How To Write An Argumentative Essay -with Examples

How To Write Argumentative Essays with Examples

How To Write Argumentative Essays with 2 Examples 

An argumentative essay is a persuasive way used to find a solution for convincing someone with an opinion or idea.

It is applied based on well-researched facts and evidence to increase the convincing power of the argument.

Although the writing process of a regular essay might be tedious, an argumentative essay is even more taunting.

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY?

This argumentative essay is created under the writer’s opinion or idea which is used to convince anyone with opposing viewpoints.

However, it’s not as easy as you may think just like creating some statements does not help in cutting the mustard.

An argumentative essay shows the importance of possessing some major components which increase the power of the convincing.

HOW TO WRITE THE ESSAY

Unlike a regular essay, this type of essay requires a particular structure. The chosen topic for the article should be eye-catching to attract a good number of readers.

After deciding on the subject, it’s time to come with an argument based on the same. In the argument part, it requires strong statements for your idea to be convincing.

This is essay part needs a lot of creativity because it works along with the readers’ thoughts.

Remember that personal experience will not help in strengthening your argumentative essay.

Besides, with a good content source like scientific studies and government resources will be appreciated by any reader even when he or she is on the opposition side.

It is also vital to ensure that you are using data that is relevant to the essay topic.

SUPPORTING THE VIEWPOINT OF THE OPPOSITION

It’s good to consider that each topic has a different point of view and having the ability to disapprove the viewpoint of your opposition ignites the success of an argumentative essay.

With a few examples of an argumentative essay, this issue can be demonstrated easily.

A top quality example presents a topic backing them with a set of strong evidence. It is the strength of your evidence that decides the fate of your claim.

OBJECTING THE OPPONENTS VIEWPOINT

An opponent may not be happy with the refuting; however, if the essay contains four or three strong evidence to support the ideas.

The opposition views should be acknowledged although the refuting process has to feature things like facts, logic, quotes, and several statistics.

The presence of many pieces of evidence and statistics increases the strength of an essay. This is the section where much work and intensive research is needed to get enough facts and proofs.

But also a creative process of thoughts is required to lessen the research work and also to find any loopholes in the views of the opposition.

In most cases, the opposition views come in the third or second paragraphs in an argumentative essay.

The same content can also be used at the end, in the first paragraph or even in the body.

However, the references to the source must be included in the section for double checking of the evidence.

CONCLUSION

A conclusion comes at the end of the excellent task, and this conclusion is included in the best argumentative essay examples.

The judgment contains a summary of the main points and all the supportive evidence.

To be precise, it’s a summary of the full argumentative essay. The abstract should reflect an emphasis on the topic before concluding your essay.

This section is recommended to be maintained within a few paragraphs to avoid annoying readers.

An argumentative essay example shows that its success is determined by the convincing power of the statements to make readers adopt your opinions.

A professional and calm approach to writing the essay helps the writer in obtaining facts and evidences for backing up the claims.

In the end, this results in excellent results.

REVISION

When an essay has been dusted and done, you should not adopt the philosophy of ‘shut it and forget it.’

It’s recommended to go through the piece polishing it and checking any errors including necessary spelling and grammatical mistakes.

This refines the essay further providing an excellent template for future use.

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY EXAMPLES

When providing an extensive explanation of writing argumentative essays, it is best to offer examples to give an in-depth understanding of an argumentative essay.

‘Is much money being paid to the CEOs?’ and ‘Have people become too much dependent on mobile phones? These are the two topics chosen for argumentative essay examples.

Let’s have a look at each argumentative essay example.

EXAMPLE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY #1

Are CEOs Receiving Too Much Salary?

After the 2008 financial crisis, the world had made the CEOs the talking point. They have played many roles in the financial crisis because their wage packets are very high.

The media was alerted by the amount of money received by top people most organizations. Even now there is a belief that CEOs get paid much salary than they are worth.

Too much pay or not?

Three working days is what a top working CEO requires to make the median salary of around £30,000 which is equivalent to that of an employee in the United Kingdom.

And therefore, based on the data released in 2016, the CEO working in an FTSE 100 company receives a salary ratio that is 120 times more than that of an employee.

The median salary of a CEO sat around £3.45 million in 2015 which now has a significant increment of £4 million.

Sir Martin Sorrel, the founder of WPP Plc, is the topmost paid CEO in 2017 in the UK receiving £70 million wages.

According to research carried out by Stanford Graduate School of Business, they stated that 74% of the people in America believed that the CEOs were excessively paid.

Although there is a widely spread consensus that a CEO, being the head of an organization should receive much than the employees in a factory, the pay scale has received much attention.

Besides, the pay gap has increased within the last three decades because back then the CEOs only received 40 times the salary an average employee used to earn.

The Undeviating Direct Influence

A CEO influences the company’s productivity directly on the stock market. This may have both a positive and negative impact.

The death of Steve Jobs resulted in Apple Company losing 5% in the market stock value while the Microsoft Company gained an 8% profit after the step down of Steve Ballmer.

Besides, the trajectory and expectation of an organization depend entirely on the CEO’s vision because he or she is the person in charge.

There are CEO’s who are well-paid, but they are deciding to resign their jobs as a result of bad press. One of the famous case examples is that of Take Dame Glynis Breakwell who stepped down from Bath University as a result of media frenzy.

Bath University was growing well in all rankings during her time; hence it was money that was well spent although she was receiving a salary of around £500,000 annually she still resigned.

Most of the traders and analysts of the stock market are agreeing that CEOs have a direct impact on an organizations growth.

However, this may not have much effect on a short term period, but the vision of the CEO has a long term impact on the company.

Having so much company responsibilities on their shoulders, using a few million to pay off their hard work will not seem costly to them.

The things that need to be done

The excessive remuneration of CEOs has become discontent source amongst employees although their impact is quite intensive.

Since the 2008 financial crisis globally, this discontent is being felt widely. Just after the financial crisis, the salaries of the CEOs had taken a significant hit, but after a few years, the wages took back the journey towards the North.

