Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty

Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty


Stephens et al (2002) defines poverty as a physical state where a person lacks money or material possession of a certain amount. Destitution or extreme poverty refers to the state a person is deprived of the basic human needs that commonly includes water, food, clothing, sanitation, healthcare, shelter and education. On the other hand, Stephens et al (2002) defines relative poverty as economic inequality in a society or a location where people live. Furthermore, he elaborates that the homeless people include the young and the adult people in insecure and fragile accommodation, and not necessarily the roofless population. Accommodation that is insecure damages both physical and mental health while housing that is improved improves the population health (Stephens et al, 2002). According to Conron et al (2010), homelessness impeded social capital acquisition, job opportunities and undermines the sense of identity of the young people exposing them to wide range of stressors and dangers.

Conron et al (2010) did a population based research on gender differences and sexual orientation identity in adult health. The study used multivariable logistic regression in examining self reported health patterns by gender and sexual orientation. From the study, the results was that sexual minorities such as the gay and the lesbians, bisexuals compared with the heterosexuals were more likely to show limitation of activity, worry or tension, drug abuse, smoking, asthma, HIV testing and lifetime sexual victimization but did not show any difference in Papanicolaou tests for three years, diabetes, lifetime mammography or heart diseases (Conron et al, 2002).

Furthermore Conron et al (2010) points out that in comparison with the heterosexuals, the bisexuals  reported  more health care barriers, suicidal ideation of past year, current sadness and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the gay men had less likelihood of becoming obese or overweight and to obtain the tests for antigen that is prostate-specific, while lesbians had more likelihood of becoming overweight to report many risks of cardiovascular diseases. From the findings, it comes out clearly that disparities in sexual orientation in risks of chronic diseases, access to health care, victimization, smoking and mental health merit some attention.

According to Stephens et al (2002), statistics shows that a third of global deaths which translates to 50,000 daily deaths or 18 million dying annually are poverty related. Therefore, since 1990, about 270 million people have died due to poverty and most of them are children and women (Stephens et al, 2002). Furthermore, those under the poverty condition currently suffer from diseases, starvation and hunger disproportionately (Stephens et al, 2002). Conron et al (2010) observe that those living under poverty conditions suffer from low life expectancy. World Health Organization further states that malnutrition and hunger are single threats that are grave to the public health globally. Moreover, malnutrition currently is the leading cause of child mortality among all the causes. Among 90% of child birth maternal deaths occur in sub- Sahara Africa and Asia, compared to the less than 1% found in the developed nations (Stephens et al, 2002).

Those who are homeless or are destitute have also been shown to be likely of incurring or having disability during their lifetime. Additionally, infectious diseases like tuberculosis and malaria can increase poverty by diverting economic resources and health from productivity and investments. In some developing nations, malaria decreases their GDP growth by 1.3% while AIDS reduces the growth of Africa annually by 0.3 to 1.5 % (Stephens et al, 2002).

Health needs of the homeless and those living in extreme poverty

            1) Poor mental health-it is high for the people living in rough conditions compared to the population in general.

            2) Poor physical health-the homeless population suffer from same physical problems like the general population but more severe and more often because of the limited access to the basic commodities.

            3) Risk taking behavior-self harming and sexual risk behavior is common among the homeless population, and suicide is the biggest death cause among the homeless people in the streets. Moreover, substance use and criminal activity are inevitable among the insecure homeless domicile (Conron et al, 2010).

The usefulness of the information to the human/social services career

The information in this essay will help in learning more about the homeless and their strategies for surviving and coping. It also provides more information on health needs support networks and examples of good practice of the poor and the homeless on health issues. Furthermore, it provides different aspects of health from mental and physical health among the people living in poverty for future studies to be done on these health issues. 


Conron, K. J., Mimiaga, M. J., & Landers, S. J. (January 01, 2010). A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of     Public Health, 100, 10, 1953-60.

Stephens, J., & Mental Health Foundation (London, England). (2002). The mental health needs    of homeless young people: Bright futures : working with vulnerable young people : a    report commissioned by The Mental Health Foundation. London: The Mental Health      Foundation.





Price Waterhouse Coopers

Price waterhouse coopers

Price Waterhouse Coopers



Price Waterhouse Coopers is privately owned organization with headquarters in London, United Kingdom. It was formed in 1998 through a merger between Price Waterhouse and Coopers and Lybrand. It deals with professional services and it is the second largest professional services firm. It is a multinational organization and has offices in one hundred and fifty nine countries across the world. It faces competition from KPMG, Deloitte, and Ernst & Young. It was rebranded in 2010 in light of competition and the need to attain competitive advantage.

