Possible Selves Psychology

Self-concept is an individual’s theory about oneself. That is the person an individual was in the past, is current, and can possibly be in the future including group memberships and social roles (Dunkel & Kerpelman, 2006). Self concept that is well functioning helps an individual to make sense of the present, assists in positive self feelings preservations, predict the future, and also helps in motivation guidance. According to Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006), the future oriented contents of self concept component have been named possible selves. Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) explained that possible selves are what an individual believes he/she might become in a more distal or near future, and therefore significant in motivation and goal setting.

King  & Kitchener (1994) pointed out that reflective judgment theories describes reasoning development from adolescents to adulthood. It describes epistemic assumptions changes, and how they affect the development of reflective and critical thinking skills, and other related constructs in adults and young adults, particularly college students. Reflective judgment theory is characterized by seven developmentally related but distinct sets of assumptions about the knowing process, and how it is acquired.  The seven stages are broadly summarized into three levels;

  1. Pre-reflective reasoning– the belief that knowledge is gotten from a figure in authority, or through firsthand observation. The people holding these assumptions have a belief that whatever they know is totally correct. It is from stage one to three
  2. Quasi-reflective reasoning– these people recognizes that knowledge contains uncertainty elements, which they attribute to some information missing, or to the methods of getting the evidence. It is from stage four to five
  3. Reflective reasoning– the people holding these assumptions accept that knowledge cannot have certainty. However, they are bound by it and make judgment which they are certain relatively ad most reasonable based on their available data evaluation. It is from stages six to seven (King & Kitchener, 1994).

Application of the theories in encouraging a student who dismisses the value of education

As Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) asserted, possible selves’ theory focuses on the future and allows for malleability, self improvement and personal growth. Because possible selves according to Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) provide both positive images of an individual’s self attaining of the future goals and the negative images of an individual self failing to realize the goals. The student can be encouraged to focus on the future, because through possible selves he will improve his well being and be optimistic about the future. The student may be dismissing the education value now, an indication that may be things are not going well at current, but a promise of change is suggested by possible self. Through possible self, the student can improve his ability to self regulate and to self control because it will help him focus on his future goals and reduce the distractions that influence him to dismiss education value at now. The student should also adopt school focused possible selves to have success in his academic attainment including his immediate ones such as passing his end term exams.

Certainly the student may be at the pre-reflective thinking stage of the reflective judgment model. The student may be pessimistic about education simply because he has not focused on what to be in future, or he has not analyzed the available evidence of the value of education. Therefore, the student should focus and think reflectively. He should seek knowledge from different sources, evaluate the evidence available across broad contexts and also seek the opinion of reputable people. Lastly, the student should compare his beliefs and compare the available evidence and opinions across different contexts and he will change his perception of the value of education (King & Kitchener, 1994).








Dunkel, C., & Kerpelman, J. (2006). Possible selves: Theory, research and applications. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.




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Portland fire and rescue station

Fire Service Administration                        

Portland fire and rescue station

Portland fire and rescue station (PF&R) is the largest emergency and fire service provider in Oregon. It delivers in 30 fire stations emergency response services which are located strategically in Portland city. Moreover, each station has a responsibility for particular city parts referred to as fire management area. However, the stations do support each other to ensure operational emergency readiness 24 hours (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

The PF&F organization has a mandate within its legal boundaries; this includes also the contract services to provide fire, special responses and emergency medical to a wide area in approximation 151.6 square miles with an estimated population of 583,830 residents (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

Analysis of consequences of collective bargaining to union membership and the management team

PF&F where I work is a union organization. I believe it is a union because the workers have welfare where they can voice their grievances. Furthermore, the workers have a union where their representatives negotiate with the management on behalf of the workers. Chamberlain et al (67) defines Collective bargaining is a negotiation process between the representatives of the union and the management with main purpose to arrive at mutually accepted working conditions and wages for employees. Different methods can be applied in the process of bargaining but the outcome desired is usually mutual acceptance by management and labor of a collective bargaining agreement.

Successful positive relationship between the labor and the management should dialogue for better terms for the workers. Furthermore, there should be goodwill between the management and the labor and full commitment to implementation of the negotiation outcomes (Grant et al, 245).

Collective bargaining helps the members to voice their grievances to the management and prevents victimization of the employees. Furthermore, to the management, it helps them communicate to the employees generally, include them in management, emend decisions through their representatives.

According to Morris (167), collective bargaining can reduce production in the company if the negotiation is not productive. Furthermore, it can lead to chaos in the organization if the workers are not organized and are rowdy.

Determination of the applicability of the principled negotiations and the identification of steps for the attributes to be in place for principled negotiation to work in PF&F

As one of the workers of PF&F, I believe principled negotiations will work for the company. The company has been using positional negotiation. According to Herrick et al (208), positional negotiation operates on the basis of trying to get the other side to agree and accept your view point while principled negotiation always starts from assumption that all the sides have things they desire to accomplish and finding a solution that can help all the sides in achieving their goals is possible.

I believe the following steps can be applied by the workers and the coworkers in PF&F to help the organization apply different attributes and work with the principled negotiations:

  • Interests

Understanding by both negotiating sides that they have some differing interest is the first step in a principled negotiation. This is also the main reason why the both parties are on the table negotiating. Understanding what the negotiating groups want will help the union use the knowledge to realize the desired outcome (Chamberlain, 84).

  • Options

Although the negotiating groups have their own solutions they prefer, there exist different outcomes that can work for both sides. It is imperative for both sides to find as many as possible and to determine the best. Grant et al (246) adds that examining them from the other perspective to determine their suitability is advisable. Furthermore, creativity helps in finding other negotiation options.

  • Alternatives

The unions of the PF&F should always go for negotiations with plan B. Having plan B enables unions negotiate from a greater strength position because they are able to make comparison to any negotiated solution to the plan and leave the negotiation if it is not better.

  • Legitimacy

Success in any negotiation depends largely on the group’s ability to persuade the other group to see the issue their way. This can be done is having a legitimate standards that the labor union can use to show the management that they are being reasonable. The PF&F labor union can prepare these standards before going for a negotiation to them persuasive ammunition (Morris et al, 317).

  • Communication

The labor union of PF&F should learn the skills of communicating with the management. These include how the representatives talk, to use of slides and notes. Moreover, they should engage in active demonstration of listening (Herrick et al, 186).

  • Relationship

It is good for the company’s labor union to engage in principles, reasonable negotiation that will help maintain a good relationship with the management. As Chamberlain (96) explains, when the strength of this relationship grows, the union will be able to negotiate with the management based on goodwill that has been in existence.

  • Commitment

According to Grant et al (220) a successful negotiation ends with all the sides pledging a commitment to act on the settlement negotiated. Moreover, commitment is significant throughout the negotiation process and commences with commitment to willingly negotiate. Morris et al (287) suggests that  as the management and the labor union  work to commit to place and time of negotiation, the manner and who to do what in the negotiation , they create towards final settlement a positive momentum.

Communication network

PF&F has a network of five fire stations in Oregon. The fire stations are found in Old Town, Parkrose, Northwest Pearl District, Portland state university and Hillsdale. Furthermore, it has a volunteer organization (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

PF&F furthermore has a strong network of communication. The organization has gateway senses and wireless networks and seamless switch networks that provide reliable mobile communications. The gateway has created mobile hot spots that enable variety of devices around and in the vehicle to seamlessly connect. The city of Portland Oregon (5) expounds that that the gateway reduces cost of communication as it allows multiple data devices in an accident scene and vehicle to share single connection of a network. It also provides 911 to be called during emergency.