Still, with the knowledge of the CEO’s influence in a company, the widespread consensus requires their salaries to drop to a reasonable range limit.

Although setting wage limits is not possible, but its performance orientation can be increased than it used to be.

With the remuneration being based on the outcomes will be a good starting point.

If substantial shreds of evidence are provided, it will be a great barometer that can be used to decide on the salary limit of CEO.

A misconception has been widely spread on the package salary stated for a CEO.

Sundar Pichai, being one of the worlds leading CEO receives a salary packet of less than $200 million annually.

The direct salary the ALPHABET CEO is receiving is $650,000, although this is sounding absurd to many.

Stock options resulting from the remaining compensation chunk, have several built-in clauses.

The compensation has attained a more modest look abruptly. This is often the great truth about the CEO’s pay.

Conclusion

There is inequality pay between the basement-level employees and the high ranked officials in an organization.

Although they all work on the progress of the company, this significant disparity among the employees may cause potential bad vibes and grudges.

More CEOs accepting lower salaries can come forward.

EXAMPLE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY #2

Have people become too much dependent on mobile phones?

In this modern society, mobile phones are a must-have asset. Other than regular conversations, they are a central application for a variety of aspects.

In the last decade, mobile phones have integrated more even after being invented to connect people while on the move.

Watching videos, listening to music and other things may not be possible. Mobile phones have started to occupy more prominent roles in people’s lives to the point of addiction which is currently a new part of life.

Overwhelming reasons for the popularity

The main reason for the rapid mobile phones growth has been narrowed down to them having changed the mode of communications perceived by humans.

These devices have made the world a small place since they permit communication rapidly.

Rather than the vocal communication used several decades ago, it may not be possible to send videos, pictures, and location using mobile phones.

They are crucially flexible with something for everyone in this department. These godsend mobile devices resolve Long-distant relationships.

Also, they have as well established business performance even when there is a large mass of earth separating them.

The mobile device is now an emergency device for safety as revealed by statistical data showing that mobile devices of Americans are used to make 74% of distress calls.

Has The Dependency Rate Increased?

Mobile phones have been embraced by modern society at a cost but in a big way. The essence socialism of today is translated into a tiny handheld device.

These devices are now multifaceted which has increased the mobile devices dependence level including small actions such as checking the time of the day.

The addiction to mobile phones is now a big problem, and even when there is no communication, people are still glued to mobile phones.

Any time during the day, the mobile phone is now the hubs that provide entertainment. Variety medium has been used by most creators of content to install entertainment games and applications into these mobile devices

The negative impact of excess usage of mobile phones

The risk analysis of our daily lives caused by mobile phones was done a few years back by ‘The World Unplugged Project.’

To confirm, the longest time a person can survive without a mobile phone, an experiment was carried out which ended badly.

Mobile phones were kept away from the participants for 24 hours whereby some of the displayed physical problems while others showed plenty of psychological symptoms.

Mobile devices have a huge impact that can be summed with the behaviors like checking mobile phone for new messages and also when there is nothing available.

People continuously think about receiving new contents on their mobile phone which is having an influence on society badly.

Conclusion

Even though mobile phones are making our life convenient, it is also coming with plenty of other health problems.

Mobile devices are superficially appearing to enhance life’s quality, but on the other hand, they are continuously consuming the whole society.

Although it’s not possible or feasible to remove mobile phones in our life, each person should see the weight of the problems resting in their pockets.

They are a source of depression, loneliness, stressfulness, frustrations, nervousness, irritability, and anxiousness which is spreading around us.

Therefore, it is crucial to limit the usage of mobile phones.

CONCLUSION

It’s not confusing to write argumentative essays. You will easily be able to convince readers to support your viewpoint as long as you key all the elements in the essay.

To convince of the two options your viewpoint is the stronger viewpoint; it is essential to have credible sources.

To make your viewpoint stronger than that of the opposing side, you should provide factual evidence to be able to refute the opposition.

We are suggesting you check out our examples of argumentative essays as you also check out our different topics because they will help you in writing quality work.

PREJUDICE AGAINST MUSLIMS IN THE MEDIA

PREJUDICE AGAINST MUSLIMS IN THE MEDIA

Global, political, social and economic development has in recent years distressed the relations amongst European, western and Islamic cultures strongly.[1] With time now, there has been unsettling changes worldwide since Non-Muslims and Muslims became preys of violence and terror by persons pretending to act in the title of Islam. As a result there occurred an increased misunderstanding and prejudice against Muslims in the media by the sophisticated media sources.in this era wars begin, continue and end with media.[2] The Media shapes the peoples opinion and reports by their censorship hence can be used as an important weapon. The media forms how we see the world.

It is common that emergencies often determines the policy making process of the public. These reveal journalists’ vital role in communicating the information. But choosing destructive and alarming names for groups that influential policymakers distaste, are all parts of tricks in the media.[3]

In this day and age, several media campaigns are going against Muslim and the Islam culture. A lot of Western media with large financial assets and several channels show rough images of Islam to their communities. [4]The Muslim groups at the same time are trying to convey positive messages through their media, however their efforts are not fruitful due to the global saturation of the western media.

The World Trade Centre attacks of September 11, 2001 are still felt and the deeply affected is the American Muslim group. Since the attacks Muslims in the US have been violated economically, politically and socially, amidst these this discriminations are clear misunderstandings about Islam hence development of Islamophobia (deep social anxiety towards Islam).[5]Polls directed between 2001- 2009 show American misunderstandings concerning Islam. Almost 45 percent of Americans assumed that Islam is more likely to inspire violence among its followers than other religions; also 36 percent of Americans did not recall any beliefs of the Islam faith .The two most publicized images in the media are of the Muslim male who is a terrorist and the veiled woman. [6]Most media, use these images to portray the male as being fundamentalists and the female as being subjugated by her religion.