Leadership and Management Style

Price water house coopers apply change leadership style and interactive management style. The company is a global corporate with decentralized leadership and management in specific countries. They execute their duties by empowering the organization to accomplish the company’s strategic objectives. The process is systematic and requires leaders to identify precisely and focus narrowly on the most impacting goals, concentrate the efforts of the team and employees on actions of high impact, share transparently the real time results, make course corrections timely and lastly ensure mutual members accountability (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.64).

The effective leadership and management styles in Price Waterhouse Coopers is grounded on principles of commitment, clarity, translation of the companies goals to daily goals, synergistic teamwork, enabling sponsorship and accountability.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.109) observed that the principles of focused leadership and management include clarity, commitment where the members of the company believe in the company’s goals to be achieved, translation to action which means the ability of the management to know what to do to achieve their goals, enabling sponsorship, accountability and synergy.

Organizational Culture

The organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water House Coopers Company, the people form the heart f their success and strategy. They focus on equal opportunity for employment, inclusion and diversity in the process of recruitment and ensure they attract many candidates from various backgrounds, non traditional and traditional. The company provides people with different types of tools to enrich them in daily coaching, professional experience and have productive feedback. The organizational culture of Price Water House Coopers has four dimensions; professional development, life or work flexibility and quality, commitments to the communities, the Price Water House Coopers family and support to the working parents (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.331).

  • Professional development

According to Evan & Chan-Gon (2010p.97), Price Water House Coopers emphasize on significance of the real time feedback to make them enhance their brand and improve on professional skills. The company also offers training and opportunities for development to stay relevant

  • Life/work flexibility and quality

The company understands that to perform maximally, people need to be flexible. Their holiday and vacation policy supports the company’s commitment.

  • Commitment to the communities

Price Water House Coopers is committed to transparency and trust in the markets, development of responsible community and leaders that flourish and managing the company’s environmental impact (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.87).

  1. Support the working parents

Price Water House Coopers programs, resources and benefits are designed to assist the working parents meet their career and family demands. The culture of the firm acknowledges the challenges and therefore provides the flexibility and career options.

  • The Price Water House Coopers family

a person is considered a family of Price Water House Coopers  when they come on board as professionals. Even after choosing to depart, the company stays connected to them through the community network of the alumni (Deiser, 2009p.34).

Corporate Values and Norms

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.57) pointed out that Price Waterhouse Coopers corporate values are in form of three pillars; teamwork, excellence and leadership. The company believes that under teamwork, best solutions come from the clients and colleagues working together. Effective teamwork needs sharing, respect and relationship. Under excellence, the company believes in delivering of what was promised and adding more value beyond what was expected (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.335). Excellence is achieved in Price Waterhouse Coopers through agility, learning and innovation. Finally, under leadership, the company believes in leading with clients, people and leadership thought. Leadership demand integrity, vision and courage (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.336).

In corporate norms, Price Waterhouse Coopers conduct businesses within applicable framework of professional law, standards and regulations in addition to the company’s policies and standards. Price Waterhouse Coopers has code of conduct for all its firms and people based on the company’s values.

Every member is obligated to understand and know the codes guidelines and values they are based. Furthermore, they are obligated to comply with the spirit and letter of the code and assist others comply too (Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.102).

PricewaterhouseCoopers (2005p.221) observed that some of the corporate norms of Price Waterhouse Coopers include upholding the name of Price Waterhouse Coopers, the company’s core values, respecting others, behaving professionally, corporate responsibility, performing their responsibility and ethical decision making

Teams and Employee Empowerment

  1. Volunteer continuum

Price Waterhouse Coopers Company has established structures of employee and team empowerments. Some of the employee empowerment is engaging the Price Waterhouse Coopers employees in community experiences that are meaningful that help them build their capabilities. Through this initiative, the company deepened the understanding of their employees in issues related to nonprofit sector through the company’s volunteering continuum, a strategy that helps the company guide its work in the community (Deiser, 2009p119).

According to Leadership Development Strategy in PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.88), team empowerment in the Price Waterhouse Coopers company is enhanced through volunteering. During the financial year of 2013, about 2300 staff members participated in the 313 company led team volunteering initiatives. This is translated to about 17,200 volunteering hours to the community (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.340). The company uses the volunteer continuum to assist expand and deepen the firms ways of volunteer programs enhance the leadership skills, while at the same time maximizing on their commitment and effective level within the charitable sector.