PF&F Company can use non emergency communication that can improve performance of the company. First of all, the company should adopt notification for the community of Portland. This free notification service can update the community of the organizations improvements and teach the community safety tips. Secondly, the organization can alert people through cell phones, email, text messages and landline phones such as VoIP. However, the residents of Port Lands need first to register their contacts into the system. Thirdly, the organization can organize forums for the community where they exchange and interact (Herrick et al, 298).

Concepts to improve the performance of the personnel manager

In my supervisory role as a personnel manager in the fire station, I have learnt different concepts that believe will help me improve my performance. The first concept is setting and communicating clearly standards of performance and expectations. Doing observation and providing the feedback and doing appraisals .this will enable the personnel manager to achieve excellent results by managing the employees (Chamberlain, 89).

Secondly, in beginning the process, the manager and the employee should collaborate on performance standard development. The manager should develop a comprehensive performance plan that directs efforts of employees towards achievement of specific results, to support growth of organization in addition to professional growth of the employees (Grant et al, 263).

Thirdly, another concept for performance improvement is discussion of objectives and goals for the whole year, provision of framework to enable the employees get results through mutual feedback and coaching (Morris et al, 215).

The fourth concept is appreciating the performance of the employees at the end of the period of rating. The appraising should be done against existing standards. Furthermore, new goals should be established together to be used in the next rating period. At this level is also important for the personnel manager to interact with the employees (Herrick et al, 276).


Work cited

Chamberlain, Neil W, and James W. Kuhn. Collective Bargaining. New York: McGraw-Hill,      1965. Print.

Grant, Nancy K, and David H. Hoover. Fire Service Administration. Quincy, Mass: National       Fire Protection Association, 1994. Print.

Morris, Richard B. Labor and Management. New York: New York times, 1973. Print.

Herrick, Neal Q. Joint Management and Employee Participation: Labor and Management at the Crossroads. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990. Print.

The city of Portland Oregon: Fire and Rescue: always ready always there. Oregon 2013.



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Globalization Case study

Executive summary

The essay has discussed the background information about India where it has elaborated on her demographic information, economic status, legal systems and political status. Furthermore, some of the reasons why India is suitable for investing have been discussed. Furthermore, the essay has reviewed the political economy of India, which is the legal, economic and political systems and critically discussed India’s attractiveness for foreign direct investment. Political economy has analyzed the benefits, risks and costs of the legal, economic and political systems before giving some recommendations.












Table of Contents

  1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..4
  2. Political Economy Analysis……………………………………………………..4

2.1 Political systems…………………………………………………….5

2.2 Economic systems…………………………………………………..6

2.3 Legal systems……………………………………………………….7

  1. Recommendations……………………………………………………………….8
  2. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………8
  3. References………………………………………………………………………10










India is situated in Asia and is the seventh largest country globally by area. Moreover, there are more than 1.2 billion people in India which makes it the second country that is most populous. The economy of India is ranked at eleventh largest globally by nominal GDP (Demography of India: Part 1, 1998). Furthermore, by purchasing power parity, it is the third largest. The Indian society is multi ethic, multi lingual and pluralist. The Indian republic is governed by federal constitution under a parliamentary system of 28 states (MacDonald, 2009). India is a good investment site because of the maximum benefits, minimal costs and risks in her economy. Furthermore, the country balances her political, economical and legal factors well making it conducive for business. The essay will analyze the political economy of India by comparing the political, legal and economic systems of India. Moreover, it will give recommendations and finally conclude with critical discussion of factors that make India attractive for foreign direct investment.


Political Economy Analysis

Political economy is the use of how the economic methods and theory influences the political ideology. It is the interplay between politics, law, economics and how different institutions develop in different economic and social systems, such as communism, socialism and capitalism (Mill & Ashley, 2005).Furthermore, it analyzes how the public policies are created and implemented. Walker (2008) pointed out that since different groups and individuals have different interest in the manner an economy or a country should be developed, political economy covers a broad spectrum of competing interest. Moreover, it involves application of game theory, since competing groups for power and finite resources must decide the course of action will produce the most beneficial outcome.

The significance of using political economy in analyzing India is to evaluate worthiness of India as an investment destination for international businesses and investors.

2.1 Political System


Citizens of India are often mobilized in social groups; that are religion, community or caste, during election times to give them collective electoral power (Lee-Warner, 2006). Moreover, until now, subordinate social groups have emerged to be politically relevant at the state level. This is a welcomed expansion of political democracy and equality in India.


The Indian society is heterogeneous leading to the “collective action” problem. This hampers decisions and actions that need to be taken collectively. Furthermore, the proliferation of regional and small parties in the coalition government have meant catering for particularistic demands, this overrides coordination of the long term goals in the country (Guha & Raghuraman, 2007). Additionally, vital economic issues in India do not get salience in mobilization of the electorate, and this poses as a risk.


According to Vidyarthi (1997), in India it is difficult and costly to agree on a goal, coordinate and get actions done to achieve a goal because the population is heterogeneous. Moreover, it is costly to the country when specific leaders perceived to be upholding the dignity of a marginalized caste group may be reelected even if their policies has resulted to negative implications to the country.

2.2 Economic System


One of the benefits of economic system in India is that businessmen, professionals and salary earners constitute the heads of approximately 22% of households (McClellan, 2010).This is a significant percentage that drives the Indian economy. Furthermore, according to Ghosh (2013), the economy of India is liberated but the government controls assets, production and employment in the majority of the non-agricultural organized sectors.



One of the risks of the economic system of India is unequal wealth distribution. The regional governments are also increasingly becoming fiscal dependent on central government (Banerjee, 2004). The increased regional competition and economic liberalization has increased the disparity between backward and economically advanced states


Poor infrastructure has hindered economic growth in India and this is costly to the Indian economy. Moreover, substantial investment in public infrastructure takes a long time to fructify (Singh et al, 1998). Another cost to the economic system of India is that some regional governments are catering for different particularistic demands from different parties. This makes them to be near fiscal bankrupt (Ghosh, 2013).

2.3 Legal System


One of the benefits of legal systems in India is the fragmentation of the states gives the central state more autonomy. The state over the years has accumulated great power in direct regulation and ownership of the economy. Moreover, India has been powerful in its interventionist and regulatory role (Bhansali, 1992).

Another benefit is the decentralization and federalism of the resources which has made the government more responsive to the needs of the local. Moreover, the 73rd and the subsequent 74th amendment of the constitution in the early 1990s gave some potency to decentralization movement below the state level, up to the gram panchayats (Pandey, 1993)


One potential risk of the legal systems in India is the astute political leadership of the country which can play off the groups against each other and earn special privileges and powers. Moreover, there are tradeoffs between accountability and credibility in state affairs which is risky


The fragmentation of different groups in India with each group pulling in different direction means that the state policies are buffeted around and the economic reforms are halted and hesitated (Bhansali, 1992). This is costly to the country. Moreover, inequality and heterogeneity in India has made it difficult and costly in coordinating long term policies.

Major Indian states are large and the governments are distant from the local people. Furthermore, few administrative functions and fewer independent finance sources have been decentralized to the local governments, making the legal systems costly.




  1. The state government should reorient its functions away from control and ownership of business enterprises towards more on social basic services, education and health for the poor.
  2. As much as the state is the major financier of these services, it should contract private-public partnerships or the private sectors to provide some services. It should not be managed bureaucratically.
  3. Political awareness and land reforms in the states should enhanced to prevent capture and control of the local governments by oligarchic local elites
  4. The regional governments should also be made to be more responsible fiscally and accountable at the panchayat level. This will deepen democracy and weaken local oligarchy powers, expand education and devolve finances
  5. Regular auditing and making media and local NGO’s as local governments watchdogs will also eradicate corruption


The country’s overall attractiveness as a potential investment or potential market site for an international business largely depends on how the country balances the benefits, risks and costs that are associated with doing business in that particular country (Rajan, 2009).  India is attractive and is a good investment and market site. The overall attractiveness of India as direct foreign investments is because of her three key pillars; the benefits, costs and risks of the country.