As a result of the attacks, the government of America modified and added on immigration policies and security measures. These joint enactments of the CLEAR Act and Patriot Act culminated in increased tailing of Muslims. Muslims were and are still being denied formal charges and council while being held for long periods of time. Scrutiny of Muslims is constant in mosques, library records, bank accounts, and places of work and on the Internet.[7] A year after the 9/11 events ,the Attorney General broadcasted the introduction of the National Security Exit Entry Registration System (NSEERS).this  The program was functional to men from Muslim countries living in the United States. They were expected to report for multi-phase registration .This program proved futile in two ways. Firstly, they did not put clear information regarding the requirements and secondly, the program used inhumane detention methods on Muslims resulting to violation of human rights and mistreatment.

The U.S. CLEAR Act and Patriot Act negatively influences the civil rights of Muslim minority groups and have resulted in the devastation of Muslim community and the U.S. Government relations. In addition, use of racial profiling has encouraged media stereotyping.[8]

Muslims face social discrimination and physical abuses U.S. Department of Justice report allegations of abuse that include:  internet, telephone, threats, assaults, vandalism and bombings of houses, companies, and mosques.[9] These assaults generate fear throughout the Muslim community are as targeted in safe places such as their homes and the mosque, ten years after World Trade Centre attacks a debate has rose in the mainstream media outlets against building of mosques around the nation.[10]

Muslim professionals have stated that they have been discriminated against when it comes to employment. They report being called names by co-workers, like terrorist or Osama, and protest that their bosses do not allow wearing the headscarves or partaking in prayer times.[11] The wide spread nature of this hatred perpetrated by the media can be seen in the comments of well-known public figures, for instance Franklin Graham a Christian evangelist said during an interview in one of the western medias that the God of Islam is not the Sovereign God plus he is not the God of the Christian faith and that he firmly believes that it is a different God concluding that Islam is a very wicked and evil religion. Pope Benedict XVI also referred to Muhammad’s offerings as inhuman and evil. Mary Jo O’Neill, advocate of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission said, there has been a level of spite and hostility that is appalling.[12]

Even before the World Trade Centre attacks the views of Muslims in the United States had already been tarnished this can be traced to intentional myth making by film and media, coming up with images categorizing the unwanted ‘other’ in its midst. A few days after 9/11 attacks almost all news channels were showing images of what the hijackers looked like resulting to Americans turning their fright and hatred on to anyone who resembled the faces of the suspects. The media only served to fuel the hatred.[13] Ever since 9/11 the media has continuously depicted the Middle East as unappreciative for the assistance that the United States has purportedly brought. Complete with dishonest lies and reporting part of the stories, it is not a surprise that 600,000 dead Iraqis were never named or counted.[14]

Media outlets in the U.S. do not report facts about the war in Iraq it only tells a side of the story. These media represent Islam as fundamentalism, extremism and radicalism. Definitely, in the current world where the role of media is vital, the image of authenticity can be worked to distort the actual facts. The media have tried to depict Muslims as terrorists posing a threat to the security to the western nations. By this, they try to justify the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the recent years, this method has led to the advent of Islamophobia. Diminutive efforts have been made to answer to these negative campaigns. On the contrary, the actions of terrorist sets that kill people, aid their media to show that they are mutually preys of terrorism.

The consciousness raising of  experts, scholars and media analysts after the 9/11 period  through the media has created a problem for legislators and the public as they look for answers to queries like: What are the reasons of radicalism and anti-Americanism?, Why do they dislike us?, What do Muslim women think about their position in Islam? , Is Islam harmonious with democracy? What are the origins of global terrorism? And many more. Consequently, a reader is trapped between the opposing positions of superficially competent experts as well as a new force of Islamophobic authors who participate in a heretical reading of Islam and Islamic history.[15]

The logic of threat to the Muslim cultural uniqueness is heightened by a predominant feeling that a powerful and secular West inflicts its ideals upon the Muslim world. For instance ,When asked a question like ,what do they dislike most about the West in their own words?, the most recurrent answer across all Islamic countries for both political  and moderate radicals was sexual and cultural promiscuity then; ethical and moral corruption and finally hatred of Muslims.[16] Another source of hatred comes from the representation of Muslims in the Western media.

A study by Jack Shaheen in his manuscript, Reel Bad Arabs- How Hollywood Vilifies a People, established that the huge majority of Arab characters in 900 American films were complete racist characters. Imageries of day to day life and usual Muslims in their nations are almost non-existent or one-sided in the western media.[17] Additionally, the western media which are widespread in the Muslim world boost imitation of Western style, behaviors and values.

Television news are the most significant source of public information about world events.[18] Just about 80 percent of people rely on it as their leading source of news, Western media with huge financial means try to show a bad picture of Islam to their public.

Selected scholars are certain that there is a direct association between modern global communication and terrorism. Their readings show that most terrorists’ actions are propaganda. Terrorism is a secondary psychological approach which avoids at all costs direct connection with opponents.[19] Thus, without media attention terrorism disappears. After the world trade Centre attacks, the word terrorism and Muslim or Islam became synonymous in western countries.

The illustration of Muslims in the media recounts to the lack of taking and accepting of differences, the media creates public fear around the terrorist menace. One scholar said terrorism war is a war of images and the ones that are most effective are those of victims of terrorism. On the flip side there is discrimination related with Islamophobia which tries to show that Muslims are a threat to safety. The emphasis on terrorism merges TV coverage of Muslim news and the central image is Islamic Terrorism.[20]

Due to frequent repetitive destructive propaganda by the numerous media sources, religious and cultural prejudices against the Muslims have gone round like wild fire. The media, is further interested in dramatic news than functional constructive news.[21] It is well known fact that Islam condemning goes on in the western media. Western countries like the USA majorly take up very hostile attitudes towards Islamic countries like Libya, Iran, and Iraq who challenge USA authorities. USA not only reprimands them brutally (as for instance bombings on Iraq and on pharmaceutical factory in Sudan) but also starts publicity warfare against Islamic countries and its people in their media.

