PR manager to create awareness of a new product

PR manager to create awareness of a new product

DQ2: the CEO of your company has asked you, her PR manager to create awareness of a new product it is launching.  This is the first you’re hearing of the new product. According to your text and other research, Discuss the steps you would take in terms of  1) internal communication with management; 2) research; and, 3) contacting the media.  In your discussion, include the PR tools and strategies you would choose in each of the steps, and explain why you chose them.

Communication with CEO and Management

During the internal communication, I will sell the concepts of the new product to the senior management to get their commitment for the resources during the launch. Additionally, I will ensure I win the support of many departments to form part of the process of the product launch. For instance, designing, manufacturing, development, research, marketing and distribution (Cutlip et al, 2005)

Research Steps

  • Internal Company Research

During the internal communication research, I will do communication planning which entails gathering of information and analyzing the company and the situation. This will enable me draw the needed information for the product that will drive the decisions that may come later in the process of planning.

  1. Step1-I will do analysis of the situation to ensure all stakeholders of the new product are in agreement.
  2. Step 2-I will conduct analysis of the company. This will include the company’s internal environment, the public perception and the external environment
  3. Step 3-I will conduct analysis of the key publics which interacts with the company (Morley, 2008).
  • External Media Vehicles Research

I conducting the research on the external media vehicle, we will ensure the most popular media vehicles that reach many people, that is cheap cost wise and uses minimal staff of the company. The most popular media vehicles include the broadcast, the print media and the online media.

Communication with the Media

  • Do’s and Don’ts with the media.


  1. Develop many newsworthy scenarios to showcase the message
  2. Build a good working relationship with the media
  3. Have a good kit for press like timely information on the company,management and sales figures
  4. Use every effort in spreading the word in all media rooms
  5. Keep promises especially on scheduled interviews


  1. Do not decide on the story the reporter should write even before getting the show
  2. Do not snub the little guys
  3. Do not pad the press kit with exaggerated information or gimmicks
  4. Do not hold a press conference with nothing newsworthy
  5. Do not make assumptions that the reporter knows everything of the company (McQuail, 2002).

What PR tools and strategies you’d use

  • Building awareness

Creation of awareness will make the potential market be interested in purchasing the new products. I will use the following tools in strengthening my efforts; press releases, press outreach, website updates, twitter announcements, endorsements and advertisements.

  • Building demand

I will use the following tools to create demand for the new product; email campaigns, referrals and tradeshows.

Media vehicles you would select and why

  • Online advertisement

Online advertisement will place adverts of the new product in the internet. With the large traffic number of the internet users, many will get to see our product and buy it online (McQuail, 2002).

  • Broadcast

Broadcast will entail radio and TV broadcast that reaches many viewers across a wide regional area. This will make the product popular in the area.

  • Print

The print media that will be used include the popular magazines, news papers and the Dailies. This will enable the information of the product to reach many people (McQuail, 2002).


Cutlip, S. M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (2005). Effective public relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Morley, J. (2008). Launching a new product. London: Business Books.

McQuail, D. (2002). Media performance: Mass communication and the public interest. London: Sage Publications.



Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Newly graduated nurses

Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Nursing Training

Nursing is a type of health provision that looks into the management, coordination and delivery of care services using different programs within the domain of patient-care. Nurses use the nursing process to provide care for individual patients or defined population in different health facilities or hospitals. Nursing education begins with student have to either cover different levels in nursing education that starts from a Diploma, Degree and finally Baccalaureate degree in nursing. A diploma courses are is trained in hospital that offers sponsorship training programs just within the facility and in other cases a student works as an attaché. Baccalaureate students are well placed to receive advanced working positions such as tutoring diploma students, health-care administration and patient-care.

Nursing Action

Graduate nurses are usually ready to take up different challenges in health care whereby they can work in any department such as emergency rooms or administration. New RN graduates finds themselves getting direct employment without necessarily need for orientation to different working positions. Hence, nurses need to be competent with enough knowledge to assist then in using healthcare system whereby a nurse need to think about how to use then while administering to patients needs.

Role of Residency Programs in Promoting Nursing Competency

The residency programs has been helpful in promoting health in emergency departments as it highlights importance of creating a healthy public policy ,strengthening of nursing actions, development of personal skills and reorientation of health services (Nelson et al,. 2001). Graduate nurses in a public setting or in a community they are likely to promote health through mobilizing the communities, training on health related and environmental aspects that affects health and health policies. The promotion of nurses education is an important component of health practice in form of care is the ability to physically provide diagnostic services.

Retention of graduate nurses in the health facility not addressed the shortage of staff in hospitals and health centers dealing with facing different complications. Graduate specialists such as psychiatrists and nurses are often few in numbers compared to the population that requires their services in an emergency room. Therefore, many need to be trained for NLN competency to be able to handle different challenges in emergency rooms which are currently originating from lack of adequate personnel (Happel K, 2007). There is need for reform on fundamentals health system through education and change of governance in order to be in a position to offer better services. This way, practitioners will be able to address the aspect of changing service delivery in the health sector by making integrated care more accessible to the patients. Moreover, there is the need to improve the infrastructure in hospitals by hiring competent nurses to handle these facilities (Brady, 2009). More information should be given to trainees as it is believed that the stigma surrounding health is a cause for low level of health practitioners’ interested professional fields. With an adequate working force, the health system would be better equipped to deal with the emergency crisis. 


Brady. W. (2009). Comparison of traditional and nontraditional new Graduate RN’s in a NICU (1st ed.)

Happell . K. (2007). Employment through residency program: A strategy to address the workforce crisis in Psychiatric Nursing. Psychiatric Nursing Archives, 21(3), 126-131.

Nelson. M. Olson & Yougn, L. Kleinsasser. A. (2001). Nursing Student Residency Program: a model for seamless transition from Nursing Student to R.N. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(1), 40-48.

Marketing Analysis of CSR Corporation.

Marketing Analysis of CSR Corporation.

Table of Contents


1.0.     INTRODUCTION.. 4


2.1. Aims and objectives. 6

2.2. The scope. 6

3.0. OPPORTUNITIES for the CSR Company. 7

3.1. Social responsibility. 7

3.2. Quality management 7

3.3. Investing partners. 8





7.1 recommendations. 14




This paper titled the marketing analysis of CSR, a global company that manufactures designs and distributed personal sound equipment. The company is credited for some the newest revolutionary technology in the form of personal sound equipment.

This paper analyses some of the internal and external challenges that face the company which has led the market in distribution of consumer sound applications and equipment. The paper summarizes some of the challenges such as market trends, changing technology, competition and environmental that the organization is exposed to in the industry. In addition, the paper discusses the consumer characteristics including behavior and psychology of the clients who come to the company.

The paper also discusses the details of applying the marketing mix which is the Four C’s, created by Schmizu. Furthermore, the paper analyses the market segmentation strategy, positioning and targeting for purposes of improving the product sales.

The study concludes that the CSR company:

  • Is a next generation company, with high chances of growing larger and becoming a benchmark in the industry
  • Leadership is vital for purposes of steering the company and its products towards maximum profitability.
  • Research is important in the market; to determine where there exists a gap to be filled by the company products.
  • The diversification of the CSR products, makes the company unique, thereby ensuring that clients are constantly treated to the newest and best technology available.

1.0.            INTRODUCTION

The CSR company is the focus of this paper, and specifically one of the newest and most profitable products of the company that is the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones.

The CSR Company is an internationally acclaimed developer and inventor of consumer electronics ranging from appliances used in the home to carry around appliances. The company is registered is Wales and England, where it is licensed to research into, develop and manage the distribution of the personal electronic appliances. The company founded by a group of creative innovators, has in the short while that it ahs existed become a leader in the industry (Calkins 2008).

According to Calkins (2008), the CSR Company is renowned for unveiling products with unmatchable technology, new and savvy in the market.  Its products employ dynamic technology continuously adapting with the market trends to ensure that the products are not only savvy but in fact serve the consumer better than previous products. Each product introduced by the company is an improvement to previous versions, meeting and resolving the challenges faced by clients with previous products.

Recently the company has expanded its interests to the voice applications, music and gaming applications. This expansion has included partnering, purchasing and acquiring companies involved in these developments (Calkins 2008).


The blue tooth application is often used to connect devices such as smart phones and tablets for purposes of exchanging and sharing files and documents.

The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones is enabled to work with both devices and can be used on low energy stereos.  The headphones work in much the same way as any blue tooth device, while allowing the consumer to listen to the stereo, they also allow for continued sharing of information from the devices in close range.  The low energy standard integrated into the device allows it to transform, recode and transfer files without needing much energy. The low energy use is a signature of the CSR Company allowing a variety of consumers who previously were deterred by the size of the Bluetooth devices it makes use of a more convenient version (Ferrell 2012).

The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, are equipped with the revolutionary home automation technology. This implies that they can automatically be used to select and record files, information such as programs, even when the home owner is not near the area. Home automation can be automatically set on the device and changed or edited to the tastes of the client.

Ferrell (2012) pointed out that the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, is unique because of its size. Compared to other blue tooth headphones, this device is smaller and therefore easier to manage. The device can be easily transported in pockets and carried around when one is engaged in various activities. Its small nature makes it unique, and once gain a pioneer in the market for the CSR.

The CSR Bluetooth deices are renowned for their simplicity. Where other products making use of the Bluetooth smart application are much more complex, the CSR device is simple, easy to use. As such the customers are more attracted to using this device, which they can install, manage and run much easily (Ferrell 2012).

2.1. Aims and objectives

  • Provide background information on the CSR company
  • Educate on the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones produced and distributed by CSR
  • Understand and explore the marketing strategies employed by the company
  • Explore the nature of consumer behavior and trends in the market
  • Understand the social responsibility ventures undertaken by the company

2.2. The scope

This paper focuses itself on the CSR company and its product the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones.  This is the limit of the study. The paper does not explore in an in-depth manner any other products by the company or other companies related to CSR.


3.1. Social responsibility

Social responsibility has been identified as one the growing strategies for improving a company image. Consumers are willing to be associated with companies that are constantly involved in giving back to their community (Luther 2011). Companies that make huge profits and are not involved in improving the community surrounding them, find that they lose consumers and even employees. The CSR Company has invested heavily in ensuring that communities where the company is located has improved greatly. From the improvement of the local heritage such as management of zoos, to building of schools, the CSR Company is giving back to the communities around them.

Luther (2011) asserted that the social responsibility efforts of the company have diversified and grown in the recent past greatly, very much that the organization has established a department and budget to deal only with creating opportunities for social responsibility. The projects have been quite successful so that the company’s image is unequaled in the industry.

3.2. Quality management

The CSR Company has set up a quality management system which has been licensed with the ISO 9001. The quality management system is directed at ensuring that a mutually beneficial and satisfactory relationship exists between the customers and the company. The customer receives quality services from the company products which have been actively tested, and for which they are willing to pay. This in turn translates to high income and profits for the company (Luther 2011).