Kobayashi-Hillary (2005) indicated that the long term monetary benefits of the international businesses in doing business in India make the country attractive. This is because of her large market size, her purchasing power which reflected the wealth of the consumers, and the future consumer’s wealth.

Cost wise, there are number of legal, economic and political factors that determine the running costs of doing business in India. India is politically stable, has a vibrant and improving economy, and has infrastructures and other supporting businesses. This makes India attractive as an investment destination cost wise. For the legal factors, India has local regulations and laws that liberalize the market. There are no strict standards for businesses and in protecting the intellectual property rights (Nagesh et al, 1998).

Risk wise, India has stable political, legal and economic factors that minimize risks of doing businesses. According to Acharya (1998), there are minimal political forces that can cause drastic changes in the business environment of the country and affect adversely the profits of the international investors. Furthermore, India has a growing business environment that cannot hurt the goals and profits of an international business enterprise. The legal factors are also stable to protect firms from stealing intellectual property rights and breaking of contracts.



Acharya, S. (1998). Investing in India. Basingstoke: Macmillan Business.

Banerjee, K. (2004). Regional political parties in India. Delhi: B.R. Pub. Corp.

Bhansali, S. R. (1992). Legal system in India. Jaipur, India: University Book House.

Demography of India: Part 1. (1998). New Delhi: Library of Congress Office.

Ghosh, M. (2013). Liberalization, growth and regional disparities in India. New Delhi: Springer India.

Guha, T. P., & Raghuraman, S. (2007). Divided we stand: India in a time of coalitions. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Kobayashi-Hillary, M. (2005). Outsourcing to India: The Offshore Advantage. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lee-Warner, W. (2006). The citizen of India. London: Macmillan.

MacDonald, J. R. (2009). The government of India. New York: Huebsch.

McClellan, G. S. (2010). India. New York: Wilson.

Mill, J. S., & Ashley, W. J. (2005). Principles of political economy: With some of their applications to social philosophy. New York: A. M. Kelley, bookseller.

Nagesh, K., & Centre for International Management and Development Antwerp. (1998). Liberalization and changing patterns of foreign direct investment: Has India’s relative attractiveness as a host of FDI improved?. Antwerp: CIMDA, University of Antwerp.

Pandey, J. N. (1993). Constitutional law of India: Incorporating the Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika Constitution 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts, 1992. Allahabad: Central Law Agency.

Rajan, R. S. (2009). Monetary, investment, and trade issues in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. P., & National Institute of Management Technology. (1998). Infrastructure in India. Ghaziabad: National Institute of Management Technology in association with Excel Books, New Delhi.

Vidyarthi, L. P., & All India Seminar on Tribal and Rural Leadership in India. (1997). Leadership in India. Bombay: Asia Pub. House.

Walker, F. A. (2008). Political economy. New York: Henry Holt and Co.



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Emergency Planning

Emergency planning

According to Emergency Management Institute (2003), emergency planning provides a definite plan to help in major emergencies. It provides guidance during emergency and help in discovering hazardous conditions that are unrecognized and would aggravate a situation. Therefore, the planning process highlight deficiencies such as inadequate resources like supplies, personnel and equipment. Additionally, emergency plan shows commitment of the organization to workers safety besides promoting safety awareness (Perry & Lindell, 2007).

Overall objective of emergency plan

The emergency plan outlines procedures for facing sudden unexpected situations. The objective is to minimize possible consequences by:

  • Preventing injuries and fatalities.
  • Reducing damage to equipment, stocks and building.
  • Accelerating normal operations resumptions (Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1986).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) suggested that the potential environmental impacts and the community should be considered in the plan. Plan development begins with assessment of the vulnerabilities.

Vulnerability Assessment

Emergencies are sudden events but prediction to their occurrence can be done with some certainty degree. The initial step is to find hazards that pose a threat. This can be gotten from occupational experiences and past incidents (Lescota & Westcott Communications, 1993).

Series of decisions and events that should be given consideration

According to Jourdan & California (1994), after identifying the hazards, the major events that are possible should then be itemized:

  • Evacuations
  • Sequential events for instance fire explosion
  • Causalities
  • Plant infrastructure damage
  • Loss of vital documents/records
  • Work disruption
  • Equipment damage

The required actions based on the events are determined. For instance:

  • Sound the alert
  • Declare emergency
  • Close key shutoffs
  • Evacuate
  • Start rescue operations, call for aid
  • Fight fire.
  • Attend to casualties (Handmer & Dovers, 2013).

Lastly, location of the resources needed should be considered:

  • Auxiliary equipments for communication
  • Medical supplies
  • Respirators
  • Power generators
  • Mobile equipment
  • Radiation and chemical detection equipment
  • Firefighting equipment
  • Protective Clothing
  • Rescue equipment
  • Ambulance
  • Trained personnel (Emergency Management Institute , 2003).

Elements of the emergency plan

According to Perry & Lindell  (2007), the elements in the emergency plan include:

  • All possible consequences, emergencies, written procedures, required actions and the available resources.
  • Detailed personnel list including their responsibilities and duties, home telephone numbers.
  • Floor plans.
  • Large scale maps detailing service conduits and evacuation routes.

Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (1986) pointed out that the plan should give the staff written instructions on their emergency duties. The parts of the emergency plan include:


It is the purpose of the plan in brief; that is, to minimize property damage and human injury in an emergency. It further specifies the staffs who implement the plan.


An individual should be trained and appointed as coordinator of emergency. They are key in an emergency site to ensure efficient and prompt action to reduce loss. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) pointed out those specific responsibilities, duties, resources and authority must be defined clearly. Some of the assigned responsibilities include:

  • Emergency reporting
  • Emergency plan activation
  • Assumption of overall command
  • Communication establishment
  • Alerting staff
  • Evacuation order
  • Alerting other external agencies
  • Confirmation of evacuation completion
  • Alerting the population outside of the possible risk
  • External aid request
  • Activities of various groups coordination
  • Advising the casualties relatives
  • Medical aid provision
  • Closing of the emergency shut offs
  • sounding the all clear
  • Briefing the media




Where I researched the subject matter expert of law enforcement

In the internet on law enforcement and Subject Matter Experts

Interviewer recruited

Chief William smith E. (ret)

His employer and his job title

Chief Smith is employed at Lake Worth, police department York FL. His job title is an Executive Subject Matter Expert (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

His qualification as a Subject Matter Expert

Chief Smith has a vast of experience and that qualifies him as an Executive Subject Matter Expert. In York Pennsylvanian and Lake Worth, Florida he has served as chief of police. In his 34 years career in law enforcement, he has experience as a chief for 16 years (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

On his educational qualifications, he has a Master of Science degree in Criminal Justice Administration/ Human Organization Science from Villanova University. Furthermore, he has Bachelor of Science degree from York college of PA in Police Science (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Furthermore, smith is a graduate of the

  • Criminal Justice Executive Institute of Law Enforcement Of Florida Department.
  • FBI National Academy, 195th
  • Leadership Program of University Of Virginia at the Weldon Cooper Institute for Public Service (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Chief Smith has an extensive technical expertise, experience and education in the areas of:

  • Organizational culture.
  • Policy development.
  • Sexual harassment prevention and policy.
  • Accreditation by national and state.
  • Performance evaluation.
  • Labor relations.
  • Grievances procedures.
  • Collective bargaining.
  • Criminal analysis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

As a subject matter expert, he strengthens assessment exercises and exams in the areas of

  • Media relations
  • Community policing
  • Gang investigations
  • Patrol operations
  • All law enforcement management and supervision topics
  • Tactical response to crisis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Furthermore, Chief Williams instructional experience includes in- service training and police academy courses on different subjects both in Pennsylvania and Florida. Currently, he is certified by Training Commission and Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Standards of Florida Department as a Law Enforcement Officers Instructor and Police Officer in Pennsylvania State (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Lessons learned from research on realm of law enforcement

The careers in law enforcement are highlighted by adventures and ventures. To become an expert, it takes persistence, money, time of more than just being merely a police officer. Generally, an expert is defined as an individual with more knowledge than an average person (Gray, 2010). Oklahoma (2007) asserts that a position of law enforcement does not in all areas guarantee expertise. Bejar (1981) suggested that an expert should always be ready to provide a statement of qualification, resume and information on all certificates and degrees.

