first Author’s name followed by et al.
To cite multiple sources in one parenthetical reference, list sources alphabetically by title within parentheses and separate each citation with a semicolon:
Studies have shown eating chocolate can alter mood (Brown, 1995; Cox, 1999; Smith, 1999).
Two recent examples of this trend include studies by Liou et al. (2007) and Liu & Chen (2008).
Citing a Group or Organisation:
Use this format when citing a work authored by an organization or group. Use an abbreviated version of their name if it has been used in your text previously. For example:
First cite: (International Citation Association, 2015)
Further Cites: (Citation Association, 2015)
Citing a Secondary Source:
Use secondary sources sparingly; you should usually try to locate the source of information cited in a work you have read. If you use a source type cited in another source, name the source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your basic reference list and include the secondary source in parentheses.
In this situation, the original Author and date should be stated first, followed by ‘as cited in’ followed by the Author and date of the secondary source. For example:
Lorde (1980) as cited in Mitchell (2017) Or (Lorde, 1980, as cited in Mitchell, 2017)
3. How to Cite Different Types of Sources
This guide provides basic information on how to cite sources and examples for formatting citations in common citation styles. Books have a certain format; websites have a different format; periodicals have a different format; and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re citing or referencing.
How to Cite a Book (Title, not Chapter) in APA Bibliography Format
The basic structure of a book reference should include the Author’s last name, comma, and publication date in parenthesis at the end of the sentence where information from the book was used. For example, if you wanted to cite a passage that read “The dog lay panting at its master’s feet,” you would write (Smith, 2013) after the sentence in your paper.
Include all publication details in the reference section of your essay following APA guidelines. In this case, your reference would look like this:
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of Book: Subtitle if applicable. Publisher City, State: Publisher.
Book referencing example:
Smith, J. M. (2013). The dog and its master: A biography of loyalty and devotion. New York: Random House Publishing Group.
How to Cite an Edited Book in APA Format
Note that we use “Ed” if there is only one editor and “Eds” if there are multiple editors.
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of Book: Subtitle if applicable. Publisher City, State: Publisher.
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of Book: Subtitle if applicable. Publisher City, State: Publisher.
Edited book example:
Smith, G. (Ed.). (2005). Sociology: A concise Canadian introduction (3rd ed.). Toronto, ON: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
How to Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book in APA Format
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Chapter title or other parts of the title within the edited book. In the First initial., Last name (Ed.), edited book title: Subtitle if applicable (pp.
Edited book chapter example:
In the following example, Gee, J. P., Hull, G., & Lankshear, C. are the chapter’s authors, and S. R. Steinberg & K. Kincheloe are the editors.
Gee, J. P., Hull, G., & Lankshear, C. (1996). The new work order: Behind the language of the new capitalism. In S. R. Steinberg & K. Kincheloe (Eds.), Kinderculture: The corporate construction of childhood (pp. 10-32). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
How to Cite an E-Book in APA Format
As a general rule, cite the version of the e-book you read. If you read the Kindle or EPUB version of a book on your tablet or smartphone, cite that version. If you read it in your browser, cite that version.*
E-books and e-book chapters follow slightly different formats, but it is still important to include as much information as possible when citing these sources. The following example shows how an e-book citation appears in APA bibliography format:
Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle (Version) [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Barrows, C., & Powers, B. M. (2010). How to design and evaluate education research (8th ed.) [Kindle version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
How to Cite an E-Book Chapter in APA Format
If you cite one chapter from an edited book written by one Author, use the following format:*
Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title [E-reader version]. In Editor’s first name and editor’s last name (Eds.), Book title (pp. Page number). Publisher City, State: Publisher.*
If the work is not divided into numbered chapters, use “n.p.” for the page number.*
How to Cite a Journal Article in Print or Online in APA Format
APA format for articles from online journals is similar to citing print versions with a few exceptions.*
Author’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title.* Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page number range.* doi
Articles differ from book citations because the publisher and location are not included. These are replaced with the journal article title, volume, issue, and page numbers.