According to Westwood (2002), the quality management department is filled with experts who not only comprehend and understand the functional abilities of the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, but are also in constant consultation with experts who understand the consumer and customer needs. In addition, the department ensures that the company enjoys a mutually beneficial relationship with suppliers, receiving the best raw materials, at good prices and in time. Production is therefore not deterred by a lack of supplies.

3.3. Investing partners

Westwood (2002) indicated that the CSR Company is involved in partnering with high quality and successful companies with products that are easy to market. Revolutionary companies with high quality products are often sought for purposes of partnering and purchase of such products. Many of the products that have been invested by the CSR company have been supported with software and development products from purchased and partner companies.

The company leadership is able to identify the best companies to partner with, those companies with products that could easily jell with the products being offered by the company. With the company undertaking new ventures, there has been increased mergers and partnering with small, innovative and pioneer companies. Such mergers have allowed the CSR Company to venture even further into new markets and continue to be a leader within the industry (Calkins 2008).


Understanding consumer behavior is important for companies, in turn to find out the best method to market its products, manage the products already in the marketplace and build up the right products for the clientele.  Consumer behavior refers to buyers’ reaction to the firm’s strategy and products (Calkins 2008).

Understanding the consumer behavior involves a three part process. The first stage of the process involves understanding how consumers come across their information. There are various channels for accessing information and if the CSR company is to market the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, the marketing information must be placed in places where consumers are likely to see it.  For example, for some people, newspapers are a good source of information but with the advent of the internet they are fast being phased of in favor of online news (Calkins 2008). Therefore, the newspaper may not reach the required target market for the company.

The second stage involves understanding how consumers evaluate the product they are purchasing. This means understanding what consumers are looking for in the product that they would like to purchase, (Westwood 2002). Different consumers are concerned with different issues when purchasing the product. While some could be concerned with price, others could be more concerned with the features in the device. Understanding what consumers consider when purchasing a product means that the company can focus itself on ensuring that the product meets these requirements.

Ferrell (2012) indicates that the third stage of the process, involves influencing the purchasing decision of the consumer. While the previous two stages are concerned with creating background for the decision of purchase, this stage involves influencing the actual purchase. Sometimes the intention or desire to purchase the product, does not exactly mean or translate to the actual purchase. Once the consumer has evaluated all the alternatives, they pick the product that actually closely meets third needs.


The marketing strategy forms the foundation for the marketing plan. The company requires to choose the right strategy, in turn to make sure that the establishment is laid for the right marketing plan. Marketing strategies are not static, but they are in fact much more dynamic. They are required to change constantly, adapting to market trends (Ferrell 2012).

The CSR Company operates in a market that is constantly bombarded with new technology. The changes in technology that are happening at an astonishing speed, and therefore the company needs to adopt constantly. Consumers’ tastes and preferences are constantly changing and evolving themselves.

According to Ferrell (2012), the marketing strategy takes into consideration the internal and external market environment under which the company operates.  The internal factors affecting the sale of the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, include the marketing mix employed by the company. On the other hand, the exterior or external factors include the consumer behavior, competition in the markets and the general economic environment that could easily influence the success of the product.

Since the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones are newly being introduced into the market, the company has two strategies to choose from and these are penetration and niche. With penetration, the company works to insert the product, setting it apart in the market from other products. Penetration is often much more aggressive, with the company employing advanced techniques which aggressively diminish the products that are of the competitor and highlight the advantages of the new product. In addition aggressive measures could also include severe price cuts to ensure mass sales. On the other hand, niche marketing involves marketing to specific clients. Ferrell (2012) the marketing is directed to clients who have much higher chances of purchasing the product. Niche marketing involves researching to understand the nature of clients who would be more open to purchasing the product, and therefore targeting these clients only. The company aggressively markets to this group of clients, with little attention being given to others.

5.1. Market Target

Luther (2011) observed that the market target will be identified through much consumer research. Targeting is important to the company so that the right marketing message can be created for the right people. Targeting allows the company to market to those customers who have a higher likelihood of going to purchase the products. Targets are chosen by identifying the following distinguishing characteristics:

Demographic characteristics, which are the common features found in a population such as gender and age. Each of these groups responds to different products and messages. It is important to identify who among them have a higher likelihood of buying the product and target that group (Luther 2011).

Socio-economic status: whereas for some products, the socio-economic status does not factor in, for luxury products, the socio-economic status is important. The company must ensure that the consumers being marketed to have the ability and resources to invest in their product. Otherwise the marketing tools and channels employed all do to waste.

Lifestyle: finally and most important is the consumer lifestyle that is the tastes and preferences of the consumer. These tastes and preferences , beliefs and attitudes define the consumer’s desire to engage with a particular company and purchase a particular product.


The marketing mix that the CSR company employs for the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones product is virtually known as the four C’s by schimizu. Although not as popular as the Four P’s mix, this marketing mix has proved to be as unique as the product being offered by the CSR Company.

The fours C’s begins with designing the right commodity for sake. This means that the marketing mix begins with the product development, where the company ensures that it has the right product for the market, (Calkins 2008). Designing products that offer no unique value to the consumer end up frustrating the company in terms if low sales and therefore diminishing profits. The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones have several advantages offered to the consumer, top among them being the size and simplicity of the device.

The second c, stands for the cost that is, pricing of the product. Even with the right product and its unique features, if the price of the product is wrong the sales will definitely be affected. The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, is not a necessity but a luxury product in today’s world. With the global economic trend heading downwards, many of consumers are watching how they spend their money. The company therefore has a responsibility to ensure that the consumers understand and feel that the process set by the company is right, (Luther 2011).

Thirdly, the four C’s marketing mix also considers the communication that is passing the right information in just the right way to the targeted customer. The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones client needs not just to see the information, but understand and internalize the information being sent by the company. Communication involves creating the right message, using the right words so that the right information reaches the client. A breakdown in communication could cost the company a large number of clients. When clients misunderstand what the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones does for them, they end up frustrated and reduce their purchases not just of the product, but also other products in the company (Westwood 2002).

Finally, the last C in the mix stands for choosing and electing the right channel to ensure that the flow of goods is constant and timely.  Competitors for the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones are many, and should consumers find a way to access the company’s products faster and easier they are likely to stop purchasing the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones.  All channels of distribution should be properly explored and utilized to ensure that the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones are enough for consumers who are seeking them and that the process of acquiring them is easy (Westwood 2002).


CSR, is a revolutionary company that is progressing heavily instead in personal technology, with a wide range of products.  The organization employs a wide range of individuals who are talented who constantly develop new products that are advanced in technology terms.  The company is constantly changing and improving on previous products, ensuring that challenges faced with the previous products are resolved to the satisfaction of the clients.

Calkins (2008) indicated that the company enjoys a wide customer base. The variety of customers targeted by the company range in terms of demography, behavior and trends. The company with each product seeks to meet the needs of all these clients. The IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones, for example are suitable for each gender, coming colors and designs that are pleasing to both makes and females. In addition, they are also suitable for people of all ages, whether young or old.

The CSR Company proposes to employ a marketing mix which begins at product development, designing the product to satisfy the needs of the clientele, and thereby using this as the foundation for the marketing message. The marketing mix is also concerned with the right price, the right message and the right channel of distribution (Ferrell 2012).

7.1 Recommendations

The CSR Company requires investing slightly more in understanding the client behavior than expanding blindly. The technological industry and especially that concerned with personal and home use appliances are constantly affected by changing trends and preferences which the company should be able to predict in order to take advantage of the same.

The marketing mix requires that the company understands the proper channels through which they can maximize the sale of the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones.  Use of the wrong channel could lead to a shortage of the product and in turn affect the sales.

Finally the company leadership needs to invest properly in making sure that customers are provided with quality support even after they have purchased the IT7*2-bluetooth stereo headphones. This creates a ready market for improved versions of the same product.


Calkins, T. 2008. Breakthrough Marketing Plans. Palgrave Macmillan

Ferrell, O. 2012. Marketing Strategy, Text and Cases: 6th Ed. Cengage Learning

Luther, W. 2011. The Marketing Plan: How to Prepare and Implement It. Green Press Publishers

Westwood, J. 2002. The Marketing Plan: A Step By Step Guide. Kogan Page


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Competing Values Framework

Competing Values Framework

Competing Values Framework


The results from different studies, academic testing and researches for over 25 years shows that Competing Values Framework is a model that is broadly applicable and fosters leaders who are successful, improves effectiveness of an organization and promotes creation of value. Cameron et al (1999) adds that the Competing Values Framework premises contain four competing values within each enterprise: create, collaborate, control and compete. These values tend to compete in a sense for the organization’s limited resources such as time, funding and people.  How the organization’s leadership responds to the created tension between these competing values will eventually shape the practices, culture, products and innovation of the company.

According to Cameron (2006), the Competing Values Framework first emerged during the organizational culture and effectiveness research and ever since many studies has validated it. Organizational effectiveness concept is simple to understand but deceptive. Quinn (1990) asks how we know the effectiveness of an organization than the other. To satisfactorily answer this question, it is important to consider that not all organization leaders and organizations will reach a consensus on the meaning of the effectiveness of their organization. Moreover, how does culture of an organization get assessed and get to understand if one culture of an organization is different from another organization?

According to Belasen et al (2008), managers and different leaders of organizations confront regularly issues such as how to organize and utilize the resources, how to innovate and how to grow collectively and change as one system. Therefore, leaders must learn how to confront these and other related issues while also recognizing that doing so effectively and within the organizational cultures scope require the everyday’s tension’s awareness that is found within their own organizations. Thus, these positive tensions that are competing make up the Competing Values Framework (Cameron et al, 1999).

Cameron (2006) explains that the x- axis or the horizontal axis of the competing values  framework indicates  the organizational focus’ tension as reflected  in a contrast between person oriented and internal focus(towards left) and organization-oriented and external focus (upwards right). Similarly, the vertical axis or the y axis indicates differing perspective tension  on the structure of the organization as shown in a contrast between change and interest in flexibility(toward the top) and  control and an interest in stability(toward the bottom).

Furthermore, Quinn (1990) explains that every quadrant has two quadrants that are complementary-they are on the either sides, and one highly contrasted quadrant that is directly diagonal.

Competing Values Framework and individual outcomes

Belasen et al (2008) explains that the questionnaire for assessment has been developed within the competing values formwork to illustrate three dimensions. They include:

  1. The purposes or the future outcomes that an individual desires to achieve
  2. The current individual practices
  3. Approach of leadership of each individual of a team or an organization

According to Cameron et al (1999), people who are aligned among the dimensions of practices, purposes and people will be effective than individuals or managers who are not aligned at all. The Competing Values Framework illustrates various tensions in the way definition of effectiveness is done. Cameron (2006) further elaborates that the main message of Competing Values Framework is that despite the various ways of giving definition to individuals effectiveness, it is of great importance that people appropriately align themselves to their own definition of effectiveness. Once aligned, individuals can identify their sweet spot of innovation and realize positive outcomes they desire.