Out of frustration, some militant youth carried out ferocious attacks on some American establishments (for instance, bombings on the World Trade Centre). As a consequence of this a regular American has a very bad prejudice toward Islam and Muslims as it is thought to be a religion of violence and fanaticism.[22] In the same way the internal radical violence in Algeria has spread over to France. The Algerian radicals carried out bombing occurrences in Paris too as it believes the French Government collaborates with the Algerian authorities in eliminating Muslim militants, hence this leading to strong prejudices against Islam among the French.

During the development of history there have been journeys from one country to another and from one region within a country to other regions. These conflicts are not new. Muslims and Christians fought on the query of control over Palestine and these historical wars are known as the crusades.[23] The enthusiasm with which these wars were battled between Muslims and Christians made crusade synonymous with fanaticism and thus a new phrase crusading spirit came into reality. It was the crusades that instigated great deal of confusion about Islam in western countries through the medieval period.

The image of Muslims’ holy book in one hand, and blade in the other, was the conception of these crusades.[24] Likewise, the Muslim conquests on North India led to image of Islam as vicious religion in the thoughts of many Hindus (though just a few Hindus were partners in these attacks). All of These images are being recovered in the modern settings to work for present-day political interests. Nevertheless, due to propaganda buildup an average Hindu thinks of a Muslims as violent and fanatic. The media again plays a significant role in spreading such images and ideas.[25]

According to several studies, Muslim Australians normally experience discrimination, racial slander, actual violence and threats of violence. Others observed that a general inconsiderateness towards Muslim cultural practices like refusal to allow prayer breaks and negative judgments about their dressing and names.[26] The studies in their conclusion stated that Muslim Australians were highly experiencing discrimination along the theme that Muslim Australians are possible terrorists, that there was no home in Australia for Muslims and that Muslims should reject their cultural practices and integrate .Muslim children and women were specifically defenseless in Australia and reported sentiments of fear of attack or cruelty at home and even in public places. Muslim Women recounted being verbally and physically abused on a daily basis with intimidations such as I am going to tear that scarf off your head and crash your bag over the top of your head and smash it in, as described in when cultures disagree.

Development for the public longitudinal needs of Muslim women in Sydney, Muslim and Arab Australians gave detailed accounts of their kids undergoing intimidation and bullying in institutions, thus many parents resort to admitting that they have no other choice but to send their children to Islam schools, not essentially for the education, but for their security and safety.[27]

Concern has been amplified in Australia since the Bali bombings and the responsiveness given to the controversial readings. Some analysts speak about the Muslim issues and the need for Muslim Australians to integrate, while on the other side others maintain that the Australian people should continue to embracing multiculturalism.

Conclusion

It is clear that the Muslim who is citizen or non-citizen in westernized countries continuously face difficult and extreme challenges from social, political, economic and institutional discrimination. The people are pursued in order to be influenced by political interests.[28] This manipulation is eased by the power of mass media and which now the media is not only print but also in electronic form. These media play great roles in spreading inter-cultural and inter-religious prejudices. The pictures about some culture and religion fabricated by media may not be factual but can play complete mess by distributing strong prejudices against specific groups. The media’ responsibility has become very crucial in this modern time. Electronic media even more so.[29]

But the media can take part in positive contributions as we have to exhaust every possible way to promote the dialogical life-force among the disagreeing groups.[30] There are also clear strategies that can assist in alleviating some of the misunderstanding and hatred of Islam and Muslims. Islamic establishments and societies can provide a platform for education on Islam and offer outside members to Islamic seminars and get-togethers to cultivate better relationships with the outside community.[31] Also an American chronicles of Islam can be created, comparable to the African-American narratives. These can assist to expand the average American’s understanding of Islam and its basic code of beliefs. With increased knowledge, abuses and discrimination are more likely to be done away with ultimately.

The image of Islam and Muslim in the western media has to transform for the better and Inter-culturalism has to substitute Islamophobia.

Reference

Benazir Bhutto .Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[1] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[2] Ibid.,34

[3] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[4] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008

[5]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[6] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

[7] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[8]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[9]  Ibid.,6

[10] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012

[11] Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[12] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007

[13] Ibid,.66

[14] Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

[15] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[16] Ibid.,71

[17] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London;  New York, 2007.

[18]  Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[19] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[20]  Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[21] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[22] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[23] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[24] Ibid.,12

[25] Ibid.,29

[26] Ibid.,33

[27] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[28] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[29] Ibid.,46

[30] Ibid.,48

[31] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Law and Constitution in Canada the Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

Description of the Abortion Issue in Canadian Constitutional Law

The subject of abortion for some time has troubled the Canadian society. This is because it is an issue that involved widely varying and deeply held viewpoints about rights of an individual, women’s role, moral norms, and the societal responsibilities (Dunsmuir, 1). The issue of abortion in the Canadian constitutional law is potentially disruptive and divisive issue. The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the provisions of the criminal code that governs the procedures of abortion in early 1988. Moreover, a new bill for abortion (Bill C-43) was introduced late in 1989 in parliament with the belief that a negotiated legislation would offer solution to the discussion of abortion at the federal level. However, in 1991, the bill was overwhelmed by unprecedented tied in the senate (Dunsmuir, 1).

The attitudes towards the issue of abortion throughout history have been influenced by social mores, religious principles, and attitudes towards family and the women. Of late, the attitudes towards abortion have increasingly been influenced by advances in the technology as well as, including safer and simpler techniques of abortion, and improved techniques for understanding development of the fetus (Dunsmuir, 1).

In the constitutional law, the abortion issue has elicited considerable discussion over the limits  of the responsibilities of the federal government, or their jurisdiction over abortion. This is for the reason that abortion is a health issue and needs a medical procedure. If to the desirable extent to ban abortions, or create the situations under which abortions cannot be done, then the federal government will have the jurisdiction, since moral reasons or prohibition of action of health is constitutional linked to criminalization. However, if the desirable extent for abortion regulation, or the conditions under which abortion regulations can be performed, then the government shall have the jurisdiction and the duty and right to regulate such issues of health (Dunsmuir, 1).

 

Analysis

Principles of Fundamental Justice as the basis for assessing the abortion issue

principles of fundamental justice, according to CCLN, refers to the principles against which the laws that are potentially infringing must be measured if they are in compliance with section 7 of the charter. This section is concerned with the security, liberty and life of a person. It states that everyone has the right to security, liberty and life as well as the right not to be deprived of these rights in line with the fundamental justice principles (1).