According to Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.105), the company formalized the skills based volunteering definition across the Price Waterhouse Coopers global network. Skilled volunteering incorporates use of professional skills of an individual but in the informal way that does not include service deliver for the Company will be liable. These include to coaching, mentorship and training on financial literacy

  1. Environmental stewardship

To further empower the employees and teams, Price Waterhouse Coopers environmental network empowers the employees. The network is led by employees who are enthusiastic who also strive to be change catalysts. The environmental committees within the firm provide opportunities for the staff members who are passionate about stewardship of environment to connect with others and exchange ideas. The members of the committees drive change both within the Price Waterhouse Coopers and out into the larger community, raising some awareness among some clients and colleagues and building skills as leaders who are responsible (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005).

  1. Diversity and inclusion of people

Price Waterhouse Coopers invest in their employees and teams at every career steps to help them achieve their personal and professional goals. Everything in the company is done based on collaboration and teamwork. These may include submission of proposal to clients, learning experiences and ideas from others and engaging in volunteering activities with fellow colleagues (Deiser, 2009p.138). This way the empower the employees and create culture and high performance where everybody supports and challenges each other and members can play their role as individuals for collective success.

The Price Waterhouse Coopers company also continues to help their employees to develop new skills through working practices which are enhanced, inclusion of initiatives, diversity, supporting life or work flexibility, coaching which are enhanced. The company also encourages the development of a strong mindset of responsibility by engaging employees in conversations that are related to both marketplace and environmental initiatives. Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.54) observed that by the company giving employees the right tools; they are able to understand the impact of their doings on others and the society interconnectedness


In conclusion, Price Waterhouse Coopers is well established and functions effectively. The management and leaders are of high integrity and good values. The company has corporate culture of good moral values compounded by the culture which enhance employee development professionally. The organization also invest some of their profits through charity work and assistance to the community through corporate social responsibility, volunteering and environmental stewardship.


PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2005). 8th annual global CEO survey: Bold ambitions, careful choices / PricewaterhouseCoopers. New York: PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007). S.l.: American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC.

Deiser, R. (2009). Designing the smart organization: How breakthrough corporate learning initiatives drive strategic change and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bowen, R. M., Rajgopal, S., & Venkatachalam, M. (September 06, 2008). Accounting Discretion, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance*. Contemporary Accounting Research, 25, 2, 351-405.

Evan, M. B., & Chan-Gon, K. (June 01, 2010). Creativity Management in Public Organizations. Public Performance & Management Review, 33, 4, 619-652.






Personal Psychology WEbsite

Personal psychology website

seo-automated-link-building-1HOME PAGE

My name is Crystal Bevil, a psychology student at Ashford University. I have been a student in the psychology field for the past three years and had extensive experience in the field. As a psychologist, I have experience in understanding human beings, their emotions, motivations and their thought processes. This has been achieved both theoretical ad practically since I have volunteered and worked as an intern in different psychology clinics and field that requires expertise in psychology.

As a student in a psychology program in Ashford University, I have numerous experiences for the past three years. Through the program, I have learnt different subjects in psychology such as human development, physiology, research and statistics, group dynamics as well as current theories and experience with the psychology program have been of a journey, an exploration, and interesting. From my experience in the program, I am able to analyse mental processes and human behaviours, theories in psychology evaluate personal development theories and research methods in psychology. Lastly, I can demonstrate consistent communication behaviours with the psychology study and practice.

When I graduate, I would like to be a professional mental health counsellor. As a counsellor, I will be able to provide effective group and individual therapies/counselling in different community settings. With my professional preparation after graduation that includes skills, knowledge, and identity development and supervised clinical experiences, I believe I would make a professional counsellor who addresses and understand social justice to improve my client’s well-being.



Psychology as a field of study is very wide and it is very important in our day to day lives. A number of ethical issues are observed by psychologists include: being competent, ensuring that confidentiality is maintained, having an informed consent on psychological issues and ensuring that one has close relationship with the vulnerable in the society.

Relationship counseling and Health psychologists are the two types of professionals that engage themselves in ethical issues in psychology. The field of relationship counseling began in 1920’s and was started in Germany however this practice came into existence in the United States of America in 1930’s. Qualified relationship counselors deal with relationship issues such as marriage problems among others. On the other hand, Health Psychologist began in 20th century but it became prominent in mid of 20th century 91970s). Some of carriers of these individuals include: study of risk behaviors and study of psychological aspects of illness


Relationship counselors play a vital role in our society especially when it comes to issues that are related to relationship. According to relationship counselors, being truthful is very important and ethical issues should be utilized in the provision of counseling to individuals with relationship problems (Kaplan & Allison, 1994). In this respect, social intervention is very important, thus relationship counselors should use educational and organizational counseling to handle relationship issues.