According to Ohio State University., & Hamilton (1977), for one to increase or maintain skills in a certain area to become a Subject Matter Expert, he /she  should enroll in appropriate seminars and trainings, write scholarly articles, present at conferences to give the resume a depth. On the other hand, the trickier is the Statement of Qualifications in which the expert clearly articulates the reasons they possess the expertise to come up with opinions in a court of law. To expand ones expertise, one should investigate and learn everything currently important in the enforcement of law. This can be done by attending conferences, reviewing periodicals, watching podcasts (McCain & American Society for Training and Development, 1999).

Similarly, one can join a professional associations as well as finding a mentor. Mentors can be found in a professional association, ones structure of work, seminar, training and in graduate or college-level educational experience. On can gain experience by offering assistance to the mentor who may have a large project. Furthermore, they provide support; career advice and assist in making one becomes a recognized expert (Smiderle, 1993).


Emergency Management Institute (U.S.). (2003). Emergency planning. Emmitsburg, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute.

Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (2007). Emergency planning. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Wuorinen, V., & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (1986). Emergency planning. Hamilton, Ont: Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), United States., & McKing Consulting Corp. (2008). A framework for improving cross-sector coordination for emergency preparedness and response: Action steps for public health, law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Lescota, J., & Westcott Communications. (1993). Emergency preparedness & law enforcement. Carrollton, Tex.: Westcott Communications.

Jourdan, K. R., & California. (1994). Law enforcement guide for emergency operations planning. Sacramento, Calif: Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, Law Enforcement Division.

Handmer, J. W., & Dovers, S. (2013). Handbook of disaster policies and institutions: Improving emergency management and climate change adaptation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge/Earthscan.




Batten, D., & Gale Group. (2011). Gale encyclopedia of American law. Detroit, Mich: Gale.

Gray, W. (2010). Business change: The roles of change agents and subject matter experts in organization change and much more– : 101 world class expert facts, hints, tips and advice on change management. S.l: Emereo Pty Ltd.

Oklahoma. (2007). What are subject matter experts?. Oklahoma City: Dept. of Human Services.

Bejar, I. I. (1981). Subject matter experts’ assessment of item statistics. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Ohio State University., & Hamilton, J. B. (1977). Use subject matter experts to present information. Athens, Ga: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials.

McCain, D. V., & American Society for Training and Development. (1999). Creating training courses when you’re not a trainer: Quick course design, development, and delivery for subject matter experts, managers, and other nontrainers. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development.

Smiderle, D. (1993). The impact of discretion on rating differences among subject matter experts. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada.

Sullivan, L. E. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

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Police and Law Enforcement

There are various roles in which the agencies of the local law enforcement take part daily. The functions, duties and responsibilities of local agencies of local law enforcement exist to provide routine patrol to the communities within their jurisdiction, maintain records, provide emergency services and conduct criminal investigations among others (Cohen, 2006p.56). The state law enforcement agencies have different responsibilities. The state police have a duty to keep the highways of the state, rural areas and other areas under their state safe. They also have a duty to keep the motor vehicle inspected as per the countries regulations. Maguire (2003p.89) pointed out that the state law enforcement agencies conduct community initiatives and public relations, criminal investigations

The municipal agency police are found in densely populated areas compared to the county agencies. The rural policing operates in the rural areas and they can run from large to very tiny. Because of this, the equipment, benefits and pay differ largely from one agency to the other. Cohen, R. (2006p.60) observed that the sheriff’s department performs the same things like the municipal police department. However, the sheriff department has a larger jurisdiction

The primary purpose of the patrol police is to protect and to preserve property and life in the community. Additionally, the patrol police protect the citizens, deteriorate crime because of their visibility hence prevent potential crime. Moreover, they enable the departments to find out law breaking cases and respond to help calls. According to Maguire (2003p.102), patrol police build contact list in the streets that are useful during the investigations.

The patrol officers are the first responders in an emergency, and assist in accidents or even emergencies cases. They may also be called to give direction to traffics when train or traffic signals for crossing fail.

In the contemporary society, the roles of the police are to arrest any individual they believe have broken the laws or have caused harm to people. Moreover, Cohen (2006 p.86) pointed out that the police officers control and prevent conducts that are recognized widely as property or life threatening. The police officers in the contemporary society also aid individuals who are in physical harm danger, such as the violent attack victims.

According to Maguire (2003p.47), the police officers facilitate movement f vehicles and people and assist people who cannot care for themselves, the addicted, the intoxicated, the old, physically disabled, the mentally ill and the young to solve their conflicts. Furthermore, the police officers identify potential problems of becoming more critical problems. They also create and maintain security feeling in the communities, in addition to keeping law and order.

According to Cohen (2006p.112), one of the issues affecting the police departments today are the perception of the public of law enforcement to try and support the families and the communities at a low pay. Operating expenses are high and there needed to train constantly to meet the court decisions guidelines.

Maguire (2003) pointed out that the police departments are also hugely understaffed. However, despite the understaffing, the government fails to meet the departments’ recruitment quota. Moreover, another main issue faced by the police departments is money. Scarcity of money in certain departments and regions limits delivery of services to the citizens.



Cohen, R. (2006). Working with police agencies. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Maguire, E. R. (2003). Organizational structure in American police agencies: Context, complexity, and control. Albany: State University of New York Press.




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McGough’s poems;“Streemin” “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” and “Nooligan”


Poetry is a compiled literary work whereby special focus gets given to the expression of ideas and feelings by application of rhythm and style that is distinct. Poetry gets written and put across to convey issues, concepts, ideas in an imaginative and a vivid way. The essay will discuss how this gets achieved from McGough’s poems. The issues, concepts, ideas in the essay include how the student’s grading at school is unfair, artificial and arbitrary, the satire on the patriotic people, and the satire on the delinquent juveniles and their antisocial behaviors. The essay will discuss three McGough’s poems; that is “Streemin” “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” and “Nooligan” The poems of McGough are humorous, satirical and light. His efficient and successful poetry style allows personal and friendly approach to serious social and political issues sometimes. Satire gets used to ridicule, expose and highlight human, political and social stupidities. However, in the cases of McGoughs poems, the satirist aims to entertain, educate and change the situation through the humor.

The manner in which students graded at schools is unfair, artificial and arbitrary. This issue is portrayed in the “Streemin” poem as it explains how the similarity of people upon their death and the school students based on their ability in academics, and this degrades their self esteem sense and narrows their chances in life. The “Streaming” poem gives a comment on how the school grading of the students is inappropriate. According to McGough, upon death of people, there exist no differences. Moreover, he uses colloquial language and words that got spelt wrong to show that the narrator academic ability gets limited and is in the “bottom streme”. The speaker persuades effectively the readers because having “divishns” is ironical during a lifetime when at the end they are the same. McGough’s thoughts got expressed in the “poem of streaming” of getting schools to be divided to separate students according to diverse academic ability. By using the voice of the students that are not bright, McGough mocks the streaming system by indicating that, in the cemetery, people are all the same.