The enumerated rights under section 7 of the charter can be compromised in the cases where the laws regarded as infringing are in accordance with the fundamental justice principles (Canlii – 1988 Canlii 90 (SCC)). This implies that within the justice system, there are core values that must prevail over these rights for the society’s greater good. These include substantive guarantees and natural justice (Re B.C. Motor Vehicle Act, [1985]).

In 1983, Dr. Henry Morgentaler with other two physicians were charged for procuring miscarriages illegally. When the case reached the supreme court, several legal matters had been reduced effectively as whether the criminal code’s abortion requirements, in an way that is not justified, infringed on the woman’s right to security, liberty and life as guaranteed under section 7 of the charter (Dunsmuir, 1). In their decision, all the judges agreed that section 251 (now 287) of the criminal code infringed on the right to security of the woman. Also, the processes by which a woman was deprived of this right was not in accordance to the fundamental justice. These decisions echo a finding by Wilson J. who in 1969 found that abortion law was in accord with the fundamental justice principles (Dunsmuir, 1).

Political implications

Abortion laws in Canada has for many years been controversial and sensitive politically. With removal of some unconstitutional provisions in the criminal code, this may elicit anti-abortion movements sentiments as well as those opposed to abortion laws. Back then and today, the issue of abortion has remained political and divisive and condemned by both sides, that is the pro-life and the pro-choice camps. The pro-choice camp consider abortion as a individual issue that should be decided by the expectant woman and not by the state (Long, 1). Throughout 1970s and 1980s, the pro-choice (those looking for abortion legalization and its funding by the public) and the pro-life camp (those seeking abortion law that is stricter) organized huge rallies and demonstrations.

However, since the ruling of 1988, abortion issue has continued being a hot political issue. As a result, the governments and the federal political parties since 1990 have avoided the topic of abortion in their legislative debate, favoring the supreme court to have the final word instead of enacting new legislation that would either make the present system formal, or in some way change it. Some individual members of parliament on many occasions have brought to the floor private member bills in the past decades (both sides of the debate on abortion). However, none of these bills have passed the House of Commons and so none has become a law (Long, 1).

Should constitutional or legal rules relating to the abortion issue be changed?

This paper is of the opinion that the legal or constitutional rules relating to the abortion issue should be changed. This view is also supported by the federal government in Canada since they have started the processes of stripping sections of the Canada’s criminal code that are outdated. In landmark Supreme Court ruling in 1988 that favored Dr. Henry Morgentaler, the court found the prohibition against abortion to be unconstitutional. However, the text that outlawed forced miscarriage was never expunged from the books (Harris, 1).

Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould earlier this year stated that if the government is going to remove the provisions of the abortion from the criminal code or making a link to the discussion of abortion, the Canadian government without equivocation acknowledges and recognizes the women’s constitutional rights and taking the courageous steps to make sure it expunges the section from the criminal code (Harris, 1).

Harris also pointed out that the experts in criminal justice have been calling on the government to enact reforms on the code which they state that is composed of laws that are outdated, inconsistent language and duplications (1). For instance, Stephen Coughlan, a law professor at Dalhousie University indicated that a wider overhaul is needed

Lastly, the paper is also of the opinion that the enforcement system/ penalty system for the rules be changed to increase compliance with the rules. This is because this provisions in the criminal code criminalizes the conscience and a moral decision of whether or not to terminate pregnancy. This violates the freedoms of conscience that is protected by section 2(a) of the charter, and is not in accord with the fundamental justice (Dunsmuir, 1).

Work cited

“Canlii – 1988 Canlii 90 (SCC).” Canlii.org. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. < https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/scc/doc/1988/1988canlii90/1988canlii90.html>

CCLN. “Principles Of Fundamental Justice – Canadian Criminal Law Notebook.” Criminalnotebook.ca. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017.

Dunsmuir, Mollie. “Abortion: Constitutional And Legal Developments (89-10E).” Publications.gc.ca. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <http://www.publications.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR/8910-e.htm#ISSUE>

Harris, Kathleen. “Government Moves To Strip Abortion Law From Criminal Code.” CBC News. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/justice-legislation-criminal-code-1.4015508>

Long, Linda. “Abortion In Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., 2017. Web. 6 Oct. 2017. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/abortion/>

Re B.C. Motor Vehicle Act, [1985] 2 SCR 486, 1985 CanLII 81 (SCC), <https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/scc/doc/1985/1985canlii81/1985canlii81.html>, retrieved on 2017-10-06

Comparison/ Contrast about Creation Myth

Comparison/ Contrast about Creation Myth

Comparison/ Contrast about Creation Myth

  1. Creation Theories

The first lines in the first section of the bible states that “in the beginning God create heaven and earth” this means that the earth had no form, it was full of darkness and it dint contain anything. After that event, God continued to create different things day by day as according to Carlson, Richard and Tremper (25) as explained below in details;

First Day: God created light and light was separated from darkness that occurs at different time of the day.

Second Day: God created the universe that separated water and sky.

Third day: God created the earth and the sea and later on the same day God created plants and animals to live in. the earth is the dry land where plants can grow and animals can either live in waters or on the land.

Fourth day: God made moon, sun, stars and other objects in the skies that are important in providing light and influencing climatic conditions necessary for the existence of animal and plants created in the second day. Also, these items were used to signify the beginning or the ending of seasons such as daytime, nighttime, month and years.  Climatic condition can also be influenced by items create in fourth day such as hotness, cold, windy, rainy seasons that have major impact of land and water (Carlson, Richard F & Tremper, 33)

On the fifth day: God created creatures for filling the sky and water. They include winged birds and aquatic animals.

On the sixth day, God made animals that were to exist on the land and later made human being to rule over these animals. Human being was the man and a woman who were called Adam and Eve. While creating a human being, God ensured that they have resembled him and gave then more knowledge and powers to do things than all the other animals.