Journal Article Examples:
Mitchell, J.A. (2017). Citation: Why is it so important? Mendeley Journal, 67(2), 81-95
How to Cite a Newspaper Articles in Print or Online in APA Format
To cite a newspaper article in APA bibliography format, write the Author’s name and date of publication separated by a comma, then write the title of the article followed by its original publication date within square brackets and a period in the end. Finally, write “Retrieved from” followed by a website address or URL directly linking to that article from your list of references.
Author, A. (year, month, date of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, page number.
Note: If the issue number is not provided, omit it from the citation.
Online Newspaper Article
Author, A. (year, month, date of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
How to Cite Magazine Articles in Print or Online in APA Format
To cite a magazine article in print, use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Name, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.
Magazine Article Example:
Barrus, J. (2014, March 18). Scientists have no idea how to stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Popular Science, 284(3), 36-41.
Citing a magazine article online
To cite a magazine article online, use the following structure:
Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title [Format description]. Magazine Name. Retrieved from URL
Magazine Article Example
Barrus, J. (2014, March 18). Scientists have no idea how to stop the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria [Web log post]. Popular Science. Retrieved from https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2014/02/stop-spread-superbugs
How to Cite Non-Print Material in APA Format
How to Cite an Image in APA Format
The APA bibliography format allows you to cite images you find in books, articles, or sources on the Internet.
Citing an image in APA format is similar to citing a website or a book. The only difference here is that you must cite the artist’s name, the date when it was created, and the location where you found it.
Here’s how to cite an image:
Image Found in a Book
Title of book (italicized). (Year of publication). City of publication: Publisher name. -*-
Example: The Art of the Renaissance (5th ed.). (1998). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Include an Image Found Online
Author’s last name, first initial., & Author’s last name, first initial. (Year). Title of photograph [Format]. Website title. Retrieved from *-
How to Cite a Film in APA Format
When citing films, videos, or DVDs in your paper, place an in-text citation after any information you borrow from the film. Begin your citation with the director’s name and place the year of release within parentheses. Follow with a period and then note the medium of publication (either VHS [for video] or DVD) within square brackets. The element that ends your sentence should appear immediately before the closing punctuation mark. For example:
In their study of male-female communication patterns, Eckert and McConnell-Ginet (2003) found that men interrupted more often than women. [Film]. (Producers), & DiCillo, T. (Director). (2003).
Spielberg, S. (Producer), & Lucas, G. (Director). (1977). Star Wars [Motion picture]. United States: 20th Century Fox Film Corporation.
How to Cite a TV Programme in APA Format
APA style has specific guidelines for citing films, TV shows, radio broadcasts, and other media. Use the following template to cite a tv program using the official APA style guide.
Writer surname, initial(s) (Writer), & Director surname, initial(s) (Director). (Year of Release). Episode title [Television series episode]. In Executive producer surname, initial(s) (Executive Producer), TV series name. City, State of original channel: Network, Studio, or Distributor
TV Programme Example:
Catlin, M., and Walley-Beckett, Moire (Writers), & Johnson, R (Director). (2010). Fly [Television series episode]. In Schnauz, T. (Executive Producer). Breaking bad. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Television
How to Cite a Song in APA Format
Here is how you cite a song in APA bibliography format:
Songwriter, L. L. (Year). Song title [Recorded by F. F. Artist if different from writer]. On Album name [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.). City, State abbreviation or country of publisher: Publisher name. Example: Madonna. (1991). Crazy for you [Recorded by Madonna]. On I’m breathless [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Sire Records.
Beyonce, Diplo, MNEK, Koenig, E., Haynie, E., Tillman, J., and Rhoden, S.M. (2016) Hold up [Recorded by Beyonce]. On Lemonade [visual album]. New York, NY: Parkwood Records (August 16)
How to Cite a Website in APA Format
Citing a general website article with an author:
Author, F. M. (Year, Month, Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL
Citing a website with no author:
Title of article. (Year, Month, Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL
Mitchell, J.A. (2017, May 21). How and when to reference. Retrieved from https://www.eatsa-researches.org