Health psychologist are concerned with health issues and to them informed consent is very important. In addition to this, health psychologists respect the dignity of the patients whom they handle and above all they ensure that there is balance between the rights of the patients and that of the family members (Vasquez, 1988).


The relationship counselor and the Health Psychologists value ethical issues that are related to psychologists. Informed consent is very important for the two professionals and in addition to this, truthfulness and respect to clients is valued by health psychologists and relationship counselors


Peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research and directly relate to Ethical issues in Psychology


Therapists Anger, hate, Fear and Sexual Feelings: national Survey of Therapist responses, clients Characteristics, Critical events, Formal Complaints, and Training by Pope & Tabachnick

Therapists reported incidences of experiencing twenty instances of feeling hate, anger, sexual arousal or attraction and fear; encountering 16 events of client (such as client disrobing, client orgasm, client assault to third party or on therapist, client suicide); and engaging 27 behaviours (such as kissing clients, avoiding clients with HIV, using weapons, massaging clients or calling police to provide protection from clients). There were differences in response from the gender of the therapists, (for instance, more male therapists than females experienced suicides of patients, and faced ethics, malpractices and complaints of licensing),client gender (for instance more females were noticed as attractive physically and cradled or hugged by therapists), and theoretical orientation. Similarly, more participants rated training of graduates on sexual arousal, fear, and anger as inadequate.


Dual Relationships between Therapists and Client: A National Study of Psychologists, Psychiatrists, and Social Workers by Borys & Pope

This was a survey study which surveyed 4800 psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to examine practices and attitudes regarding social involvements, dual professional roles, incidental involvements, and financial involvements. Half of the participants rate the extent to which every behaviour was ethical, and the other remaining half indicated how often they get engaged in every behaviour. Results indicated that majority were of the opinion that under most conditions, dual role behaviours were unethical. Moreover, most reported that they had never or had rarely engaged in the behaviours. Moreover, 10 factors (gender, therapist, age, profession, and marital status, and experience, client gender region of residence, theoretical orientation, practice locale and practice setting) were examined for their behaviours and beliefs relation. A high proportion of males compared to female therapists engaged in non-sexual and sexual dual relationships


Psychological Torture – the CIA and the APA. PsycCRITIQUES, by Arrigo 

After the terrorist attack in 1-11, detainees were being interaogated by United States in settings such as Guantanamo, Bagram and Abu Ghraib. The American Psychologist Association (APA) fully supported involvement of the psychologists in the interrogations. This article highlighted key decisions, procedures, policies, documents and public statements by APA in a need to rethink and make suggestions to useful questions in a serious assessment such as, “were interrogation policies of APA ethically sound?” “ were there available other approaches that would have addressed issues of interrogation more comprehensively, directly that were more ethical and based in science, that wold have been more successful?” and lastly, “should APA continue endorsing its interrogation policies of post 9-11?”



Arrigo, J. M. (2006). Psychological Torture – the CIA and the APA. PsycCRITIQUES, 51(30)

Kaplan, D., & Allison, M. C. (1994). Family Ethics. Family Journal, 2(2), 146-147.

Middleton, R. A., Ergüner-Tekinalp, B., Williams, N. F., Stadler, H. A., & Dow, J. E. (2011). Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Counseling Competencies of White Mental Health Practitioners. International Journal Of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 11(2), 201-218

Vasquez, M. T. (1988). Counselor-Client Sexual Contact: Implications for Ethics Training. Journal Of Counseling & Development,67(4), 238.

Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S. (January 01, 1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 5, 283-293.

Pope, K. S., & Tabachnick, B. G. (January 01, 1993). Therapists’ anger, hate, fear, and sexual feelings: National survey of therapist responses, client characteristics, critical events, formal complaints, and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 2, 142-152.



There are similar themes in the American Art Therapy Association and American Dance Therapy Association websites are that they are all geared towards the health well-being of individuals of all ages. American Art Therapy Association`s theme is using creative processes to assist people improve their health and their emotional well-being. On the other hand, the theme of ADTA is use movement in furthering the emotive, social, and physical and cognitive growth of a person. The programs that they offer are meant to help individuals with psychological disorders express themselves, hence the programs are meant to ensure health well-being of individuals as well.

The distinct themes for the two organizations are that while the American Art Therapy Association is concerned about the well-being of all the individuals irrespective of their ages while the American Dance Therapy Association is only concerned with specific population who are special. Furthermore, American Art Therapy Association is concerned with the overall health of individuals while ADTA is concerned about the well-being of individuals with psychological disorders (Johnson & Emunah, 2009).