According to Quinn (1990), the assessment evaluates only three approaches to innovation, change and growth, that is the purposes, practices and people. It then aligns practices and behavior with the results desired. Belasen et al (2008) points out that if an individual fall the collaborative quadrant which emphasizes morale, cohesion, training and human resource. The quadrant further represents an intersection between person oriented and internal focus. The leadership type is a mentor, facilitator and a team builder and the value drivers are communication, commitment and development.

In the create quadrant, an individual focus broadly on picture and ideas, take risks and is very agile in their resources and actions they cultivate. The leader types are entrepreneur, innovator and visionary and the value drivers are transformation, innovative outputs and agility (Cameron et al, 1999).

The quadrant for compete emphasizes bottom line measures and profit and is underlined by rational action concept. It represents an intersection between individual oriented and external focus. Individuals in this quadrant do things quickly to gain immediately, focus heavily on making profits and acquire resources relentlessly to give them an advantage. The leader types are producer, competitor and hard driver (Cameron, 2006).

The control quadrant is an intersection between process oriented and internal focus. Individuals in this quadrant focus on continuous improvement minimize risks and are strategic in their resources and actions they cultivate. The leader types are organizer, monitor and coordinator and the value drivers are timeliness, effectiveness, uniformity and consistency.

My strengths and weaknesses from the Competing Values Framework assessment

After doing the personal assessment on Competing Values Framework, it showed that my strengths and weaknesses on leadership and managerial skills

My Strengths

  1. Mentor

From my personal assessment, it came out that being a good mentor is one of my strengths because of listening to the employees’ personal problems always. Moreover, treatment to every individual in the organization from me is always caring and sensitive. Similarly, concern and empathy is seen when listening or even dealing with the employees is always shown by me. Therefore, my mentorship roles come out clearly as the needs of the employees and problems are always listened to by me. 

  1. Facilitator

Facilitation is another of my discovered strengths in my possession. By constantly coming up with consensual resolution in the organization whenever an openly expressed difference among the employees is brought to me or comes to my attention. In such cases by holding open discussions among the groups with conflicting opinions often, examine the key differences among the employees or the group members then conclusively finding a solution with all the parties involved. Furthermore, by encouraging participation of every group member always when making of decisions in a group and lastly building consensus in the unit of work.

  1. Monitor

By keeping track of everything that goes around the work unit and ensuring that rules of compliance are adhered to by the employees makes monitoring one of my strengths. Furthermore, I always make comparisons on reports, record and immediately detect any discrepancy made in the documents in addition to checking of mistakes and errors in the reports.

  1. Producer

Another of my strengths discovered is being producer. This is because of always clarifying the importance of achieving the goals of work unit and pushing the organization to realize its objectives. Moreover, by seeking to improve the technical capacity of the work group and seeing that the organization delivers on the laid down goals. Furthermore, my dedication and strive to maintain the orientation of the results in the organization validates that strength. 

  1. Broker

Lastly, being a broker is one of strengths that came out after the Competing Value Framework assessment. This is because of exerting influence upward in the organization and freely getting access to the mangers of higher levels in the organization. Similarly, persuasively selling of my ideas to the higher leveled managers and influencing decisions at the higher levels is always easy for me.


As much as discovery of my strengths came out, weaknesses that came out were in coordination, directing and innovation.

  1. Coordinator

The discovery was that am a poor coordinator because of never maintaining tight control on the logistics in addition to maintaining of a well organized and coordinated unit in the organization. Moreover, solving of the problem of scheduling in the work unit has been a problem. By never anticipating problems of workflow to avoid crisis in the organization and therefore, bringing coordination and sense of order in my work unit has been a problem.

  1. Director

From the assessment, the discovery was that one of weaknesses is being a poor director because of never clarifying the purpose of the unit continually and making the role of the unit very clear. Additionally, by never getting the unit to realize the goals expected. Furthermore, by never clarifying the direction and priorities of the unit and never clarifying the unit’s objectives regularly makes me a poor director.

  1. Innovator

By never come up with new inventive ideas therefore makes me less innovative. Furthermore, I rarely search for potential improvements and innovations for the organization. Furthermore, I rarely experiment with new procedures and concepts besides solving the problems in clear and creative ways.

What I can do to fix my weakness

In fixing and improving on my weaknesses, explanation of a cross functional concept to my team and should be done always to help members work effectively together. Furthermore, By trying to understand problems faced by the employees and the management principles of the work unit.

Similarly, it is important to learn how to set clear priorities when having any goals. Moreover, learning to develop measurable goals and learn to identify vertically or laterally that are not aligned in the organization should be done by me. Creation of action plans that are time specific to implement the goals and engage the employees always in the process of goal setting should be done by me.


Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based             on the competing values framework. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

Cameron, K. S. (2006). Competing values leadership: Creating value in organizations.     Cheltenham, UK: E. Elgar Pub.

Quinn, R. E. (1990). Becoming a master manager: A competency framework. New York: Wiley.

Belasen, A., & Frank, N. (March 07, 2008). Competing values leadership: quadrant roles and       personality traits. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29, 2, 127-143. 

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As an employee, it is significant to continually seek ways to improve yourself. The skills and talent that you have, in the changing market can become outdated and in turn translate to less productivity (Wilson 1960). For each company, the human resource is perhaps the best essential and important asset of the organization. However, in order for an asset to continue bringing greater advantage and leading to potential business growth, it must continually develop, becoming more skilled and flexible (Academy of Human Resource Development 1999).

Unlike common belief, CPD is not a process that can be easily defined. In fact, the process is unique to each individual employee. Although employees maybe working together, in the Tesco branches, facing the same challenges and opportunities, the process of CPD according to Wexley & Hinrichs (1991) needs to be differentiated from other training and development needs. The company has developed a strategy where the individual employees, are able to evaluate their own work and skills so that they are able to become better and more productive.

How can Tesco help employees improve CPD and reflective learning

Reflective practice is the most vital part of CPD and includes two fundamental forms of reflection that is the reflection in action and reflection on action. The main difference arises from the time frame, reflection on action, is a backward look at situations, reactions and behavior in the past (Bratton & Gold 2000). Employees draw from the behavior and opt to change or improve for better service delivery. On the other hand, reflection in action requires the Tesco employees interacting with consumers, to think as they act. This is for the employees in the customer care department ho may need to continually explore their own behavior, reacting and attending to the current situation immediately (Torrington 1998).

The process of reflective practice and CPD involves various steps which have been taken into consideration by Tesco, the biggest retail company.


As a retail business, Tesco encourages its own employees to continually seek and receive feedback from the clientele. Such feedback began as a process of helping the company improve on the timeliness and nature of service delivery (Brine 2005). However, today as employees interact more and more with clients, these same clients can be a good source of feedback on behavior and skills that the employees poses. The company needs to provide an environment where the clients are free enough to provide honest feedback to the employees, and where employees take this feedback as positive instead of completely negative. Criticism is not just a reflection on negativity, but an opportunity to improve (Brockbank & McGill 2006p.105).

Harris and Desimone (1994) indicated that Feedback is not only sought from the clients but also from fellow employees. Recent changes in the training and development strategy of the company has led to the introduction of sessions where employees can make positive suggestions to each other on behavior improvement. It is important to ensure that these sessions, however, do not turn into negativity and opportunities to criticize each other unconstructively. For this explanation, it is prudent to hire a professional to direct the feedback; however, once the employees have mastered the basic skills of feedback, these are translated into an everyday activity (Thomson & Mabey 1994).

Objective viewing of experiences

According to Verdict Research (2006p.381), Tesco employees face a wide variety of experiences daily.  A retail store deals with different clientele daily. The workers should be in a position to view their past experiences, objectively breaking them down in order to be able to learn from the same. For example, Swanson & Holton (2009) suggested that the employees can be trained to recall the experiences that they recently had with a customer on the retail zone or in the customer care department, even delivery of goods, then carefully observe and listen to exactly what they said thereby determining what they could have done better. This is a significant part of learning and improving behavior.

Mankin (2009) highlighted that this is one characteristic that also allows employees to develop empathy. They are able to experience emotionally and physically what their clients experienced and, therefore, plan on ways that they can be able to improve the experience of the clients, whether it is by making service delivery faster, easier, and more comfortable or by saying something differently. Companies whose employees have mastered this skill are often rated highly in terms of customer service.

Like developing a properly trained strategy, Stephpenson et al (2012) observed that there are times that the company may need to push and show employees how to reflective objectively. This may require some meetings, training session where the company employees are taken through some experience objectively. The human resource asset is completely based on the commitment of employees. The employees need the tools and resources to go through their past experiences objectively and learn from their mistakes as well as the opportunities that were presented to them (Dessler 2000).

Recording CPD lessons

According to Sergiovanni (1987), few companies understand the value of journal keeping among the employees. While it may seem like a trivial and small exercise, it is a vital stage in recording the lessons that have been learnt during the improvement exercise. Employees can easily learn something but after a while forget how and what they learnt exactly. With a journal, they are able to learn properly, remember bad recall experiences that have contributed to their own learning (Swanson and Holton 2009p.56).

Tesco has elaborate training departments where employees’ skills are improved and new behavior is installed.  With a journal, employees can be able to record exactly what they have learnt and incidences where the lessons have been used at work. This increases the sense of ownership, on the decisions and new characters developed over time (SchöN 1983).

As professionals employees have the task of ensuring that the employees’ skills and knowledge are updated. CPD journals help to keep them accountable so that they are able to make a reflection on what they have learned and situations here they have failed to apply the lessons that they have learned. Johns (2004p.119) recommended that periodically employees come together and do some reflections on what they have ;earned, how applicable the lessons have been and what can be done to improve the lessons in the future for easier application.

Importance of personal strengths

Tesco employs a wide variety of characteristics, skills and talents which differ among the employees. Where one employee is strong, the others may be quite weak. It is significant for employees to appreciate the value that they bring to the business. This works hand in hand with proper management. The managers need to recognize the achievements of the employees. This helps employees to be able to identify their own personal strengths, own them and use them to grow the business. It is important that individuals feel they have contributed and are contributing something to the company (Golding & Currie 2000).

The important thing to do is reflect on the lessons that have been learnt. Even with an elaborate training and skill development strategy such as that developed by Tesco, employees need to continually evaluate what they have learnt, reflecting on the past lessons and gaining new ones through this reflection.  Whereas traditionally and in most of the old time literature, focus more on learning from negative behavior. Thompson and Thompson (2007p.30) insisted on focusing more on incidences where employees were tested by clients, forgot their training, skills and talent and instead, gave in to their own emotions. However, recent breakthroughs in research have shown that the company also needs to focus employees on more positive events, where their skills and talents were put into good use. Even here employees achieved something they considered small, they should be able to reflect and focus on this times and draw lessons from the same. This way the employees are able to decrease and manage their weaknesses using the strength skills and talents that they already possess (Goldstein 1989p.51).