On the last day God rested having finished creating things and this day God made it holly. In this day, God rested and resting portrays the need for refreshing that every human being requires for the sake of relieving our inner self from effects of stress, strain, tiredness and other aspects in social lives (Carlson and Longman, 42).

In the begin chapters of the bible, the genesis 1st, the book give two characters who include, the man and God who represents the biblical drama. God is the centre-stage while the main theme is to portray a divine love biblically whereby, God create all other things separately and offers his love to a human being by assigning then to him and to take control over them. Similarly, genesis 1 is showing God as the author of creation and creation theory being a Devine drama, the drama can then be comprehended by beliefs of an individual. When reading this chapter, one tends to ask him/herself, how? When? Where? Did all that happen? Answer to these questions will remain mysterious to the audience but the main gain to the audience is the faith enrichment.

Accordingly, Carlson & Longman (56) states that at the end of creation, God rested and was thankful to all the work he did and considered it as “Good”. It is for this reason that despite all the challenges individuals face everyone will remain part of Gods creations that is so great to him. Creation story teaches us that after God accomplished his work he praised and enjoyed about it, therefore our work is the sources of our daily living and we should be proud about it. The interrelation of faith and reason might provide us with an alternative way of approaching the individual categories of faith and reason. The major claim of this biblical concept is that they both play a part in understanding God and Scripture (Carlson & Longman, 62). To elaborate on this a little bit more, this concept also means that we all have to place our faith in some authority (in a religious context: God or Scriptures) as the basis for how we think and do. However, we should not be satisfied with simply resting on an authority, but we should seek to understand the authority in which we have placed our faith.  In other words, we should not just believe, but we should seek to understand why and what we believe. The driving idea behind this concept is the complete association between Gods creations and the work of mankind (Carlson & Longman, 71).

  1. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

According to Francis (118) Darwin’s theory believes in of biological evolutions is based on notion that live evolved from common ancestors but from different species. The theory assumes that, simples creatures have been changing over long period of time to give simple creatures that exists today. Darwin theory presumes that natural evolutions occur to nonliving thing and over years for living things. For instance, according to Darwin, Man originated from an animal that through environmental facture, its changes gradually over years until it formed mankind.

  1. Mayan Creation Theories

Mayan creation theory tells that there were two Gods who made the world and include Tepeu the Maker and Gucumatz the Feathered Spirit. These two Gods met in the darkness and decided to create the world through imaginations. Anything they could think about in their imaginations came to being an exhausting all imaginations the world way create and complete with everything.  Animals were also created and later decided to man a mankind that was created after a number of attempts. Previous attempts to make a mankind lacked simple skills that made them be destroyed while others disappeared in the woods and became monkeys (Kaku, 109).

This theory of creation is based on assumption of events and thing. Mayan creation theories can be based on historical facts and it does not show the true origin of events or mankind. The theory can be assumed to be imaginative story that it full of facts but no evidence. These facts are similar to biblical creation theories in the way they occur and the time that are created at different events (Kaku, 121).

4. INUIT Theories

According to the theory, the world existed and was empty and silent. The theory is sources from “Raven” that made the waters with beats of his wings. Accordingly, man existed but had no knowledge of survival or the ability to do anything. The “Raven” being the main character that changed the man nature by offering whatever it was asked. Every creation was done in different days as man asked from the Raven. Therefore, most creations including animals, plants and other beings were made through man desire for then and from the powers of the raven.

Different theories have been the sources of many myths found amongst mankind from different backgrounds and the key driver to the formation of different religions. Mythical dimensions are symbolic influences to cultures, religious conflicts, politics, social esteem, natural or scientific ideas and the formation of laws amongst modern society.

References

Carlson, Richard F, and Tremper Longman. Science, Creation And The Bible. 1st ed. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 2010. Print.

Francis, Keith. Charles Darwin and The Origin Of Species. 1st ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2007. Print.

Kaku, Michio. Parallel Worlds. 1st ed. New York: Doubleday, 2005. Print.

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AUSTRALIAN CORPORATION LAW – Lifting The Corporate Veil

AUSTRALIAN CORPORATION LAW - Lifting The Corporate Veil

AUSTRALIAN CORPORATION LAW – corporate veil

Introduction

Under the Australian corporate law or the company law, a corporation is referred specifically as a legal person.[1] This means the corporation is regarded as a subject who has rights and has capability of entering into contracts, owning property, can be sued and has the ability to sue in its own name.[2] This means that a corporation under the Australian corporation laws is a juristic person that is treated as a person legally in most instances and is empowered of owning property, can sue or be sued, and even execute contracts. According to Burnett,[3] the main motivation of creating a company or a corporation in Australia is the offered limited liability to the company’s shareholders. The doctrine of limited liability states that a shareholder of a company can only loose what they contributed to the corporation as shares. However, Presser[4] pointed out that there are exceptions to the limited liability’s general concept. This implies that in some circumstances, the courts have to examine deeply the corporation, and this is referred to as piercing the veil or lifting the incorporation veil.[5] When a court pierces the veil, it holds the company’s shareholders liable for the corporation’s obligations personally and directly. The invocation of the veil doctrine is done when the distinction between the shareholders and the corporation is blurring.[6] Ramsay[7] noted that despite the fact that a corporation or a company acts as a separate legal entity, it does so through the human agents. Therefore, there are two major ways in which a corporation becomes liable to the Australian corporate or company law. That is through secondary liability, where the human agents that compose it act in their line of employment, or through direct liability for the infringement committed directly.

Lifting of the corporate veil has two theories, that is the self theory or the “alter ego,” and the other is the instrumentality theory.[8] Anderson[9] indicated that the alter-ego theory makes consideration whether there exists boundaries between the shareholders and the corporations. On the other hand, the instrumentality theory evaluates the corporation’s use by the shareholders in ways that are beneficial to the owner instead of the corporations. Therefore, it is upon the court to make a decision on the theory it applies of the two doctrines.[10] Generally in Australia, piercing of the corporate veil by the courts is very rare since the courts are very reluctant, and it is only done when imposition of liability one to reach a result that is equitable.