A professional in American Art Therapy Association could assist in the treatment of depression by directing their activities, which includes exploring people’s feelings, reconciling their emotional conflicts, nurturing self-awareness, helping them manage their behaviors as well as addictions, nurturing their social skills, decreasing anxiety and increasing their self-esteem. These activities offered by the organization with the assistance of a professional should be translated to be fun and interesting and to possess the ability to make individuals happy, hence helping in finding a cure depression in individuals (Junge, 2008). Aside, the ADTA profession can help reduce depression by talking to and with the clients, assisting them when necessary and giving the ample time to express their inner emotions.



Johnson, D. R., & Emunah, R. (2009). Current approaches in drama therapy. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas.

Junge, M. B. (2008). Mourning, Memory and Life Itself: Essays by an Art Therapist. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, LTD.



Crystal Bevil

400 N Bluff Blvd, Clinton,

IA 52732, United States
(563) 242-4023




To find a position challenging to meet my education, skills, capabilities, competencies, and experience.



Ashford University: College Of Health, Human Sciences and Science

  • Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

Alameda High School, California



Student Intern at Heritage oaks Hospital, Sacramento Northern California, spring 200x

  • I worked closely for 15 weeks in the mental health facility mostly with children aged between 9 to 11 years who have been diagnosed with emotionally disturbed behaviour
  • Assisted with the socialization and therapeutic  objectives set for the by psychological support team and IEPs
  • Compared case files and conducted individual research to understand better mental health


Student volunteer at Child Development Lab, Ashford University, California

  • Closely worked with 15 children aged between 3-5 years in a pre-school laboratory classroom that is inclusive
  • Produced new programming that is comprehensive to be implemented in the lab classroom
  • Completed a detailed development portfolio  for 3 children, and highlighting their cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and language progress
  • Attended classroom sessions weekly to discuss new strategies to be implemented



Ashford University Red Cross Club, Member

  • I have been a member of Red cross Club from First year I the campus
  • Currently serving as the secretary of the club, keeping records and mobilizing volunteers
  • Volunteer weekly in community services such as clean ups, visiting children homes and mental hospitals,
  • Developing training program for new club members.


Habitat for Humanity, California, participant

  • Assisted in campus wide fund raising
  • Travelled last year along with 10 peers, 2013,  to Jonestown, Mississippi for an excursion for one week to help in houses construction in the Mississippi delta



Skills:  skilful in Microsoft Office (Word, excel, and PowerPoint), Certified First Aider with Red Cross

Interests: social trends, sports, languages, travel



American Psychological Association
This is a mega site for scholars and studies searching for psychology scholarly materials. The website offers services such as various documents on psychology, description and listing of APA books, information about graduate and undergraduate education in psychology, conferences, journals, job listings, APA divisions’ information and much more. The members of APA can search online for PsycINFO database that contain thousands of journals and books dating back to 1960s. On a monthly basis, about 4000 new entries are made (APA, 2014).


This is an interdisciplinary and refereed international electronic journal on an experimental basis and sponsored by American Psychological Association. The website publishes articles, book reviews, brief reports and commentary is almost all psychology areas such as neuroscience, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, behavioural biology, linguistics, robotics/vision and philosophy (n.a, 2014).

National Institute of Mental Health

This is a government website and has information on mental disorders and also their treatment, research updates, conference proceedings, upcoming events and news (NIH, 2014).

The Observer

This is a journal published by Association for Psychological Science ten times in a year. The journal informs and educates the association on matters and issues that affects the academic, research and applied psychology disciplines, promotes APS members scientific values, comments and reports on national interest issues to the community of psychological scientists. Lastly, it provides an avenue for information dissemination on APS (APS, 2014).

American Behavioural Scientist (ABS)

This is a peer-reviewed journal published fourteen times in a year, and has valuable source of information for researchers, scholars, professionals and the students. The journal provides in-depth perspectives on contemporary topics that are intriguing throughout the behavioural and social sciences. Each of the published issues offers an analysis of a single topic that is comprehensive, important, examining inter-disciplinary, and diverse areas (ABS, 2014).

Review of General Psychology

This journal publishes innovative conceptual, theoretical or methodological articles cutting across the traditional psychology sub-disciplines. The journal contains articles advancing theory, integrate and evaluate research literatures, provide new analysis of history, or discusses new psychology methodological developments as a whole. Specifically, Review General Psychology is interested in articles bridging gaps between psychology sub-disciplines as well as the related fields focusing on topics transcending traditional sub-disciplinary boundaries (APA, 2014). The manuscripts become of high interest to this journal when they provide to the prevailing or customary views a provocative challenge. It encourages intellectual risk-taking (APA, 2014).

Psychological Sciences (PSS).