According to Swanson and Holton (2009), the Johns models Identify areas where the need for reflective practice becomes a vital part and leads to Continuing Professional Development. These areas are indicated below as:

  • Finding the experiences that are significant and important to the employees.
  • Identifying some of the personal markings that were developed from these experiences.
  • Identifying the intentions and personal goals of the employees.
  • Learning to empathize especially with clients and consumers
  • Recognizing the strengths, skills and talents of each individual employee
  • Linking the current situations to previous experiences that have reflected on the employee personality.
  • Creating new ideas and alternatives which can be used to improve future behavior
  • Looking at personal ways that the employee can help improve the experience of the clientele.

Added Value of the Organization

While there is a slight difference between CPD and reflective practice, being that reflective practice is the most essential part of CPD (Scaife 2010p.227). The significant thing to make note of is that the benefits for both are intertwined and related.  CPD and reflective practice improves the organization in the following areas:

First employees need to reflect on their own skills and talents to ensure that they are able to meet the demands that the job sets upon them (Harris & Desimone 1994). Tesco employees are hired for their skills and training, however, it may be hard for them to translate these skills into success at the job. For this reason, it is vital and important for them to remember how such characteristics can be applied to ease the job and to meet specific goals of the organization.

Humby, Hunt & Phillips (2008) asserted that employees also need CPD to ensure that their skills and knowledge remain relevant in the employment market. Tesco is operating in a market that is continuously changing, and for the company to remain relevant, its employees need to ensure that the skills they poses remain completely relevant at all times. The global economic trend and large competitors have bitten the dust, closed shop and been made irrelevant simply because the company lacked an environment that supported the change of the market (Noe 2006p.303). When employees continue to develop competitive skills in the market, the company is able to adopt better and continue to survive in an ever changing company (Megginson and Whittaker 2007p.213).

Noe (1999) observed that the retail market is flooded with competitors who are continuously developing new strategies to throw out giants such as Tesco. With the much competition, price cutting and other marketing strategies, it is important to maintain and remain as interesting and outstanding as it was before. At the beginning of the past decade, Tesco lost many of its clients to newer, tech-savvy and advanced companies (Jasper 2003p.327).  With CPD, employees have been able to make the company even more interesting, drawing even more interest than before.

Reflective practice and CPD greatly improves job satisfaction and reduces the flow of labor into and out of the company. Job satisfaction is hard for employees, but when the employees experience satisfaction with their work, and find it easy to complete the tasks assigned to them despite the challenges that they may be facing, they are able to become even more productive (Jefferson et al 2009p.112). The retail industry records one of the highest turnovers in the industry and it is important for Tesco to ensure that they remain below the required and profitable turnover level. This can only be achieved if employees show a high level of job satisfaction. A high index of job satisfaction, in fact, also attracts some of the best talents in the market. When a company is attracting the best talent in the market, then profits are assured as well as complete growth of the business (Nadler & Nadler 1989p.419).

The 360 degree appraisal by Tesco which is a vital part of feedback by stakeholders has not only ensured that the company employees are able to improve behavior but has indeed increased the publicity level of the company (Mondy et al 2005). Clients feel that they are appreciated and are part of the business growth. When clients are asked for feedback, they are more likely to return to the business continuously. They feel part of the business, and are glad to remain in a relationship with the business. Since the introduction of the 360 degree appraisal system, Tesco has seen so much growth and profits increase that it has become a benchmark not only for other retailing companies, but even other large international manufacturers (Johns 2004). The systems developed by the businesses works so well, that the customers who are loyal to Tesco are hard to move or even convince to pick up another retailer. The customers are proud to be related and associated with a company that continually seeks their opinion.

Stephpenson and Mills (2007p.229) observed that when employees are engaged in reflective practice they are able to put together a viable personal development plan, which the manager can in turn translate into a growth plan for the employee. The company is not able to support the employee well if they are unaware of where there is a need for improvement, which weaknesses need to be managed and which strengths need to reflect more on. Tesco’s options programme has seen even more growth of the employees than any other program in the business (Laird et al 2003). The options provided to the employees are in direct relation with the company goals. As the employees grow they are able to bring in better skills which ensure that the company remains not just active but highly competitive. Many researchers have shown that one of the reasons other companies are unable to reach the level of Tesco that the company employees are continuously growing and expanding their skills in the market, therefore brining the company to its own levels (Mankin 2009).


CDP and reflective thinking lead to personal development which in turn causes the individuals to be highly motivated. The retail business as Tesco has discovered can be highly monotonous with few challenges to incite excitement among the employees.  With personal development employees are able to deal with more challenging situations and take up more responsibilities in the business (Megginson & Whitaker 2007). They are able to create their own environment, requiring less supervision and follow up. Motivated employees are able to work by themselves meeting their goals and developing various strategies through which they can enjoy their skills and talents.

Not many companies understand the importance of reflective practice and CPD in the training and development of special skills by the employees. The growth of Tesco is highly dependent on a skilled and elaborate work force (Mondy et al 2005). Employees need to understand themselves in much the same way they will understand and value the company. Reflective behavior allows improvement of skills and development of new behavior which will ensure that the employees remain productive even in a changing environment. With the strong Tesco training structure, employees can take advantage to learn new lessons and skills, develop their own talents and enjoy high job satisfaction. In return the company would enjoy high standards of delivery service, which will not only ensure that the company maintains its current clients but also attain new ones (Verdict Research 2006).


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Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2000). Human Resource Management Theory and Practice. Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum

Brine, A. (2005). Continuing Professional Development: A Guide for Information Professionals. Oxford, Chandos.

Brockbank, A., & McGill, I. (2006). Facilitating Reflective Learning through Mentoring & Coaching. London, Kogan Page.

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Dessler, G. (2000). Human Resource Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall.

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Golding, D., & Currie, D. (2000). Thinking about Management a Reflective Practice Approach. London, Routledge.

Goldstein, I. L. (1989). Training and Development in Organizations. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Harris, D. M., & Desimone, R. L. (1994). Human Resource Development. Fort Worth, Dryden

Humby, C., Hunt, T., & Phillips, T. (2008). Scoring Points How Tesco Continues To Win Customer Loyalty. London, Kogan Page Ltd.

Jasper, M. (2003). Beginning Reflective Practice. Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes.

Jefferson, A. M., Pollock, R. V. H., & Wick, C. W. (2009). Getting Your Money’s Worth From Training And Development A Guide To Breakthrough Learning For Managers ; Getting Your Money’s Worth From Training And Development : A Guide To Breakthrough Learning For Participants. San Francisco, Ca, Jossey-Bass.

Johns, C. (2004). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. Oxford, UK, Blackwell.

Laird, D., Naquin, S. S., & Holton, E. F. (2003). Approaches to Training and Development. Cambridge, Mass, Perseus Books Group.

Mankin, D. (2009). Human Resource Development. New York, Oxford University Press.

Megginson, D., & Whitaker, V. (2007). Continuing Professional Development. London,

Mondy, R. W., Noe, R. M., & Gowan, M. (2005). Human Resource Management. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Pearson Prentice Hall.

Mondy, R. W., Noe, R. M., & Gowan, M. (2005). Human Resource Management. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Pearson Prentice Hall.

N.S.W., Pearson Australia.

Nadler, L., & Nadler, Z. (1989). Developing Human Resources. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Noe, R. A. (1999). Employee Training and Development. Boston, Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Noe, R. A. (2006). Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage. Boston, Mass, McGraw-Hill.


Scaife, J. (2010). Supervising the Reflective Practitioner: An Essential Guide to Theory and Practice. London, Routledge.

SchöN, D. A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action. New York, Basic Books.

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Thomson, R., & Mabey, C. (1994). Developing Human Resources. Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann.

Torrington, D., Hall, L., & Torrington, D. (1998). Human Resource Management. London, Prentice Hall Europe.

Verdict Research. (2006). Tesco Company Profile 2006. [Great Britain], Verdict.

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Wilson, H. (1960). Employee Training and Development. Deerfield, Ill, Administrative Research Associates.

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JM Family Company

JM Family Company- corporate communications

JM Family Company- Corporate communications

List and analyze results of team context and composition scale questionnaire

The corporate communications of JM Family functions in sequential and modular interdependence. The team work levels are very moderate with the teams performing their tasks independently. The task team of corporate communications coordinates efforts physically to finish the organizational needs. However, despite corporate communications having the ability to independently make internal decisions, the tasks are handed downwards from the company’s executive management. Dyer (44) indicated that cooperation is one of their core values.

From the results of team contexts and composition scale assessment, the corporate communications scored 3.8. This implies that the department’s team is composed of members who support effective teamwork. Personal development is prioritized while the the overall team development is lacking.  Moreover, the seven member team of corporate communications is an effective size. The team posses’ interpersonal and technical skills and displays high motivation that is needed for tasks completion.

Team competencies scale for assessment

Similarly, the analysis of the results from the Dyers competencies scale for assessment shows that Corporate Communication department of JM Family falls in the midlevel rates. This calls for general improvement. The lowest competencies that are relationship related are conflict management and team building. On the other hand, the lowest competency that is task related is having a decision making process that is clearly defined (Dyer, 48).

Dyer indicated that by scoring low scores in conflict management and lacking of the processes of decision making, makes the functions of Corporate Communications to be like a staff rather than a team. However, the corporate communications recorded high scores in established channels of open communications. The members of the team also acknowledge the existence of negative reactions, sometimes with combative and defensive actions, to criticisms   or even feedback. This tendency of brushing off problems, according to Dyer (71), can result to tension and ineffectiveness of the members.

Lencioni assessment

According to Dyer (57), the Lencioni Assessment provides leaders of an organization with an exploring opportunity to overcome the obstacles that sidetracks their team members. The assessment done on corporate communication of the JM Family gave the team members the insight on their unique strength of their team, and areas that need improvements in the five major fundamentals of developing productive and cohesive team. These include commitment, conflict, trust, results and accountability.

Dyer (59) indicated that the assessment comprises of 15 questions of which the members of a team are to answer. The results then indicate the levels of dysfunction in the company. From the Lencioni Assessment, corporate communications, the results can be used in providing and evaluating the susceptibility of Corporate Communication to the five identified dysfunctions.

From the seven team members of corporate communications who did Lencioni Assessment, the scores were as follows for the totals from the five key fundamentals.

Trust = 7.14

Conflict= 7.42

Commitments= 6.57

Accountability = 7.29

Results =7.57

All the scores from the key fundamentals fall between 6 and 8. This is interpreted from the Lencioni Assessment interpretation key that dysfunction could be the problem in the team.