The Concept of Separate Legal Personality-The Veil Doctrine

The clause of separate legal personality has an important ingredient in it, and that is the limited liability. The limited liability of the shareholders to the corporation gives the investors certain insurance in the corporation from their private lives. Therefore, the maximum a shareholder of a corporation can lose is the paid amount for the shares and this is his or her investments value.[11] Therefore, the claims to the corporation by the creditors may be satisfied with the assets of the corporation to settle their claims, and they cannot proceed to the separate or the personal assets of the owners or the shareholders.[12] This according to McLaughlin[13] caps the risk to the investor, and subsequently their potential for gain. Corporations evidently exists to shield their shareholders from being individually liable for the corporations debts

The doctrine of limited liability, in fact goes hand in hand with the separate legal personality concept. The significance of the concept of limited liability is that it protects the company members and itself, and also helps in facilitation of the commercial ventures that is of the company’s interest.[14] This principle acts further by encouraging and attracting investment in the corporate from individuals and other limited companies, which is needed to speed up development. Similarly, the principle facilitates better strategies for development by the company, in addition to raising the standards of corporate organization managerial.

Burnett  described the separate legal personality concept as “…essential use of language metaphorically, naming a formal group with a legal separate single entity by analogy with a natural person”[15]

The Australian corporate laws, in fact requires the shareholders of the company to make a response to the organizational realities of the company, and also making intelligible and conforming with organizations treatment as legal actors.[16] This implies that the conception of a corporation is prescriptive, descriptive, ideological and analytical. However, Burnett[17] pointed out that the conception of law that a company before law is a legal person to some extent is satisfying and seems proper. However, the problem is very much complex. In his argument, he states that the concepts have life “in law” of their own because of their ability to influence ex ante the judges’ thinking and to be involved ex post by judges to make justification of their conclusion.

Limited liability concept

The key concept behind the company’s legal personality is that it is separate from its owners’ or shareholders. This is based from the limited liability clause of separate legal personality. The concept of the limited liability is aimed at providing investors certain insurance of their own personal properties and lives from their businesses. Therefore, the only amount that a shareholder of corporation can lose is the paid amount for the shares which is his or her investment value.[18] The corporation’s creditors who have claims against the corporation may be satisfied by the corporation’s assets and cannot go beyond to the personal assets of the shareholders

The treatment of the separate legal personality by the courts under the Australian common law jurisdictions

The piercing of veil doctrine, under the Australia common law jurisdictions is one of the methods in which the courts mitigate the logical fulfillment strenuous demands of the concept of separate legal personality. According to Presser,[19] the problems of getting some principle through all different decisions of the courts stems basically from the cases false unity. As much as they involve many different issues, they are still associated with the veil concept metaphor

Interpretations of the limited liability concept verses lifting the veil illustration

Salomon V. Salomon & Co[20]

The Salomon case also referred to as the Salomon V. Salomon & Co case is the precedence and the foundational case for the corporate personality doctrine, and guide to the judiciary of corporate veil lifting.[21] In the Salomon case, the House of Lords affirmed the legal principle that a company is considered generally, upon incorporation to be a new separate legal entity from its shareholders. This was done by the court in relation to what was a company of one person, who was Mr. Salomon.

Decision and facts of the Salomon case

Salomon was leather merchant and a shoe manufacturer for three decades. He formed a company when his business become solvent called Aron Salomon & Company Ltd and subsequently sold his business to it. Under the requirement of Companies Act 1862 (UK),[22] which required 7 subscribers to a company, the whole family of Salomon comprising of 5 children, and his wife subscribed to satisfy the statute

The value of the Salomon’s business was £39,000 which seemed to be inflated. After the business sale, he took £20,000 paid shares and debentures worth £10,000, secured by a flouting charge. From the purchase price, the balance remained as debt unsecured.

The company faced financial crisis soon and need funds injection, of which Salomon advanced £5000 browed from Broderip. To get the loan, the debentures were cancelled by Salomon ad reissued to Broderip. However, Broderip payment fell into arrears and he consequently enforced his security.

The company was liquidated thereafter and payments made to Broderip. However, balance of indebtedness remained secured by the debentures. Moreover, Salomon applied for reversion of entitlement. Ramsay[23] indicated that if the claim was granted, there would be no funds to pay the other creditors unsecured. The argument of the liquidators were that the debentures were invalid and fraudulent

The court held that the company was acting as an agent and a nominee of Salomon and therefore he was to personally indemnify the creditors of the company. Moreover, te court of appeal rejected his appeal and held that he was the company’s trustee which was merely his shadow. Salomon further appealed to the House of Lords, which rejected the rulings of the lower courts. Lord MacNaghted indicated that.

The company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers to the Memorandum and, although it may be that after incorporation the business is precisely the same as it was before, and the same persons are managers, and the same hands receive the profits, the company is not in law the agent of the subscribers or trustee for them.  Nor are subscribers as members liable, in any shape or form, except to the extent and in the manner provided by the Act.  That is, I think, the declared intention of the enactment[24]

The House of Lords judgment brought out the concept of company as a legal entity. The independence and separation from the individuals involved in the management of the company and structure was defined in the Salomon’s case. Therefore, if the creditors transacted with the company, the recourse has to be made with the company not the people behind it.

Lee v Lee’s Air Farming [1961] AC 12 & Industrial Equity Ltd v Blackburn (1977) 52 ALJR 89[25]

In this case Lee formed Lee Air Farming Ltd that deals with aerial top dressing. All the shares were held by him except one held by his lawyer. He was the managing director of the company and the chief pilot of the company. However, Lee got killed in the aero plane crush. Under the workers compensation insurance of the company, his widow sued the company but was rejected the court of appeal of New Zealand on the basis that Lee as the governing director was not a employee. The widow subsequently appealed the decision to the Privy Council.