In psychology, this is the highest empirically ranked journal, is a monthly peer-reviewed journal with short reports, cutting-edge research articles, and research reports that span the entire science of the psychology spectrum. This journal is also the source of the latest social, cognitive, health and developmental psychology findings, as well as biopsychology and behavioural neuroscience. Moreover, Psychology Science is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (Psychological Science, 2014).

Psychological Bulletin

This an APA publication that publishes integrative and evaluative research reviews and issues interpretations in scientific psychology. Both quantitative (meta-analytic) and qualitative (narrative) reviews are considered by this journal depending on the database nature under consideration for review. Research synthesis or integrative reviews focus on empirical studies and seek to make a summary of the past research by making several conclusions from several separate investigations addressing identical or related hypothesis. Moreover, the journal welcomes manuscripts that deal with the topics at the psychological sciences interface and society, evaluations of the programs, applied psychological therapies and interventions (APA, 2014).

Perspective on Psychological Science (PPS)

This is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed journal with integrative reviews, meta-analyses, overview of research programs, book reviews, theoretical statements and articles that are broad on topics such as science philosophy, opinion pieces about psychological field major issues, senior members autobiographical reflections in the field of psychology, in addition to humorous sketches and essays. Moreover, Perspective on Psychological Science (PPS) is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (APS, 2014).

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied

This is an APA journal that publishes empirical investigations that are original in experimental psychology that bridges psychological theory and practical problems. The articles considered for publication in this journal are those that significantly contribute to important topics in applied experimental psychology. However, the primary focus of the journal is always on experimental investigations conducted in field or laboratory settings. The traditional most prevalent articles in this journal have been applied questions in memory, perception, learning, decision making, human performance, and attention. However, the journal also welcomes researches on any area of applied experimental psychology including investigations from fields as diverse as cognitive, abnormal, educational, and developmental, health, forensic, social, human factors, sport or organizational psychology (APA, 2014).


APA (2014). American Psychological Association. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

n.a (2014). HyperPSYCOLOQUY. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

NIH (2014). National Institute of Mental Health. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APS (2014). Observer. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

ABS (2014). American Behavioral Scientist. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Review of General Psychology. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

Psychological Science (2014). A journal of the Association for Psychological Science. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Psychological Bulletin. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APS (2014). Perspectives on Psychological Science. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].

APA (2014). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. [ONLINE] Available at: [Last Accessed 19th November 2014].


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Creating a business plan

how to create a business plan

Creating a business plan


Creating a business plan is the most daunting task for both small and large business owner. Taking time and starting to draw a business plan is never easy for most entrepreneurs. However, there a factor of tips that cans the process much easy. Before starting the process, it is comparative to spend some time brainstorming, even before you put a pen o the business plan paper (Khatibi, 2002). Note down anything that occurs to the business environment. A business plan is a document that projects the roadmap of the business in the next 3-5 years ahead. It documents the road a business intends to employ to generate revenues.

Executive summary

As the name signifies, business plan executive summary contains all the information in the rest of the document. It is a snapshot of the business plan and documents the company key goals and profile. In a nutshell, an executive summary should be written last after all the other sections of the business plan have been covered.

Organization and management

Documentation of the best organization structure and management for the business indicate the key players in the management are outlined, together with their resumes.The business owner should use this section to certify to the investors that the team behind the management is indeed professionally competent for the assigned roles. However, it is considered unethical for the owner to lie about the management competency (Mirandola et al 2011).In case any position is vacant, indicate how the issue is going to be managed, for instance by outsourcing the functions of the lacking position holder, e.g. account docket.

Funding request

In case the business is seeking other sources of funds, indicate the potential firms or stakeholders to approach for the funds and document any necessary information about the funding process.

Company Description

Include the products of the business, the difference of the business from others and the market it intends to serve. This is the section that covers all the business idea behind the business plan inclusive of the legal formation of the business.

Service or product line

Indicate what the company sells, how it will benefit the customers, the product lifecycle and cover a brief story about the product or service for awareness purposes.

Financial projections

Suppose the business needs external financial support, provide a clear financial projections in this section. This is critical back up for the financial requests. Incorporate all the necessary information in the financial projections including the amount in possession and the amount needed to kick off the business. 

SWOT Analysis

This is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Compound on the SWOT of the business and indicate a structure to mitigate on each of them.


Market Analysis

Indicate the research strategies for the business industry, targeted market and the potential competitors in the market.

Marketing and sales

This section incorporates the marketing plans, sales strategies of the business. In a nutshell, indicate how the products will reach the consumers.

Supporting documentation

In this section, any relevant document to the company is supplied that might interest the readers of the plan. Include awards, certifications and perceived risk mitigation.