Explore group dynamics using at least two relevant course concepts/theories

The functioning of Corporate Communications department is more like a staff than like a team. However, there exist open channels of communication where team members still can negatively react to some constructive feedback. Furthermore, the team shows non performance signs

Relate results back to goal

From the Lencioni Assessment, the five key fundamentals show that dysfunction could be a problem in the team. The results show there is an absence of trust. This comes as a result of team members who are not willing to make an admission that they have made mistakes are reluctant to be vulnerable to each other. Trust cannot be achieved among members without certain comfort levels in the team (Dyer, 52)

The results also show fear of conflicts. This is because the team members are incapable of engaging in passionate and unfiltered debate on fundamental issues. This is characterized in corporate communication department. Moreover, corporate communications lacks commitment hence the team members have created an environment where ambiguity is prevailing. Dyer (64) pointed out that commitment is a function of two pillars; buy in and clarity. Successful teams make timely and clear decisions, and progress with complete buy in from every team member.

The results of Corporate Communications department also show avoidance of accountability. This is because the team does not commit to clear action plan. Successful team members tend to overcome the natural inclinations by improving their relationships and holding every team member accountable. Lastly, the scores portray inattention to results in corporate communication department. The members of the team tend to focus on their needs before the teams collective goals. This is because the team members are not held accountable for their actions.


In conclusion, corporate communication department team in context and composition is very effective. The number is a manageable and they portray effective group dynamics. The competence of the group is unquestionable although the team faces some form of dysfunctions.

Work cited

Dyer, W. G., Jr., Dyer, J. H., & Dyer, W. G. (2013). Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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Contemporary Art and Consumerism

Contemporary Art and Consumerism




The consumption documentary. 5

  2. a) Study design. 8
  3. b) Instrumentation. 9
  4. c) Analysis. 9
  5. d) Validity. 9
  6. e) Reliability. 10
  8. a) Project one: picture consumption. 11
  9. b) Project two: designing ads for the environment 12
  10. c) Project three: consumption images. 15

1)      Analysis if Chris Jordan’s work. 16

  1. a) How contemporary art of Chris Jordan address the consumption idea. 17
  2. b) How Chris Jordan queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce 21

2)     Analysis of Barbara Kruger’s work. 25

  1. a) How contemporary art of Barbara Kruger address the consumption idea. 26
  2. b) How Barbara Kruger queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce 29

3)     Analysis of Micheal Ray Charles’s work. 30

  1. a) How contemporary art of Micheal Ray Charles address the consumption idea. 31
  2. b) How Micheal Ray Charles queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce. 33

4)     Analysis of Edward Burtynsky’s work. 34

  1. a) How contemporary art of Edward Burtynsky address the consumption idea. 36
  2. b) How Edward Burtynsky queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce. 40

5)     Analysis of Andrea Zittle’s work. 42

  1. a) How contemporary art of Andrea Zittle address the consumption idea. 44
  2. b) How Andrea Zittle queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce 46

6)     Analysis of Mel Chin’s work. 47

  1. a) How contemporary art of Mel Chin address the consumption idea. 48
  2. b) How Mel Chin queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce 53
  3. CONCLUSION.. 54
  4. Work Cited. 55



The American culture has been pervaded by consumerism and it dominates all American’s life aspects, including the artists of the country. This thesis addresses consumerism idea by exploring how people respond to it. When culture plays a significant role on what people buy, and to some extent how what people purchases to give the sense of self to people, and when there is nothing that is off limit, from art to sex, then what is the response of art. The thesis begins by a synopsis of a consumption documentary called “Art in the 21st century” in which contemporary artists elaborate on their creations, their perceptions of art and their creative processes. The thesis then analyses individual artists works, how they address consumerism idea through their artworks, and how the artists query the attitudes of the mass media,, consumer society and the and commerce. The artists used in the thesis include; Barbara Krugar, Edward Burtynsky, Micheal Ray Charles, Mel Ching and Andrea Zittle

The consumption documentary

The “Consumption documentary” is a Twenty First Century art that explores the question of how the contemporary art addresses the consumption idea, and how the artists question the commonly held societal assumptions about mass media, commerce and the consumer society. The documentary of “consumption” explores the questions highlighted through the artistic works of Michael Ray Charles, Andrea Zittel, Barbara Kruger, Mather Barney and Mel Chin (Sollins et al 78).

According to Schroeder, the artists presented in the consumption documentary reference the kind of images the general populations are very much familiar with (26). Many people spend their whole lives training to understand television, movies, video games, beds, clothes and hoses among other things, and therefore the contemporary art invokes often these objects and experiences. This implies that the art looks often like a commodity, because in the culture of the consumer, nothing could be more vital.

Golden observed that the humorously frenetic “consumption” video sets off with artists Barbara Kruger’s original work, and explores the ways in which consumption of things is done by people in their daily lives, from sex, to money and to food (371). Throughout the documentary, trademark phrases of Kruger in red and white call for obedience and attention of the viewer. Sollins stated that Kruger’s texts proclaims “Love, Buy and Sell art” and “Feed, Love and Sell me,” and the texts also addresses the viewer in the same manner in which the advertisers sway their consumers to buy the products being advertised (119).

The “Consumption” documentary also films Michael Ray Charles at his home in a certain location and also in a studio located in Austin, Texas. Royal Art pointed out that through his studies of the blackface, minstrel tradition, advertising, Charles seeks to subvert and deconstruct blackness images through painting (66). “People usually question my blackness. I have been called many times a sellout. Many people are accusing me of perpetuating stereotype,” Charles said (Schroeder 43). “I think there exist a fine line between questioning something and perpetuating something, and I like getting closer to it as much as possible.”

In the “Consumption” documentary, Matthew Barney says that a system that has got an internal object, the Freudian narratives which highlights the producer and the consumer, sexual drive, sexual violence and the NFL films, are the things he thinks about (Sollins et al 119). The CREMASTER film series challenges genres, twists the flow of the narrative and makes an interrogation of the art as they make an exploration on the ways sublimation of the violence is done.  Golden (2001) observed that the segment follows on Matthew Barney and his crew members on the CREMASTER 3 set  at the race track of Saratoga and also at the Solomon Guggenheim Museum in New York. Sollins pointed out that at the Saratoga race track, a group of horses is transformed by Matthew Barney into corpses racing (226). Similarly, at the Guggenheim, Matthew Barney also transforms the museum into a set for video game/course obstacle.

Andrea Zittle is a true artist who lives art from her artistry works, from her clothing projects and her experimental home, to her “pocket property” artificial island off the Denmark coast (Royal Art 72). From her work, Andrea is obsessed with innovation, perfection and moving forward, but she really wanted from her artistry is some sort of hope of improved and new or for a better tomorrow. Schroeder noted that the designs of Andrea has a whimsical blend of southern California roots of the artist and the twentieth century philosophy of modernist design (319).

Some of the unique collaborative venture of Mel chin is the interactive based video game on the nomadic people’s rug patterns and the “hyperaccumulator” plants garden tat clean up a land that is contaminated (Sollins et al 110). The collaborative ventures incorporate alchemy, ecology and even botany. Mel chin said that he thinks making art is not about one method or one track. The diversity of techniques and mediums is minor. However, the diversity of ideas and their survival and the transmitted methods are of great importance. The consumption documentary follows Mel Chin in Detroit as looks for locations where he can set up his latest project that changes the arsoned houses into farms for worms that benefit the local economy.


The purpose and aim of this methodology chapter is to discuss the applied methods in analyzing how the contemporary art effectively address the consumption idea. The methods will also be used in discussing the ways in which the artists questions the commonly held attitudes about consumer society, mass media and commerce. The chapter covers the research design, describes the reliability and validity of the method used.

a)      Study design

The research questions proposed looks at how the contemporary art effectively address the consumption idea., and also discusses the ways in which the artists questions the commonly held attitudes about consumer society, mass media and commerce. Comparative analysis research design was applied to yield both quantitative and qualitative data. Because there is already a lot of information and researches on the aspects of the topic, a survey study was not deemed necessary. Therefore, comparative analysis study design was appropriate for the purposes as it will focus on comparing the artists, analyzing their artworks and discussing the findings with the hope of identifying conclusive information or an interesting relationship from different artists. Therefore, comparative analysis design will give a more detailed summary of several art works done that are addressing the topic. This will provide expansive information on the consumption idea and how the artists query attitudes from different groups of people. Because there are different artworks from different artists that address the idea of consumption, comparative analysis offer the best tool to assist in integrating all the information.

b)     Instrumentation

The thesis used secondary data from different artworks of the artists and literature about the artistry of the artists. Secondary data from photographs, images, artistry, and literature about the artists was found to contain more information on the consumption idea, and how the artists query different attitudes of people and entities in the society. Secondary method of data collection is useful and advantageous to this study since a lot of data are available that was produced by the artists (Stewart 87). Moreover, there are a lot of printed media, report and books in the library and internet that provided formation for analysis. Similarly, this method is inexpensive compared to other methods of data collection since vast data quantities from the original authors and real artists are available at the disposal of the researcher. Therefore, large scale research can be done on a minimal budget (Smith 210).

c)      Analysis

In applying the comparative analysis research design, the researcher decided on the hypothesis to be tested. Literature review of all the artistry, images, photographs and studies that test the hypothesis was done. After reviewing all the literature, the researcher evaluated carefully each data, analyzed them and finally interpreted the results

d)     Validity

According to Carmines & Zeller, validity indicates the extent to which applied instrument in data collection measures what is intended to measure (14). Instrument validation according to Kirk & Miller is improved through the judgment of an expert (11). Content validity on the other hand refers to whether the used instrument provides adequate topic coverage. Therefore, the focus for the study will be on content and face validity. To test validity of the data, the researcher verified that the available data, information, images, photographs were authentic (Carmines & Zeller 34).

e)      Reliability

A measuring instrument for data collection is said to be reliable according to Kirk & Miller, if it provides consistent results. In assessing the reliability of the data, the context and the source will be examined (22). If six out of the total number of sources used provided consistent data, similar images and photographs, then the information will be regarded as trustworthy. However, if the information is conflicting, then it will be treated with much caution


The consumption idea as addressed by different artists portrays the consumption of the people and its critical importance in the current world.[1] When analyzing the consumption idea or engaging in a discourse on the consumption idea, the expected results from the analysis or the discourse is the ability to first understand the consumption effects on the natural resources and critically understand how the media influences the consumption habits of people. Secondly, from the analysis of the of the consumption idea, people will be in a position to design images and art work that raise public awareness on related issues on consumption. Thirdly, people will be able to understand how certain designers and artists raise the questions about consumerism and consumption through their literary work. Fourthly, consumption analysis will enable people also to understand how designers and artists approach consumption in a different way compared to other professionals and scientists. Lastly, analysis of the consumption idea will enable people to make changes in their lifestyles to promote sustainable living (Milesi-Ferretti & Roubini 371).

In the discussion and analysis of the consumption idea, the essay applied the works of different current designers, artists and the image makers who employ creative ad unique approaches to educate the masses by spreading the message on the over consumption effects to the environment  and society as a whole.