In the McGoughs poem, “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head”, the narrator satirizes the patriotic people by making emphasis on the importance of lives to people. The poem got written using the colloquial language and in the first person. For instance, the colloquial statement such as “have your belly shot away” persuades successfully the readers to try and do re-evaluation of their attitudes towards war. This gets substantiated by the argument of the narrator “lives are good for you” and giving examples of life enjoyment, such as going out with girls. Moreover, the comment about going with girls which is humorous targets a particular age group as this is the age bracket of the people who has the highest probability of getting sent to war. Similarly, by using the graphic imagery like “your seeds over the field”, the narrator persuades the readers and the entire audience to have a belief that, after all, life is good. This makes the poem to be more friendly and engaging when communicating with the audience and the readers. “Seeds spreading over the field” is a very strong image that reinforces the earlier argument that in reality, “patriots are bit nuts in the head”

In the poem of Nooligan, McGrough makes a satire on the juveniles who are delinquent and their behaviors that are anti- social. From his argument, he comments on their destructive actions that are stupid and their lack of intelligence when they behave in such ways. He further implies that just as the way they behave, the hooligans are stupid. From the poem, some words got spelt wrong to give them similarity in conversational context pronunciation. For instance, the words such as a “nooligan” “a nard” and “ead” got used to mean “hooligan” “a hard” and “head”. Furthermore, the speaker gets constructed as an ignorant person from the choices of vocabulary words, which are mostly, simple. Additionally, the narrator uses the pronoun “me” in place of “my” which is grammatically incorrect. The use of the pronoun further reinforces and cements the idea of a hooligan as an individual who is uneducated comparatively, or a person who has rejected any form of education. McGough makes a repetition of the first line in every stanza to emphasize that the narrator is a proud hooligan indeed. Furthermore, it suggests a limited and a simplistic view of the world and self. Different aspects of hooliganism get told in every stanza that is undesirable and antisocial. From the ending of every stanza which is similar, it shows how things are when compared to how the hooligan would desire to believe, and pretends or imagines they are.


In conclusion, McGough’s poems that apply the effective and successful poetry style allow personal and friendly approach to serious social and political issues sometimes. “Streemin” poem highlights on how the schools grading of the students is inappropriate. “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” poem satirizes the patriotic people by making emphasis on the importance of lives to people. Finally, the “Nooligan” poem satirizes the juvenile’s antisocial behaviors and their delinquency. By using the first person speakers and the colloquial language, McGough through his poems of “streaming”, “Why People Are a Bit Nut in the Head” and “Nooligan”, delivers his point of views and messages efficiently. His engaging approach simplifies and makes it easy for the readers to digest the messages portrayed easily and understand his persuasions. He persuades people to focus more closely on social issues than the other poets who are radical.


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Crafting Personal Entrepreneurship Strategy

 Part 1- Your profile of the past

  1. Step I: Do an examination on your preferences

These are what make you have the energy. These could be things from either leisure or work that gives you personal satisfaction, energy and sense of enjoyment. On the other hand, look for what takes away your personal energy and why? They include things that create personal dissatisfaction, discontent, anxiety, motivation and draw away your energy. After listing the items, rank them from most to the least (Timmons et al, 2007).

You should then describe how you would like to spend your ideal month in 20-30 years. The description should factor the desired work style, lifestyle, friends, income among others, and make a comment on what attracts or repels you on the ideal existence. Collins et al, 1992) adds that you should then list the desired attributes of the business you want to join and the attributes of the businesses you do not want to join. Furthermore, you should also discuss any issues, patterns, conclusions and insights that have come up.

According to Wickham (2006), the factors to be considered during the descriptions are location, work style, lifestyle, standard of living, personal development, prestige and status.

  1. Step II: Do an examination on your history

Floyd (2005) suggests that you should make a list of the activities that:

  1. In the past have provided financial support such as full time or part time businesses
  2. Have contributed to your well being
  3. You have done on your own such as creating something

You should then discuss why you got involved in the listed activities and what influenced each of your decisions specifically, what you learned about self employment, yourself and managing money and people. Timmons et al (2007) points out that you should discuss your work experience under full time basis, besides giving a description of the specific tasks you were responsible, skills you applied, the number of people you were in charge of and you success status.

Moreover, discuss why you were involved in the employments listed and what influenced your decisions specifically, the lessons you learned about yourself, managing of people, about employment and on making money.

Collins et al (1992) suggest that you should also discuss also other activities you have participated in such as sports. What were the lessons learned and what is their applicability to an entrepreneur’s life? Furthermore, if you have ever quitted, relocated jobs or got fired in any job, indicate with the reasons, the circumstances and the lessons learned with the differences made.

Similarly, among your mentors who have mostly influenced you, do any of them operate a personal business or run independent professions? How do you view their roles and them? And how have they influenced you? Finally, discuss what you learned from them and also about self employment and what appeal or repel you such as their reward, risks, entry strategies and tradeoffs.

  1. Part 2: Present profile
  1. Step I: Do an examination on your entrepreneurial mind.

Examine your knowhow, behaviors and attitudes. Wickham (2006) suggest that you should rank yourself as either strongest or weakest in determination and commitment, opportunity obsession, tolerance of ambiguity, risk and uncertainty, self reliance, creativity, adaptability, motivation to excel and leadership

  1. Step II: Do an examination on the requirements on entrepreneurial role

Rank yourself where you fit as either strongest or weakest in the following roles: accommodation to venture, stress, values, ethics and integrity.

  1. Step III: Do an examination on your management competencies

Rank your competencies and skills as either weakest or strongest; marketing, operations or productions, finance, administration, interpersonal or team and law.

  1. Part3: Get constructive feedback

This part is an organized way to get constructive feedback by getting evaluation from a designated person from your answers for questions in part one and two. The stage is optional and if you choose not to get, move to part four.

  1. Part4: putting all together
  1. step I:

Reflect on the previous responses and feedback you have received informally or solicited. Such as form friends, class discussions and parents

  1. Step II: do assessment on your entrepreneurial strategy
  1. What have you factored in about you and entrepreneurship?
  2. How do your aims fit entrepreneurship requirements especially the heavy work load, total immersion, sacrifices and long term commitment?
  3. What anticipation on specific conflicts do you expect between your values and aims and the entrepreneurship demands?
  4. Compare your fit and entrepreneurial mind with your management competencies and  entrepreneurial role demands with other entrepreneurs you know
  5. What are assessment implications of your entrepreneurial strategy whether you should venture into the opportunity?


Timmons, J. A., & Spinelli, S. (2007). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st          century. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Collins, J. C., & Lazier, W. C. (1992). Beyond entrepreneurship: Turning your business into an   enduring great company. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wickham, P. A. (2006). Strategic entrepreneurship. Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Floyd, S. W. (2005). Innovating strategy process. Malden, MA: BlackweLl Pub.










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Periodized Training Program


Tennis is an outdoor sport in Kenyatta University that has many competitions yearly. The program is designed for an athlete who is in the university team. The program is designed for the end year championships that include inter universities, national and regional championships.

Joseph is a 20 year old Kenyatta University student who has been doing cardiovascular training since the age of 16 years, in addition to strength or flexibility training. He is healthy since he has no medical problems and he is not under any medication. He also has appropriate composition of the body and is highly motivated. The designed program will be helpful in his tennis championship sport.

The total training period of the program will be the macrocycle and it will have training phases. The training phases or the mesocycles of this program will be divided into a period of four weeks or one month. The microcycles within the months will be one week each. The athlete’s individual training workout or session will represent one cycle smaller than the microcyle. From the above description, the training program of Joseph will be like the table below

Training Phases (Mesocycles) Preparatory Phase Competitive Phase Transition








  1. To acquire and improve general physical training capacity
  2. To improve the athletes biomotor abilities required for tennis (agility,coordination,balance,flexibility,endurance,power,mobility,strength and speed)
  3. To master skills

The preparatory phase will be characterized with bulk of training volume for the athlete to adapt. The phase will be divided into two phases; the General and The Specific Preparation. The main objective of the general preparatory phase of the program will be to establish high level of physical conditioning and to promote further training. The General Physical Preparedness (GPP) will be emphasized through general exercises that are unique to the tennis (aerobic endurance/general strength).