This section is optional but it is useful to include any other information such as certificate of the business, that is, if the business operates in an environment that needs certification. Include the management resumes, permits and leases. 

Works cited

Ali, Khatibi. “How Companies Can Sustain Growth and Avoid Pitfalls Creating Knowledge.” Strategic Management Conference (2002 : Kuala Lumpur). (2002): 3. Print.

Development of a Product Model for Manufacturing Planning and Control in a Made-to-Order Business. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. (Bingley, United Kingdom, n.d..Internet resource.

Mirandola, Carlos M. S. “Solving Global Financial Imbalances: A Plan for a World Financial Authority.” Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 31.3 (2011): 535-591. Print.

Mirandola, Carlos M. S. “Solving Global Financial Imbalances: A Plan for a World Financial Authority.” Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 31.3 (2011): 535-591. Print.

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Computer Mouse

Computer Mouse

A mouse is a computer hardware input device that controls cursor movements on the screen of a computer (Price, 2011). It is a tiny object that is rolled along a flat and hard surface to control the pointer on the screen. The name was derived from its size since it resembles a mouse and it has also a long tiny wire that resembles the tail of a mouse. The computer mouse moves the cursor on the screen in the same direction to which the user moves it. Mice composed of at least one button and at most three buttons each with dissimilar functions depending on the program it runs. The advanced mice also have a wheel that is used for scroll the pages up and down in the documents (Burnett-Stuart & Taylor, 2001).

Bardini (2000) indicated that Douglas Engelbart, a researcher in the Stanford Research Center invented the first mice in 1963 and was later pioneered by Xerox in 1970s. The three basics types of mice include; mechanical which hasa metal ball or a rubber underneath that roll at 360 degrees. It is fitted with mechanical sensors that automatically detect the direction of the ball and in turn move the cursor as directed by the user. Secondly, the optomechanical mouse resembles the mechanical mouse but detect the direction of the cursor by use of optical sensors. Lastly, there is the optical mouse that detects the direction of the cursor using laser. Unlike others, the optical mouse has got no mechanical moving parts and they are quicker than the opto-mechanical and mechanical mice (Price, 2011).

Market need and Product Design Specification.

The market need of the computer mouse is very dynamic with the bulging technology. However, before a consumer makes a purchase, there are various factors to consider. Firstly, it is comparative to consider the price of the item, condition and the purchasing purposes. There are variety of options that a client can chose from incase of a purchase is to be made. In the old days, before the GUI, computer was operated through text commands. Therefore, to use a computer by then, one needed to have a computer programmer. The Apple GUI discovery allowed the user to enjoy the unparalleled productivity improvements. Currently, the new interface provides the user with easy time and fewer sills to work with a computer (McCarthy & Perreault, 1990).

However, the market demands of the mouse are on the rise with the advancements on the technology. According to the report by XXX and YYYY, there is a 41% rise in computer mouse unit sales from the month of May 1998 to May 1999. It indicates that more than 3.2 million mice were bought separately exclusive of those fixed with the new computer systems. This represented over $60 million dollars. Presently, Microsoft enjoys 22.8 % of the mouse in the market while Logitech and Kensington having 21.3 % and 6.6 % respectively (Cusumano & Selby, 2005). The rest is controlled by other manufactures worldwide.

The Product Design Specification can be categorized into two broad characteristics.

  1. Operational and Physical Characteristics

Performance requirements- the device must permit the user to access the computer fully at least 8 hours daily. It must also require least movements of the parts. The input device and thearm support must both function efficiently without unnecessary adjustments.

Safety- both the arm support and the input device should not irritate the user’s skin.

Accuracy and reliability-the cursor must move to where the client directs it while displaying extreme sensitivity.

Ergonomics- the device for arm support must have height than gets adjustable.

Size and weight -the mouse must fit the hands of the client proportionally and the weight must not strain the user for at least 8 hours daily.

  1. Product Characteristics

Quantity- only one device is needed.

Cost of production- efficient budget of one unit is sufficient.

The mouse systems are currently improving with new products being manufactured. The use of the mouse is normal and fairly simple. When the mouse is powered, it runs through the calibrator.

Connection of the mouse to the computer.

The mouse is connected through the plug inn port that already exists in the computer or into the RS-232 interface box. To connect, the user must plug the 25-pin connector to the computer and the other end plugged into the interface box.

Mouse use.

The mouse works best when aligned within 45 degrees from the normal orientation. However, most users place their wrist on the surface of the mouse and grasp it using their little and thumb finger. The mouse is potable and can be lifted and its position changed. Therefore, the cursor on the screen can always appear anywhere on the computer screen even without moving the wrist (Mouse (Computer, 2012).