The paper first analyzed and discussed the Chris Jordan’s photographs, a photographer who exclusively deals with the consumption and consumerism issues. Similarly, the essay analyzed the works of another photographer Edward Burtynsky whose images induce awe of the landscapes which are depleted and serve as the records of the industrial consumption impacts if the natural resources. Other artists analysed include Barbra Krugar, Andrea Zittle ,Micheal Ray Charles, and Mel Ching

According to Schroeder, the contemporary artists that recycle throw away materials and waste products in their literary works mind the environment (29). There are many contemporary artists who recycle materials from the environment from individual levels to the community scales. Based on the goals of the analysis of consumption idea, the essay came up with three projects

a)      Project one: picture consumption

In this project, the essay discussed how waste or trash can be ugly or beautiful at the same time. Secondly, the project discussed how the consumption habits of people be captured in one photograph. The images applied in this project were from work of the artist Edward Burtynsky and Chris Jordan

Figure 1

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

Photograph shows tires and it depicts over consumption of people

b)     Project two: designing ads for the environment

From this project, the questions the essay discussed whether the media steer the general population towards purchase of things. Another question is how the advertisers encourage people to buy to purchase products or things that they do not need. The third question is how advertisements can be created to encourage beneficial and favorable change in the environment. Fourth is what should be said in the adverts; fifth is how the ads should look like. Sixth question is how to focus the public attention on purchasing of the renewable resources. Lastly is what the artists say or their opinions on the influence of the media on consumerism.

The images applied in this project were from work of the artist Barbara Kruger.[2]

Artist: Barbara Kruger

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

Figure 2

In close examination of the work of Kruger, her artistry applies the same techniques adverstinsg techniques like those used by the media to subvert message (Kruger, Goldstein & Deutsche 99). According to Dill, the media has much influence on the purchasing decisions of people (76). The radio, television, the cinema, internet and advertising are easily accessible to many people. This implies that the messages of the media can be easily and quickly reach billions of people. The media steer people in many different ways to buy stuffs. One techniques applied by Barbara Kruger as observed by Kruger & Linker is repetition of similar messages over time (132). This makes people accept them as true and even act according to the messages.

Figure 3

Artist: Barbara Kruger

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

Photograph depicting advert that encourage people to purchase

According to Weber et al, the media also influence how people buy things by using or even misusing the experts (71). The media applies this tactic by first quoting some research done by experts about the latest developments. Because it is very difficult to disagree since people do not have the current information and the current knowledge, they will blindly agree. The second technique noted by Jamieson & Campbell is where the companies use the famous people for their products advertisements (102). They simply publicize that the famous individual or the celebrity has agreed with their view because of the high regard of the celebrity among the public.

Katz pointed out that commitment is another method applied by the media to influence people purchasing decisions (152). If a person commits him or herself, they companies wants to appear consistent and therefore commit themselves. People will also tend to continue with decision already made because it is easy than making new decisions

Some of the techniques applied by the media to encourage people to buy goods and services include; avante garde, weasel words, facts and figures, patriotism, magic words, diversion, plain folks, transfer, bribery, wit and humor, testimonials, snob appeal among others (Pant 27).

c)      Project three: consumption images

In this project, the questions discussed include first, some of the different ways of representing people’s consumption habits. Secondly is how the methods convey different messages and ideas. Thirdly is how the artists approach consumption from the designers differently, from economists differently, from scientists differently and from the environmentalists differently.

The images applied in this project were from work of the artists Barbara Kruger, Chris Jordan and Kate Bingaman-Burt

Figure 4

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 92 inches

Photograph showing human consmption



1)   Analysis if Chris Jordan’s work

Chris Jordan’s work exclusively deals with photographs that address issues of consumption and consumerism.[3] Jordan noted that the beautiful photographs of Chris Jordan on display reports on the large scale consumption and waste out of the realms of statistics and squarely places them in front of our phases (166). His photographic artistry portrays the detritus of the society’s mass culture. That is the photographs of aluminum cans, piles of cell phones, garbage and many more

Figure 5

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 96 inches

The photograph depicts approximately 11,000 trails of jet that equals to commercial flights number after every 8hours in U.S

a)   How contemporary art of Chris Jordan address the consumption idea

In the Chris Jordan’s project of Intolerable Beauty, the artist addresses the issue of consumerism in the today’s society. Despite the fact that the photographs were randomly taken at different piles of things, the project was aimed at get the scale of the consumer society. For instance, his photograph on cell phones indicates that the actual number of mobile phones in united states that are discarded is more than about 130 million, and the picture only represented a small portion of the number (Jordan 287).

Figure 6

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 100 inches

The photograph depicts about 426,000 cell phones that equals to the totak number of retired cell phones everyday in U.S

As much as there is no place on earth that shows the actual group of things to support the statistics, Brockhoff et al explained that the entire society of today is consuming things invisibly. Therefore, the only way to understand and know the staggering effects of consumerism on the environment is to read the statistics in the scientific reports (310). Similarly, Rosa echoed support of the facts that the only way of relating the important incredible facts about mass consumption in the society is through statistics (37). However, the problem with the statistical numbers is that they are so emotionless and dry compared to images and photographs. Therefore, if the society is to be motivated as a culture to change their behaviors, then deep motivation need to be found. It is difficult to connect the statistics and therefore the society will not find motivation from it (Jordan 191).

Figure 7

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

The photograph depicts approximately 60,000 plastic bags that represents the number every five seconds used in U.S

Similarly, Jordan observed that in Chris Jordan’s photographs are run with series of numbers (57). This is to provide the viewer visual and the statistics in a different way for them to experience more directly the numbers with their hearts.

According to Brockhoff et al, one of the biggest problems right now that faces the current society is the consumerism problem, global environmental destruction, global warming, desertification of the agricultural lands, and the toxification of the oceans among others (81). These are not taking place because there exists a bad person somewhere who is consuming things terribly, but this is taking place because of the small incremental harm that every individual in the world is doing individually. Furthermore, the problem is the cumulative effect from the negative and harmful behaviors of hundreds of millions of people. Every person looks at his or her behaviors and believes that it does not look bad that much. Rosa advises that each and every person have to expand their consciousness to understand that the cumulative effect to the environment from hundreds of millions of the consumers decisions causes global environmental destruction (201).

Figure 8

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

The photograph depicts effects of global warming, desertification of agricultural land, floods and toxification of the oceans

b)   How Chris Jordan queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

Jordan pointed out that the work of Chris Jordan tries to help people in understanding that the society cannot do anything to curb or end consumption and pollution until people think about the large scale effects of consumption (129). The artistry of his photographs attempts to raise the viewer’s consciousness so that the individual member of the society starts thinking of the collective effects that everybody is part. This corresponds to the reasons why Chris Jordan runs numbers with the photographs he makes. This calls for people to be educated and better consumer, or even make better decisions

Figure 9

Artist: Chris Jordan & Cans Seurat

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 92 inches

The photograph depicts 106,000 cans of aluminum every 30 seconds that is used in U.S

According to Jordan, Chris Jordan tries also to query the attitudes of different people and entities in the society negotiating the ideas and concepts behind his photographs, and also find and create beauty in his artworks (113). Despite the fact that beautiful images attract people and people develop interest in them, beautiful pictures with difficult subjects draw the viewer on the beautiful part of the image and forget on the subject. Brockhoff et al alluded on the Jordan’s project of Intolerable Beauty where people talked of the beauty of the images for a longer time and this overshadowed the message being relayed across (284). This also explains why Jordan runs numbers with his photographs to convey the message to the viewer

In querying the attitudes, Rosa elaborated how Jordan also observed that when the collectors were collecting his work, they did it because of their beauty (91). Similarly, at receptions of his exhibitions, people admired the beauty of the pictures and he was even tempted one time to shout to everybody what the work was all about (Jordan 78). To find a solution and to satisfy his query, Jordan indicated that Jordan made an ugly picture of about 125,000 butts of cigarettes (401). That is the approximately the number that are littered every second around the world. The main intention of the photograph was that it would be edgy and disgusting extremely. However, when Jordan hanged the image at his exhibition, everybody flocked around the photograph and talked of how beautiful the picture was.

Figure 10

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

The photograph depicts 65,000 cigarettes that equals to the under 18 American teenagers who every month become addicted to cigarettes in U.S

For better or for worse, many people are attracted to the art has a representation of something terrible or awful as beautiful (Brockhoff et al 342). In general, beauty does not just involve a lot of prettiness and color. Furthermore, things can be beautiful by the fact of their complexity.

Figure 11

Artist: Chris Jordan

Date: 2007

Dimension: 60 by 92 inches

The photograph depicts 29,569 handguns that equals to the number of deaths that are gun related in 2004 in U.S

2)      Analysis of Barbara Kruger’s work

According to Kruger, Goldstein, & Deutsche, Barbara Kruger addresses language and sign issues through her art work (198). In most instances she has been group with other post modern feminist artists because she uses mass communication techniques and advertising in exploration of the gender and identity.

Kruger, Blumenthal & Horsfield pointed out that much work of Kruger involves merging of the photographs found from sources existing with aggressive and pithy texts that engages the viewer in the struggle for control and power that her captions portrays (309). Using a computer, Barbara Kruger develops her ideas and transfers the results to images that are billboard sized. Her images are often white letters trademark against a red background. Kruger observed that some of Barbara Kruger’s slogans read “your body is the battleground” and “I shop therefore I am” (173). According to Mary most of texts of Barbara Kruger questions the viewers about consumerism, feminism, desire and individual autonomy (66).

Kruger, Alexander, and Hal indicated that Kruger works with words and pictures because of their ability to determine what people are and what people are not (73). The bigger category that flows through Kruger’s work is the alteration and appropriation of the existing images. In the contemporary culture, the significance of appropriation art rest in its ability to play with textual conversions and preponderant imagistic to change the meanings and form new ones.

a)   How contemporary art of Barbara Kruger address the consumption idea

Barbara Kruger addresses the consumption idea in her artistry by taking visual mass commercial communication language and flips it.  Generally Barbara Kruger appropriates photographic commercial imagery that is commercial and overlay them with philosophical slogans that counter run the imagery. Kruger, Goldstein & Deutsche indicated that the inversion of meaning brings out how advertising reduces the identity of individual to that of object co modified (179). This forces the viewer to identify their objectification and respond to it. The images rally against consumerism, and are explicitly political.

Figure 12

Artist: Barbara Kruger

Date: 1987

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

Kruger & Linker stated that in Barbara Kruger’s work, there are elements that critique consumerism, objectify gaze and are also patriarchal discourse (423). The “objectifying gaze” has an idea that the viewer be in a power position that reduces the viewed subject to the object status. For instance, when the image of a woman is used for advertising, her identity is of least importance other than as a product prop. However, the patriarchal discourse depicts the wider social context, for instance the male dominated society where women are culturally suppressed and socially subordinated. Barbara Kruger addresses the issues by pointing out how women within mass culture are reduced to using commercials culture to express themselves. This engenders social context where social identity is a consumer behavior emergent property (Kruger, Blumenthal & Horsfield 101).