It was affirmed by the court that the court was a legal entity. Lord Morris stated that;

A contractual relationship could only exist on the basis that there was consensus between two contracting parties.  It was never suggested (nor in their Lordships’ view could it reasonably have been suggested) that the company was a sham or a mere simulacrum.  It is well established that the mere fact someone is a director of a company is no impediment to his entering into a contract to serve the company.  If, then, it be accepted that the respondent company was a legal entity their Lordships see no reason to challenge the validity of any contractual obligations which were created between the company and the deceased.”

Significance of the cases

From the cases it has been established that a company acts on its own name and right, and not through its owners or agents. For example, in the case of Gas Lighting Improvement Co Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners,[26] the court affirmed that a legal company acts independently if the shareholders. Moreover under this case, the courts established a very important doctrine under the Australian constitutional law that shareholders of a company has no liability to the debts of the company beyond their capital investments

In the case of The King v Portus; ex parte Federated Clerks Union of Australia,[27] the judges stated that the company is an entity on its own from the shareholders, and therefore they are not liable for debtors the company owes the creditors.

Conclusion

In conclusions, an Australian corporation law that governs corporations and companies in Australia identifies corporations as legal people that act on their own. As much as companies are managed, owned and run by individuals, their liability is limited to the company’s liability. The concept of separate legal personally and the concept of limited liability under the Australian constitution considers the companies independent and separate from the owners. However, the veil doctrine outlines instances where the courts can go beyond the limit of a company depending on how the company was being managed. The cases highlighted in the essay affirm that a corporate is separate from the shareholders, and therefore their personal and privates properties should not be attached because of the debt of the company’s creditors.

References

[1897] AC 22 at 51.

  1. “Corporations: Piercing the Corporate Veil”. The Australian Law Journal. 86, no. 9: 586.

Anderson H. 2009. “Piercing the Veil on Corporate Groups in Australia: The Case for Reform”. Melbourne University Law Review. 33, no. 2.

Anderson, Helen. 2012. “Challenging the Limited Liability of Parent Companies: A Reform Agenda for Piercing the Corporate Veil”. Australian Accounting Review. 22, no. 2: 129-141.

Australia. Corporate and Financial Services Regulation Review: Consultation Paper. Canberra: Treasury, 2006.

Australian Legal Group. Corporate Headlines: A News Sheet from the Australian Legal Group. [Sydney]: The Group, 1990.

Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law Guide. North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia, 1994.

Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law. Sydney: CCH Australia Ltd, 1997.

CCH Australia Limited. Australian Corporations Law. North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia, 1996.

Gas Lighting Improvement Co Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners, (1923) AC 723 at 740 – 741 .

International Corporate Legal Responsibility. Alphen aan den rijn: Wolters kluwer law & bus, 2012.

Lee v Lee’s Air Farming (1961) AC 12

McLaughlin, Sue. Unlocking Company Law 2nd Edition. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013. <http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=1181031>.

Presser, Stephen B. Piercing the Corporate Veil. New York, N.Y.: C. Boardman, 1991.

Ramsay, I. M., and D. B. Noakes. 2001. “Piercing the Corporate Veil in Australia”. COMPANY AND SECURITIES LAW JOURNAL. 19: 250-271.

Salomon V. Salomon, House of Lords. (1896), [1897] A.C. 22 (H.L.)

The King v Portus; ex parte Federated Clerks Union of Australia (1949) 79 CLR 42,

 

[1] Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law. Sydney: CCH Australia Ltd, 1997.

[2] Ibid

[3] Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law Guide. North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia, 1994.

[4] Presser, Stephen B. Piercing the Corporate Veil. New York, N.Y.: C. Boardman, 1991.

[5] Australia. Corporate and Financial Services Regulation Review: Consultation Paper. Canberra: Treasury, 2006.

[6] Ibid.,44

[7] Ramsay, I. M., and D. B. Noakes. 2001. “Piercing the Corporate Veil in Australia”. COMPANY AND SECURITIES LAW JOURNAL. 19: 250-271.

 

[8] Australian Legal Group. Corporate Headlines: A News Sheet from the Australian Legal Group. [Sydney]: The Group, 1990.

[9] Anderson H. 2009. “Piercing the Veil on Corporate Groups in Australia: The Case for Reform”. Melbourne University Law Review. 33, no. 2.

[10] 2012. “Corporations: Piercing the Corporate Veil”. The Australian Law Journal. 86, no. 9: 586.

[11] International Corporate Legal Responsibility. Alphen aan den rijn: Wolters kluwer law & bus, 2012.

 

[12] Anderson, Helen. 2012. “Challenging the Limited Liability of Parent Companies: A Reform Agenda for Piercing the Corporate Veil”. Australian Accounting Review. 22, no. 2: 129-141.

[13] McLaughlin, Sue. Unlocking Company Law 2nd Edition. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2013. <http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=1181031>.

[14] Ibid.12

[15] Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law. Sydney: CCH Australia Ltd, 1997.

[16] CCH Australia Limited. Australian Corporations Law. North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia, 1996.

[17] Burnett, Brian. Australian Corporations Law Guide. North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia, 1994.

[18] Australia. Corporate and Financial Services Regulation Review: Consultation Paper. Canberra: Treasury, 2006.

[19] Presser, Stephen B. Piercing the Corporate Veil. New York, N.Y.: C. Boardman, 1991.

[20] Salomon V. Salomon, House of Lords. (1896), [1897] A.C. 22 (H.L.)

[21] Australian Legal Group. Corporate Headlines: A News Sheet from the Australian Legal Group. [Sydney]: The Group, 1990.

[22] International Corporate Legal Responsibility. Alphen aan den rijn: Wolters kluwer law & bus, 2012.

[23] Ramsay, I. M., and D. B. Noakes. 2001. “Piercing the Corporate Veil in Australia”. COMPANY AND SECURITIES LAW JOURNAL. 19: 250-271.

[24] [1897] AC 22 at 51.

[25] Lee v Lee’s Air Farming (1961) AC 12

[26] Gas Lighting Improvement Co Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners, (1923) AC 723 at 740 – 741 .

[27] The King v Portus; ex parte Federated Clerks Union of Australia (1949) 79 CLR 42,

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