The specific preparatory sub phase will be devoted to specific movements and exercises of the tennis patterns. The training will become more specific with the training volume still high. This stage will also represent the transitional shift to the competitive season. Mastery of skills will be the focal point of the specific sub phase.

  1. General preparation

Conditioning- this phase will be to develop the required physical qualities for the high level competition. The interval work will be increasing gradually from 25-60 minutes, 3 days per week averagely. The volume and intensity patterns will be varied

Strength training-resistance training that is tennis specific will be done 2-3 days per week. Interval training will be incorporated with varying patterns across the week.

  1. Specific preparation

Conditioning: it will begin by incorporating high speed intervals to train the body to adapt to the buildup of the waste products and the high energy use patterns that are associated with situation of the game

Interval runs will be performed with the athlete (forward, backward, and side to side) for 3 days per week. The duration will start at 5 minutes and progress up to 20 minutes by the end of the 3 days per week\additionally, the work: recovery duty cycles will start at 1:3 and then progress to 2:1. For instance, 10s work: 30s recovery and this will progress to 10s work: 5s recovery

Plyometric and speed drills will be added in aerobically based intervals

Strength training- will be continued twice per week, concentrating on the sport-specific higher velocity lifts

Sport specific- during this phase the play will include competitive matches




  1. To perfect techniques to enable athletes performance at the highest level
  2. To extend improvement of the biomotor abilities
  3. To maintain the General Physical Preparedness

This phase will focus on skill perfection of the athlete, strategic planning and tactical maneuvers. General physical preparedness and conditioning will be maintained. The competitive phase will also be divided into two; the precompetitive sub phase and the main competition sub phase. The pre competitive sub phase will have the unofficial competitions and exhibitions to evaluate the skills of the athlete.

The main competitor phase will be to maximize the potential of the athlete and facilitate exceptional performances during competitions.

  1. Pre –competition

Conditioning-this phase will feature agility and speed drills that are specific to on court performance.

Strength training-resistance training will decline from 2-1 per week and will be explosive in nature. Rubber tubing and medicine ball will be used for the biomedically specific resistance/speed work

Sport specific-the on court work will concentrate on execution and strategy in addition to playing at more competitive level

Taper –recovery periods will be slowly be increased and the volume of work decreased across the duration cycle




  1. Competition

Conditioning-agility, speed and quickness drills will be applied and will last 15-20 minutes per day

Strength training- resistance training will be decline continuously dropping light weight a single day, explosive lifts. The on court points will concentrate on high-intensity points with limited formal play

Taper –all resistance trainings will be ended at this point. Light on court work only and limited points for honing the skills will be used.




  1. To restore the central nervous system
  2. To analyze the past program of training with the results
  3. To map the coming annual plan

This phase will not mean a period of detraining but it will be a period of active rest. The training volume and intensity will be reduced gradually. Total passive rest will be allowed if the athlete will have an injury. This phase will take a maximum of 5 weeks

The table of the training program is below



Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


phases (Meso cycles)

Preparatory 1 Competitive 1 T 1 Preparatory 2 Competitive 2 T 2


Specific preparatory PC Competitive U M Gen prep Specific preparatory PC Competitive U  



T1-Transition phase for two weeks

T2-Transition phase 4-5 weeks long

PC-pre competition, or matches, exhibition games and competitions

U-Unloading or tapering for the major competitions of the year

M-Maintenance of 40-50% of the previous training load

The distribution of the training load of each of training will be as follows

Cycle Volume Intensity Over-Distance Endurance Tempo Lactate Threshold Vo2 Max
Preparatory Moderate to high Low 60% 30% 5% 5% 0%
Pre-competition   Moderate Moderate to high 55% 25% 5-10% 10-15% 0-10%
Taper Low to moderate Moderate to high 55% 25% 5-10% 10-15% 2-5%
Competition Low to moderate High 55% 20% 5-10% 5-10% 0-5%
Transition Low Low 85% 5-10% 0-5% 0% 0%




Duration- 2 to 4 weeks from mid January to February

Purpose- to recover psychologically and physically from the in season competitive phase. These include a tennis related injuries like muscle fatigue and psychological fatigue

Flexibility- this will be done several times daily and will include warm-up, and cool down

Aerobic conditioning– will utilize cross training that emphasize physical activity in other sports

Strength training- will be done 2 times per week

Other- the athlete will train 2-5 times per week to maintain the desired abilities, develop new goals for the next season and review past season


Duration- 8 weeks from mid February to mid April

Purpose- to develop aerobic base and strength

Flexibility-many times daily and will include warm ups and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning- continuous activity at 70-85% MAX HR, 3-5 times per week for 30 minutes

Strength conditioning- 3 times per week

Other- set future goals and master the seasons calendar, begin learning new tennis skills, increase nutrition knowledge


Duration– 8 weeks from mid April to mid June

Purpose-to increase strength, power and aerobic conditioning, and also begins anaerobic training

Flexibility- several per day, warms and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning-1-2 times per week at 70-85% MAX HR for 30 minutes

Anaerobic conditioning- 2-3 times per week at 85-95% MAX HR

Strength training- 2 to 3 times per week

Plyometrics- 2 times per week

Other-further develop and perfect the tennis skills, continue tennis practice, incorporate skills and sports psychology in the practice sessions


Duration-12 weeks from mid June to mid September

Purpose- peak levels in skills training, emphasis on sport specific training, power, strength and endurance conditioning

Flexibility- many times daily, warm ups and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning- 1 time per week

Anaerobic conditioning-3 to 5 times per week at 95% MAX HR

Strength training- 1 to 2 times per week

Plyometrics- 1 to 2 times per week

Other- refine the tennis skills, choose the best tennis equipments, begin to run through the complete program, apply skills and sport psychology


Duration-12 to 18 weeks from mid September- the inter university, national, and regional championships

Purpose-to maintain power, strength, anaerobic and aerobic conditioning throughout the season

Flexibility-many times per day, warm ups and cools down

Aerobic conditioning-none

Anaerobic conditioning-3 to 4 times per week at 95% MAX HR

Strength training- 2 times per week

Plyometrics- 1 time per week

Other-refines and improves the tennis skills constantly, develop knowledge of nutrition for meals while travelling and the pre- competition, and improve skills of sports psychology for the performance of the program.





Bompa, T. O. (1999). Periodization training for sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., Levin, G., & Chaouachi, A. (January 01, 2008). Understanding Change of Direction Ability in Sport: A Review of Resistance Training Studies. Sports Medicine, 38, 12, 1045-1063.

Crossley, J. (2012). Personal training: Theory and practice. London: Hodder Education.

Kraemer, W., Ratamess, N., Fry, A., Triplett-McBride, T., Koziris, L., Bauer, J., Lynch, J., … Fleck, S. (January 01, 2000). Influence of Resistance Training Volume and Periodization on Physiological and Performance Adaptations in Collegiate Women Tennis Players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 5, 626-633.

Waggoner, R. C., & Army War College (U.S.). (1999). Simultaneous strength and endurance training. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.


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Quantitative Article Review

Summary of the article

This study was an empirical study call by researchers concerning the teachers’ beliefs calls about education with particular aspects of management strategies and classroom behaviors of teachers. The study answered the calls by empirically exploring the possible relationships of the contextual factors of school and their own perceptions of management styles of classrooms as measured by pupil control ideology.