Figure 13

Artist: Barbara Kruger

Date: 1983

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches


b)   How Barbara Kruger queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

As an artist and a designer, Barbara Kruger queries the commonly held attitudes about the consumer society, mass media and commerce by using the advertising language that is based on a perspective of an insider. The juxtaposed slogans subversion plays off the expectations of the viewer where the adverting image again supports the call to action marketing. The juxtaposition is a powerful is a core marketing tactic powerful subversion. The message is an opposite of what the image is leading the viewer to expect (Kruger 26).

Figure 14

Artist: Barbara Kruger

Date: untitled

Dimension: 60 by 52 inches

Anti-consumerism specs where the wearer transforms into both a object and a voyeur

3)      Analysis of Micheal Ray Charles’s work

The artwork of Micheal Ray Charles challenges the idea of really what black identity is. Most of his works are racial and ethnic in nature as noted by (Charles 185). Schroeder noted that originally, Micheal Ray Charles intended his work to be for the black audiences but it seems many black Americans have a problem with his work (51). This can also be seen from the number of his collectors whose minority is black.

His artwork is an investigation into the historic racial stereotypes legacy of the African Americans (Sollins et al 283). His artistry examines how African Americans in the American history have been viewed and how the African Americans have come over the years to view themselves because of the stereotypes that are demeaning.

Figure 15

Artist: Micheal Ray Charles

Date: untitled

Dimension: 60 by 52 inches


The paintings of Micheal Ray Charles which are styles graphically investigates racial stereotypes  that are drawn from American history of product packaging, adverting, radio jingles, billboards and the television commercials (Golden 66). According to Sollins, Michael’s artworks draws  comparisons between mammy, Sambo and the minstrel images of contemporary mass media and the earlier era portrayals of the black youths, athletes and the celebrities (96). These are the images Charles sees in the American subconscious constantly. From the images of Micheal Ray Charles, it indicates how stereotypes have evolved. He deals with the past and present stereotypes in the today’s society’s context in his artistry

a)   How contemporary art of Micheal Ray Charles address the consumption idea

The contemporary art of Micheal Ray Charles addresses consumerism idea in many ways. To begin, the paintings of Charles have an antique and scrapped look to resemble peeling commercial art vintage. With these Charles presents a satirical campaign for a factious product referred to as Forever Free.  According to Royal Art the product symbolizes freedom’s false promises to the African Americans by America and more specific the consumer market through their images that are false (81). In his art work, Forever Free Micheal Ray Charles fixes on the way mass consciousness and popular culture have absorbed ethnic stereotypes. The series is thought provoking and a satirical campaign advertisement for a product which is fictitious referred to as Forever Free. This is a symbol of how the free market and the freedom promises have seduced the African Americans and abandoned them. Milesi-Ferretti & Roubini indicated that the free market merges new and old stereotypes to pitch his product (29).

Figure 16

Artist: Micheal Ray Charles

Date: 1994

Dimension: 60 by 42 inches

A photograph of Forever Free

Similarly, Micheal Ray Charles addresses consumerism by using products and advertisements that uses gender and ethnic stereotypes.

Figure 17

Artist: Micheal Ray Charles

Date: 1994

Dimension: 60 by 42 inches

b)   How Micheal Ray Charles queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

Micheal Ray Charles also queries the attitude that is commonly held about the consumer society, mass media and commerce. Charles noted that Micheal Ray Charles employs  stereotypes and black caricatures  such as Aunt Jemima, Sambo, Uncle Tom and Pickninnies to comment on the racial contemporary attitudes (131). The caricature of experiences of African Americans  such as Aunt Jemima, in Charles work is represented as ordinary blackness depictions, yet the benign aura are stripped of them that lends them an appearance of truth that is often unquestioned. Aunt Jemima is just a caricature image, but it almost becomes a real person automatically for several people in their minds (Schroeder 23). However, there exist differences between real humans and the images. In each of the Micheal Ray Charles’ paintings notions of nostalgia, ugliness, violence and beauty emerge and converge. This is a reminder that consumer society, the media and the commerce cannot divorce themselves from the past that has led them to where they are now currently, how they are portrayed and who they have become (Sollins et al  97).

Figure 18

Artist: Micheal Ray Charles

Date: 1994

Dimension: 60 by 42 inches

4)      Analysis of Edward Burtynsky’s work

According to Burtynsky & Mayer, Edward Burtynsky was another photographer just like Chris Jordan. His images induce awe of the landscapes depleted and these serve as records of the industrial consumption impacts of the natural resources (229). In the words of Edward Burtynsky, “human beings came from nature and therefore t5here is importance of having reverence for nature because human beings are connected to it. If human beings destroy nature, they destroy themselves” (Burtynsky 48)

Figure 19

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: 1985

Dimension: 60 by 92 inches

The photograph shows Rail cuts in Skihist provincial park, Canada, British Columbia

Burtynsky et al pointed out that the theme that is predominant in the work of Edward Burtynsky is the transformed nature by industries (137). His artistic works intersects with the contemporary view of mans great ages form minerals, to stones, transportation, oil among others. Moreover, Edward Burtynsky make the ideas visible in his photographs by searching for subjects rich in scale and detail yet open in meaning. For instance, the mine tailings, recycling yards, quarries and the refineries areas some of the places outside the normal experience of people, yet people partake on a daily basis their basis

Figure 20

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: 1985

Dimension: 60 by 102 inches

The photograph shows the open coal mine pit of Wester in British Colombia, Canada

a)   How contemporary art of Edward Burtynsky address the consumption idea

According to Burtynsky et al, the images of Edward Burtynsky act as metaphors to the modern existence dilemma of the human beings (44). The photographs search for dialogue between repulsion and attraction, fear and seduction. Human beings are drawn by the desire, that is the chance of good living, yet they are unconsciously or consciously aware that the entire world is suffering for the success of people. The dependence of people on nature to provide materials for their consumption, and the concern for human beings for the planets health sets human beings into a contradiction.

In an attempt to address the idea of consumption, Edward Burtynsky explains how he wanted to understand water, that is how people use and misuse it, what it leaves behind and what it is (Burtynsky et al 229). Furthermore, he wanted to trace the global thirst evidence and the sources threatened. In addressing the human consumption, the photographs of Edward Burtynsky document beautiful and monstrous gouged landscapes, patterned fractural delta regions, rectilinear and rigid step walls, colored ominously biomorphic shapes, aquaculture, circular massive pivot irrigation plots, and the ritual, cultural and social gatherings. Pauli et al noted that in the photographs, water is introduced intermittently as a victim, a protagonist a partner, a source, a lure, a threat, an end or a pleasure (238). Sometimes, water is completely absent from the photographs. Burtynsky, Bianco & Broucke explained that instead Edward Burtynsky focuses on the physical and visual effects of lacking of water (306). This according to Burtynsky & Mayer gives its absence a more powerful presence (217).

Figure 21

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: may 11, 2010

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

The photograph shows the oil spill of REM Forza in the Gulf of Mexico

The consumption nature of human beings is also seen in the photograph of Edward Burtynsky on oil. Burtynsky observed that from the artistry, one is left wondering what the human species is up to because the achievement of human beings are becoming the source of possible infinity (55). For instance, Burtynsky et al elaborated an example of a car that represent the freedom of human beings (201). However, there is much conflict because the oil it uses as its source of energy to make everything possible is a dread source since it is an ongoing habitat endanger.

Figure 22

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: may 11, 2003

Dimension: 60 by 82 inches

The photograph shows the oil fields of Belrdge California, U.S

The image of mines by Edward Burtynsky also indicates how he is addressing the consumption idea. It is the human appetite that is insatiable for the raw materials of the world that is of great interest. The manufacturing tools often function also as measure of the large scale of the scenes in the photographs of Edward Burtynsky

Figure 23

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: may 11, 1983

Dimension: 60 by 102 inches

The picture shows the Kennecott copper mines of Bingham, Utah

In china, Edward Burtynsky addresses the mass consumerism idea from his photograph that showed the results of environmental degradation due to the human processes of making things that make people happy and fulfilled (Burtynsky et al 337).

Figure 24

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: may 11, 2002

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

The photograph shows Three Gorges Dam project on the Yantze River, china

b)   How Edward Burtynsky queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

In attempting to query the attitudes commonly held by the consumer society, the mass media and the commerce, Burtynsky et al explained that Edward Burtynsky in his photographs  shows how human beings try to accommodate the expanding needs of a very thirsty and growing and civilization (226). Human beings are shaping the planet in colossal ways, and there is a possibility of human beings engineering their own demise. Pauli et al argues that people needs to think long term consequences of their actions when they are doing them (249). The pictures of Edward Burtynsky stimulates the thinking process about something essential to the survival of human beings that people take for granted

In querying the attitude of the consumer society, Edward Burtynsky elaborates how Bao Steel which is the sixth ranked global steel producer and exports its raw materials from china to Australia, India, south Africa and brazil (Burtynsky, Bianco & Broucke 281). Similarly, Guangdong province in china reveals many concentrations of factories and workers who produce world goods for human consumption from the natural resources that are depleted

In the ship breaking photographs of Edward Burtynsky, Burtynsky & Mayer pointed out how the artist tried to query the attitudes of the commerce, specifically the insurance companies (471). These images are just similar to the other pictures of abandoned queries and mines, endless oil derricks fields, pile of the tires discarded, and the huge mountain of the tankers retired indicates residues of destruction often left behind due to the industrial progress of human beings. Ship breaking idea came up due to the danger of single hulled ships after the oil spill of Exxon Valdez. Burtynsky indicated that the insurance companies refused to cover the ships, and this forced most of them to be decommissioned (21). Furthermore, only the double hulled ships were to be allowed on the open seas to avoid any form of catastrophe taking place again.

Figure 25

Artist: Edward Burtynsky

Date: may 11, 2000

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

Picture showing ship breaking in Chittagong, Bangladesh

5)      Analysis of Andrea Zittle’s work

Andrea Zittle is one of the American unique artists who explore contemporary western society by illustrating on the elements of geography, architecture and consumer culture to highlight the modern domestic life underpinnings. The artists have applied her day to day life aspects as the stimulus for her art works. By transforming her own personal experiences with the private/public fashion, space, transportation, shelter, refuge and food consumption into art objects, the interdisciplinary approach of Andrea Zittle allows her to investigate the fundamental contemporary life aspects (Satorius 340).

The analysis of the work of Andrea Zittle examines she employs as a designer, artist, advocate, consultant and an architect under the corporate burner to question how people behave in a society that is dominated by corporate branding and consumerism.

According to Schroeder, Andrea Zittle is considered widely as one of the artists who is influential with her works of the breeding units installations (119). These are compartmentalized breeding and living spaces for small animals. Similarly, she has produced samples of objects for individuals’ daily use from vehicles, furniture, wearable fashion and living structures that are portable. Sollins et al noted that the living units are always either portable or compact dwellings, or designed modules to define the interior space and also to provide everyday living necessities (203).