DIP switches.

The deep switches of a mouse use various tools, for example, the paper clip. The orientation of the pad can be adjusted on the desk space and fit accordingly. At 90 degrees, the mouse is hardly sensitive compared to its original position.

Opening the mouse.

The device must always be opened to change the DIP settings of the switch. To open, one removes the twin screws bellow the mouse when on the table and finally the top is removed. The mouse consists of four parts namely; two lenses, rubber light shield and a PC board. The LEDs and the mirror are extremely fragile and should not be touched. The LEDs are positioned funnily to illuminate the paper efficiently (Burnett-Stuart & Taylor, 2001).

Power-cycling the mouse.

To power cycle the mouse, its advisable to take at least 5 seconds before plugging it back. This will permit adequate duration for the micro compressor to reset the capacitor and discharge it.

Calibration sequence.

Bardini (2000) pointed out that the circuit and the micro compressor are verified anytime the mouse is powered. The mouse the attempts to calibrate each lead in sequence through selection of the internal DIP switch. The calibrated LEDs are then turned on and since the IR LEDs cannot be seen, when the button is pressed both the red LEDs to function. This shows that the mouse is powered and calibration goes on.However, any button should not be pressed when the mouse is still calibrating.

Moreover, the mouse must always be moved constantly with comfortable speed for proper calibration of the LEDs. The IR LEDs are responsible for detecting the crossing green lines while the red LEDs detect the blue lines crossing over. Additionally, it is advisable to move the mouse with wide circles to complete the calibrations. Otherwise, the mouse only calibrates on high contrast ratio surfaces like the mouse pad. When the one LED is on it shows that the calibration process has been finalized and there exists no difference when the button switch is pressed and the cursor on the screen of the computer will start moving. On non-rotatable mode, the mouse only shows one red LED on while in rotatable, both LEDs are on (Price, 2011).

Advanced surface material

Most recent mice use infrared imaging to locate specific points where the hand meets the surface of the mouse. Advanced materials are applied to each zone to improve the durability and comfort. Additionally, to take care of heat and moisture that is built up, durable hydrophobic coating is added in the area around the palm. In case of heavy zones of contact, coating that are fingerprint-resistant are put on the bottom of the mouse.

Light weight design.

The mice are designed with lightest weight possible. This allows the user to hold and rotate the mouse more comfortably without using much energy. Ideally, the mouse should be used for at least eight hours daily without causing fatigue to the user.

Manufacturing of the mouse parts.

To manufacture a mouse, various procedures have to be followed simultaneously to make the units of the mouse. Firstly, the printed circuit board gets cut from the material and prepared. This is a resin-coated, flat sheet of considerable amount of surface. The surface-mount version has to be assembled by the machine (McCarthy & Perreault, 1990). Thereafter, the computer controlled sequencer which is always automatic is used to place the ­­­­­­­­­­­electrical components on the board in a proper manner depending on the pattern.

Furthermore, the encoder mechanism is assembled in a separate unit. Plastic parts are manufactured through injection-molding considering the specific model required. Then, the unit gets assembled, fastened to the PCB by use of screw. At this stage the board is completely assembled and therefore goes to the electronic tests of quality control (Mouse (Computer), 2012).

The tail of the mouse is manufactured using electrical wires, rubber cover and shielding. It has strain relieve devices that assists in the prevention of the cable from detaching from either the mouse or the plugging port.

Additionally, the outer shell is inspected by electrical experts after molding, surface treatment and trimming just before the assembly. The outer covering is assembled in four stages: PCB and encoder are inserted at the shell bottom and finally put together using automatic screw drivers (Brown, 2002).

Final performance and electronic inspection is done when the assembly is complete afterwhich rubber is pre applied on the added side of the mouse.

The process of manufacturing a mouse is short but requires competence of high level to achieve. Scholars have foreseen that advanced mice is yet to be produced with manufacturing firms currently working on it.


Bardini, T. (2000). Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, coevolution, and the origins of personal computing. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Brown, D. E. (2002). Inventing modern America: From the microwave to the mouse. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Burnett-Stuart, N., & Taylor, L. (2001). The Magic computer mouse. Genoa: Black Cat Pub.

Cusumano, M. A., & Selby, R. W. (2005). Microsoft secrets: How the world’s most powerful software company creates technology, shapes markets, and manages people. New York: Free Press.

McCarthy, E. J., & Perreault, W. D. (1990). Basic marketing: A managerial approach. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Mouse (Computer). (2012).

Price, M. (2011). Computer basics. Southam, U.K: Easy Steps Limited.

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