The purpose of the study was in two dimensions; first to make comparisons of the pupil control ideology of the beginner teachers with about 2-5 years experience in teaching with their pupil control ideology at the end of their years of pre service. The second dimension was to make a determination of the relationship between the pupil control ideology of the beginner teachers and external and internal factors (Rideout & Windle, 2010).

The research applied explanatory mixed methods research design with qualitative and quantitative data from the pre service years being compared with data from the beginning years. Mail in questionnaires was used in quantitative data collection, and qualitative data was collected through one-on-one interviews.

The study participants were enlisted from a sample of 474 teachers who are pre-service ad had participated in a study previously and subsequently hired by either of the two school boards of Ontario (Rideout & Windle, 2010).

For the results to satisfy the research questions, the study followed three steps in statistical analysis. That is t-test, multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. From the t-test analysis, there existed a significant difference in the analysis, t=26.94and p<0.001. The analysis showed that the participants tended to be more humanistic during their beginning teaching years. From the Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis, there was a significant correlation between pupil control ideology and transformational leadership perception (r=-0.423, p<0.05). From the multiple regression analysis, the program and context variable cluster was not significant in making a prediction of the pupil control ideology scores of the participants.


The study findings suggested that, in classroom practice, external factors are very influential during the year of pre-service, whereas internal factors in the beginning years are more important. This according to Rideout & Windle (2010) has implications on the program developers of teacher’s education.

The study was also conducted in Ontario, a setting where, school boards that are publicly funded must present New Teacher Induction Program and done by teachers who are new. Given that the responses of the interview and survey suggested the limited programs impact on the teaching practice of the participants, a program review of New Teacher Induction Program may be beneficial. The review should be first identifying specific effectiveness areas and the areas that need improvement, based on the perceptions of the teachers as opposed to identifying component completion rates that are official. To obtain such honest data, the researchers should not have any connection with the teachers participating because that will be a threat to validity.

The study has also operationalized the authenticity concept within the teacher centric framework. The practices of the teacher are considered authentic if their classroom actions are aligned with their educational belief. However, the teachers’ practices might be identified as inauthentic if they behave in a way that appears to be basically imitating the mentors and lack reflection concerning the actions or beliefs alignment.

Future research is needed and is encouraged that may lead to the development of vibrant and robust theoretical framework in which such kind of path to system-wide authenticity can be understood better.


Rideout, G., & Windle, S. (May 01, 2010). Beginning Teachers’ Pupil Control Ideologies: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Beliefs about Education, Mentorship, Induction, and Principal Leadership Style. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 104.)

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Position Paper: Patient Violence against Nurses

Position Paper

This paper is written with the main purpose to present a position on a very scary issue of patient violence against nurses. The main aim is to convince the readers and the entire audience that the position stated is valid. The discussion the paper will provide disapproves the traditional thought among the public that the nursing profession is a safe heaven and regarded as a place for protection and care. The discussion will form the foundation of my position on the existence of continual rise of patient violence in many healthcare facilities.

According to Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain), & National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (Great Britain) (2006),the venues with the highest probability of violence in hospitals include the emergency departments, facilities of psychiatry, home offices, private offices of the outpatient, forensic settings, community centers for mental health, clinics for outpatients and general hospitals.

Violence of the patients to the nurses takes many forms. According to Conroy & Murrie, (2007), they include physical, harassment, threats, stalking, frivolous lawsuits, scurrilous and false accusations, complaints to licensure medical boards, vandalism, excessive or abusive letters and phone calls, obscene or threatening mails, loitering, trespassing, home visits and drive-by, display  of knowing of the  personal life  of the nurse. Many cases are being reported on violent crimes such as rape, assaults and homicides especially in the emergency departments and the psychiatry facilities with nurses as the main targets (Tardiff, 1999).

Statistical research

Patient violence against nurses has been a thorny issue in the health sector. Eichelman & Hartwig (1995) gives an overview of the issue when they document the survey done in 2011 by the American nurses association. From the survey, the numbers of registered nurses who have reported cases of assault by the patients were 34%. This represented a rise in assault from 25 % in the year 2001. More shocking results indicate that from the statistics of the government, eight nurses were reported killed in the work place from the year 2003 to the year 2009. In addition to that, 2050 more incidences were reported by the nurses and involved violent assault and harassment (Eichelman & Hartwig, 1995).

Similarly, the report of Bureau of Labor Statistics of 2006 indicates that 60% of the assaults in work place took place in the healthcare and most of them were as a result of the patient’s violence (Crichton, 1995). Moreover, the occupations of the healthcare support had a 20.4% injury rate due to assaults and the practitioners of the healthcare had a 6.1% rate. This is just the results from the reported cases and this figure could be large due to underreporting form the nurses due to the general perception that the assaults forms the part of work in the nursing profession (Babich, 1981). My argument from these statistics is that the nurses and the healthcare practitioners in the health profession faces a monster of a problem which is underrated but affects their performance in their bid to deliver services to the patients.

The issue of the patient violence is further validated by Richter& Whittington (2006) when they point out that the nurses in the emergency departments of the hospitals experience the highest rate of physical assault. Furthermore, Richter & Whittington (2006) observes that 28% of nurses working in the emergence departments reported that they have been victims of physical assault for the past one year.

Violence in Emergency Departments

In the hospital set up, patient violence to the nurses is a great issue that needs to be discussed soberly. Eichelman & Hartwig (1995) points out that the studies conducted by many bodies indicates that the nurses and other healthcare professional assigned in the emergency departments experience the highest level of violent patients. This is because evaluation and treatment of the violent patients that are of high risk are initially done at the emergency department. Furthermore, the patients brought by the police often in handcuffs are directed to the emergency department.

Crichton (1995) observes that the emergency department is always open to the public and therefore the population of the patients and the third parties accompanying the patients are in most cases not screened for violence potential. Furthermore, therapeutic alliance to mitigate the violent impulses of the patients is not always present. Therefore, the patient may view the nurse at the emergency department as an enemy and not as a medic trying to help.

Babich, (1981) points out a research which was done in Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit for six months. The research entailed screening of the patients at the emergency department by magnetometer. The shocking results revealed that 33 handguns, 97 sprays of mace type and 1324 knives were discovered (Babich, 1981). This clearly validates the argument of the potential violence that healthcare professionals are constantly exposed to.

Resentment from nurses

It is saddening that the nurses who offer to care for the sick at the hospitals are violated by the same patients they take care of. The violence affects the hospital governance, healthcare professionals and the patients.  According to Richter& Whittington (2006), the nurses who are mostly violated do experience physical injury, chronic pain, disability, muscle tension. Moreover, the nurses also suffer from psychological problems such as nightmares, lack of sleep and flashbacks associated with the patient’s violence (Tardiff, 1999). According to Conroy& Murrie 2007), the health workers assaulted by the patients experience long term and short term emotional reactions such as sadness,anger,frustration,irritability,anxiety,apathy,helplessness and self blame. From the discussion, the assaulted nurses are most likely to suffer from role stress, occupational strain, anger, decreased feeling of being unsafe, dissatisfaction with the job, and future of being assaulted in future.

Alcoholic patients

Contrary to the public view that a patient would not desire to harm a nurse or any other health worker, my position still hold that there is rampant violence toward the health care workers from the patients. To validate the argument, the paper continues to elaborate on the facts to support the argument.

The cases of patient violence cannot be dismissed so easily. All facts and evidence portrays the existence of the patient violence towards the health workers. Patients who have taken alcohol or which portrays syndromes of toxic drugs and violent behaviors is common in the hospitals set up. Moreover, the accompanying persons to the patients sometimes can be more violent than the patient (Eichelman & Hartwig, 1995).

Violent psychiatry patients

Additionally, according to Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain), & National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (Great Britain) (2006), some of the validating factors to the patient violence that are common are cases of the psychiatric patients. They endure the long queues or wait for long in the ever busy emergency departments with noisy hallways before they are attended to. It is senseless because some of the psychiatric patients wait for up to 24 hours before evaluation is done on them. This can prompts already angry patients to be enraged and become violent.

Angry patients

Nurses encounter many disgruntled, deranged and angry patients (Crichton, 1995). Furthermore, the reasons for the violence against nurses are diverse because violence is a function of the interactions between a specific situation and individuals and are dynamic. Patients with the feeling that they have been psychologically or physically injured have highest risk of violating nurses especially if they happen to report and their reported complaints were dismissed (Babich, 1981).

Fear and helplessness

According to Richter & Whittington (2006), sometimes a patient may feel helpless or fearful in the process of undertaking treatment. These feelings come about especially when some painful intrusive procedures are being applied in the process of giving treatment care to the patients by the nurses. Consequently, fear and helplessness on the patient may result to violence as a means of venting out the fear and the accumulated stress in the hand of the nurses. This strongly supports the argument’s position of patient violence on nurses. For instance, this is prevalent in minor surgeries and during injections especially to the adolescents. Their fear eventually leads to violence.


Continual existence of the internet and its daily evolutions strongly supports debate on the patient violence on the nurses. Violence does not necessary have to be physical, it can be done online. Tardiff (1999) observes that a patient who wants to harm the nurse can do online cyber snooping and will be facilitated by online forums, search engines, chat rooms and discussion boards. Moreover, internet sources where people expose their personal information such as the social sites like face book, MySpace, linkedIn and twitter exposes the nurses to variety of physical and psychological harm. Conroy & Murrie (2007) points out the assaults that can be done on the internet and they include:

  • Derogatory statements and false accusations
  • Personal information gathering
  • Harassments
  • Sending of emails, viruses and repeated messages
  • False victimization
  • Ordering of services and goods in the name of the nurse such as the sex toys and pornographic materials.

Nurse- patient strains

The surprising factor on the issue of patient violence towards nurses is  whether the rising cases of patient violence towards nurses is an emblematic representation of a health system that is dysfunctional. Many patients are coming to terms that healthcare has become an essential commodity. In the first place, Eichelman & Hartwig (1995) observes that the relationship of the nurse- patient deteriorates as the nurses are under pressure to attend to more patients in the shortest time. On the other hand, the patients are frustrated rightly and some even lash out.

Management of patients’ violence towards healthcare professionals

  1. Engage the patient verbally

The threat of patient violence to the healthcare professionals can be countered by many strategies. The basic strategy is engaging the patient verbally. According to Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain), & National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (Great Britain) (2006), it is important to respond actively to threat behaviors which are escalating. Furthermore, encouragement should be done to the patient to verbally respond and give explanation to the threats reasons. Failure of verbal intervention, the nurse should seek other methods discussed below. However, in an event of an attack, pepper sprays and other agents of immobilization should be at hand for protection.

  1. Conduction of proper inquiry to the severity of the illness

To reduce incidences of patient violence toward healthcare professionals, before a healthcare worker accepts patients for referral treatment or for private consultation, a proper inquiry should be made to determine the severity and nature of the illness, drug abuse, violence history and adherence to treatment (Eichelman & Hartwig ,1995). From the inquiry, a nurse will be able to make a sound judgment whether the patient can be treated as evaluated and later treated as one of the outpatient. According to Crichton (1995), the violence risks to the nurse increases when the patient who is severely ill such as the psychotic patients are evaluated or are treated alone especially during evenings or weekends.

Similarly to manage the patient’s violence toward the nurses, Babich, (1981) advises that it is prudent to recognize the escalating violence of the patient such as threats, agitation and the violation of the nurses’ personal space.  The ethic of “does no harm first” and the therapeutic zeal can lull a nurse into a sense of security which might be false. In addition, a nurse requires the presence of a third party which is reliable in doing the initial evaluation to unknown patient with mental illness which are severe. There is need of the nurse to be cognizant but not over cautious about the ever presence of potential patient violence towards the healthcare professionals (Richter & Whittington, 2006).

  1. Safety management plan

Similarly, in the bid to prevent the patient violence towards healthcare workers, a safety management plan carefully thought is necessary. Although experiencing patient attack by most nurses during their medical career do not happen, consulting the safety expert on the issue of safety should be considered. As the nurse practice more and continue the number of years in nursing, the higher possibility of encountering patients who are disgruntled or deranged. More risk factors to nurses include the type of patients the nurse treats, year of practice and the style of managing the patient by the nurse (Tardiff, 1999).

According to Conroy & Murrie (2007), it is fallacious to generally think that all patients treated are grateful. In contrast, some patients are always angry and even blame the nurse for their illness. In the proposed safety plan, the nurse must consider his or her physical condition and age during the process if determination of his or her ability to escape from the assault or fend him or herself.

In addition, Eichelman & Hartwig (1995) is of the opinion that safety plan is important on nurses who offer their services to patients at night. It is important that the offices have two free doors. One open door should lead to the area of the receptionist and another locked door leading to the office of the nurse. Furthermore, the second door should be fitted with a peephole to see the persons in the reception area. A buzzer system or an alarm that can alert the police or the security personnel should be fitted within the offices of the nurses. Similarly, a warning light or a silent alarm can also be fixed in place to be used in warning the receptionist or the security.

According to Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) & National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (Great Britain) (2006), a safety management plan that is comprehensive should preempt the violence of the patient. For instance, the persons entering the building must prove their identity as well as their intended destination before granted access to the offices. Furthermore, the security man should call the office of the healthcare professional to verify if the individual is known to the nurse or any other staff member and has a scheduled or a pre planned appointment. However, in addition to installation and adoption of the sound safety management plan, every healthcare professional should do extra for their own personal safety.

  1. Understanding the psychodynamics of violence

As noted by Crichton (1995), violence is most often a reaction to helplessness, passivity, humiliation and fear. In prevention of the risk factors, the nurse should do violence prodome to provide the nurse with an opportunity for intervention before violence outbreak. The components of prodome which can alert the nurse include the escalation of verbal abuse, anxiety and agitation. According Babich, (1981), the risk factors that are associated with violence include:

  • History of violence
  • Substance and alcohol abuse
  • Stated desire to kill or harm another
  • Psychosis
  • Personality disorders particularly borderline and antisocial
  • Paranoid ideation
  • Fear of humiliation and harm
  • Organic brain disorder

Understanding the psychodynamics of violence by nurse will form the intervention strategies. According to Richter & Whittington (2006), the presence of a nurse can both act positively or negatively. The patients’ view of the nurse can be of a savior or a devil. Therefore the therapeutic alliance presence or absence to a patient can be powerful and a protective factor. Angry, disgruntled and treatment rejecting patients are prone to lawsuits filling against the health professionals (Tardiff, 1999).


Eichelman, B., & Hartwig, A. C. (1995). Patient violence and the clinician. Washington, DC:      American Psychiatric Press.

Crichton, J. (1995). Psychiatric patient violence: Risk & response. London: Duckworth.

Babich, K. S. (1981). Assessing patient violence in the health care setting. Boulder, Col: Western             Interstate Commission for Higher Education.

Richter, D., & Whittington, R. (2006). Violence in mental health settings: Causes, consequences,             management. New York: Springer.

Tardiff, K. (1999). Medical management of the violent patient: Clinical assessment and therapy. New York: M. Dekker.

Conroy, M. A., & Murrie, D. C. (2007). Forensic assessment of violence risk: A guide for risk     assessment and risk management. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.

Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain), & National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and         Supportive Care (Great Britain). (2006). Violence: The short-term management of       disturbed/violent behaviour in in-patient psychiatric settings and emergency    departments. London: Royal College of Nursing.





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