Figure 26

Artist: Andrea Zittle

Date: 2000

Dimension: 60 by 72 inches

Photo of the wearable fashions

a)   How contemporary art of Andrea Zittle address the consumption idea

The contemporary arts of Andrea Zittle address consumerism in many ways. The most notable form in which the art work of Andrea Zittle is the modern living puritan designs which are astute ecologically. The artworks of Andrea Zittle indicate how she abhors consumerism. Her designed artworks are designed to challenge the social conformity and in response to the financial constraints she faces in her everyday life, while suggesting alternative ways of living (Golden 305). Sollins pointed out that the early installations of her designs were living units that are tiny for the individuals that were unable to afford the skyrocketing prices of New York’s houses (221). For instance, Royal Art pointed out that she started smock shop in 2007, a not-for-profit collective workshop which confronts the big businesses that makes clothes (85).

Milesi-Ferretti & Roubini pointed out that the artist living structures that are bare bone (38). Andrea Zittle has a company called A-Z Administrative Service which produces vehicles, living units and furniture that has streamlined designs for the necessary functions. The minimal yet multifunctional living units of Andrea Zittle react to their surrounding environment and pick apart daily routines. The living units of Andrea Zittle comment on the necessities like to the home idea, and how confining excessive consumption can be

According to Brutvan, Mayo & Cathcart another eye opening pieces of Andrea Zittle is the floating island and it discusses the modern necessity’s trappings (110). Andrea Zittle designed and assisted in construction of a concrete island off Denmark’s coast. Satorius stated that of Andrea Zittle’s work uncover the societal social phenomenon that push people into isolation and consumerism through lifestyles (266). Although people consider them a modern society, they are actually living in accordance to the modern values. It is great interest to observe on the everyday rituals, resourcefulness and even minimalism in the projects of Andrea Zittle. These are the fundamental features of the communities that are homeless.

Figure 27

Artist: Andrea Zittle

Date: 2001

Dimension: 60 by 92 inches

Photo of the portable compactable units

b)   How Andrea Zittle queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

According to Brutvan, Mayo & Cathcart, the home idea is universally known as a human need. However, the home idea has an array of associations that depends on circumstance, status and income (114). Satorius noted that currently with the new inventions, the notion of home is dictated often by the “American dream” template (119). The depictions of home life by the media also ignite hunger and inflate expectations for frivolous necessities. The people with a lot of cash to afford modern living are living in excess, while the people who do not have cash afford basic needs live sparsely. Andrea Zittle explores the freedom run cost in the restricting world that has necessary excess.

Figure 28

Artist: Andrea Zittle

Date: 1993

Dimensions unframed 30 by52 inches

The photo shows the A-Z living units

6)      Analysis of Mel Chin’s work

Mel Chin has influenced many generations of curators and artists since 1970, who are interested in political awareness and conceptual art. His artistry encompasses a wide range of media including performance art, land art, painting, drawing, video and sculpture (Chin & Lash 39). Avoiding a trademark style, chins practice common thread is his thoughtful historicisms, conceptual rigor and concern for the social justice. Chin, Chong, & Albers observed that Chin challenges the traditional definitions of authorship and ownership by creating artworks that are collaborative and site-specific often, and involves many community members and artists (123).

The land based works of Chin such as “the Revival Field” and the “Operation Paydirt (Fundred)” gained international attention for presenting the soil remediation science as a form of art (Chin, Stroud & Mcevilley 296). Apart from his site specific works, Mel Chin has created an independent body of drawing and sculpture based on the legacy of surrealism and Dada, specifically the strains of chance, social critique and eroticism.

Despite the fact that Mel Chin is classically trained, his artistic works are both poetic and analytic and evades simple and easy classification. Some of the disciplines that intersect in his work according to Codrescu et al include ecology, botany and alchemy (401). Furthermore, Chin insinuates art into most unlikely areas such as popular television, toxic landfills, and even destroyed homes, and investigates how artworks can provoke greater social responsibility and awareness. Politically engaged and unconventional, his projects challenge the artists’ idea as the exclusive force of creativity behind the artwork. Chin said that the survival of his own ideas may not be as significant as a condition I make for others to be achieved (Huerta, Chin & Lippard 110). Furthermore, he often enlists groups of students or the entire neighborhoods in creative partnerships. For instance, in “Knowmad,” Mel Chin worked in collaboration with the software engineers to design a video game based on the nomadic peoples rug patterns facing persecution (Chin 191).

According to Chin & Lash, Mel Chin also promotes artistic works that has the ultimate effect of rejuvenating economies or benefitting science of the inner city neighborhoods (209). Similarly, Chin, Chong & Albers noted that in the “Revival Field,” Mel Chin worked jointly with the scientists create hyperaccumulators sculpted garden. These are plants that can absorb heavy metal elements from the areas that are contaminated in the most polluted zones in the world (189).

a)   How contemporary art of Mel Chin address the consumption idea

Mel Chin addresses the issue of land consumption from a number of his artistic projects he performs. Chin, Stroud, & Mcevilley indicated that artists have used land in many different ways as a medium since 1970s during the Earthworks movement (261). While creating geometric minimalist forms, earthworks artists tend to focus on formal issues. On the other hand, contemporary artists use land often as metaphors and also comment on the pressing current societal and environmental issues. The land artists of the current day use land in variety of ways, that is for tackling social and political issues (Codrescu et al 24).

Mel Chin, for more than a decade has embodied the land artists new generation while embracing many ways to use the land to provide inquiries of land consumption and the modern day living. In addressing land consumption issue through his collection of interest, his work blends the lines of social activism, sciences and land use. Huerta, Chin, & Lippard pointed out that Mel Chin’s multilayered artistic work of addressing land consumption crosses through many mediums including the re-purposing works of the abandoned homes, video games, soil analysis research, toxic earth and many others (144). This is generally classified as activist art, because his work confuses critics and writers (Chin 120). Similarly, Chin & Lash asserted that Chin’s work is a poetic cross media change expression for himself, others and also the transformation towards the change (591). In analyzing how Mel Chin’s artistic work addressed the consumption idea, the essay will examine “the Revival Field,” an artistic work of Mel Chin.

The Revival Field


Figure 29

Artist: Mel Chin

Date: 1990

Dimensions unframed 16.75 × 22 × 0.25 inches

Materials: color Xerox on paper, mounted on foam core board


The Revival Field was an artistic work of Mel Chin and featured a polluted field under experiment using plants whose seedlings and future offspring might be the cure of decontamination due to excessive human consumption and wastage (Chin, Chong & Albers 391). Despite the fact that the Revival Field was seen as a science project, the assertion of Chin that t is an art piece was strategic. Furthermore, Revival Field was categorized as an art by Chin so as to assert several possible art mediums as change generator, which is the core aspect of chin’s artistic work.

Figure 30

Artist: Mel Chin

Date: 1990

Dimensions unframed 16.75 × 22 × 0.25 inches

Materials: color Xerox on paper, mounted on foam core board

Chin, Stroud & Mcevilley explained the multiplicity of mediums and topics in Chin’s work in that his work takes ecological and political dilemmas, and expresses the topics in symbolic forms (70). Furthermore, Codrescu et al stated that Chin is interested in ideas mechanics, that is, he explores ideas and how people live, the kind of society people have  and then look for a possibility or a game plan (63). The quest of Mel Chin to explore possibilities produce similar works in that they all pertain to the society of today, and has no limitations. By the works not having any limitations, the artistic works of Chin crosses several disciplines. However, the root of the artistic work of chin lies in the idea that is new to the society and the artist in general. This results in a work that provide unseen possibilities before (Huerta, Chin & Lippard 159). In addressing the land consumption issue, he applies his art which possess many mediums, ideas and statements. All in all, the common thread in all his works is the metaphor of transformation and change.

Figure 31

Artist: Mel Chin

Date: 1990

Dimensions unframed 16.75 × 22 × 0.25 inches

Materials: color Xerox on paper, mounted on foam core board

Artistic use of transformation and change is accurately displayed in the artistic work of “Revival Field” by Mel Chin. The project was a circular polluted land field which featured planted crops, they are maintained and when they reach maturity they are harvested (Chin 61). This was a project aimed at addressing the problem of human land consumption and destruction of the land resources. Chin & Lash explained that the key to toxicity elimination lies in replanting of the plants (103). This is because the hyperaccumulators roots absorb the contaminating metals in the soil, and the harvested plans are then incinerated at low temperatures. The process of planting is repeated until the toxicity level of the site is acceptable and safe (Chin, Chong & Albers 46). The change in the art project of Revival Field literally happens as purification of soil occurs through the process of growing and then replanting. This way, Mel Chin as an artist addressed the land consumption problem as a result of soil pollution and degradation of land due to harmful wastes. The successes of his work Revival Field, is measured in real change terms, and not metaphoric terms (Chin, Stroud & Mcevilley 89). Well documented results that display change, if the portray purification process success, could ultimately lead to change in the manner people handle waste sites that are hazardous.

Figure 32

Artist: Mel Chin

Date: 1990

Dimensions unframed 16.75 × 22 × 0.25 inches

Materials: color Xerox on paper, mounted on foam core board

b)   How Mel Chin queries the attitudes commonly held about consumer society, mass media and commerce

There are many attitudes that are commonly held about the consumer society, the mass media and commerce. Mel chin addresses these attitudes in different ways using his art works which expresses transformation. According to Codrescu et al, change is a way in which thinking occurs and it is an important condition in when addressing attitude amongst different groups of people (11). In the current world, unpolluted land has become scarce. Huerta, Chin & Lippard observed that Mel Chin uses Revival Field to present a change in thinking ways of a person (161). In querying the attitudes, he pursues it in the context of himself and also for the viewer. Mel Chin asserted that if an individual approach everything with a critical mind or eye, then the revelation of the world would be shown as something that is very much impossible to change. The ecological track record of human beings is so horrific that there is no trace of hope in it, but the moment that a person is captured by some possibility and discovers that art is new to them, that is the moment that transformation occurs (Chin 113).

Change played a central role in Mel Chin’s artworks as displayed in the Revival Field. He further goes ahead to try and make a change on his societal topic s and outlooks as he tries to question the attitude of the consumer society. Eventually he tries to share the possibilities with other people. The process is seen when Chin was planning for the Revival Field after studying pollution nature. The outcome was new method of viewing the land consumption rate through the possibility of purification of the previously unworkable land. Chin & Lash stated that the new way of thinking to the artist is first new, and then it becomes a possibility when it is shared to the public as an artwork (99).


In conclusion, the artists have indicated how American culture has been pervaded by consumerism. The paper has discussed how people respond and explore consumption idea. Culture has been identified that it plays a great role on what people purchase to give sense of self to them, with nothing that is that is off limit. The repose of art to the consumerism of people has been addressed where different contemporary artists have shown their creations, their art perceptions and the creativity processes. For individual analysis of the artists, how they address the consumption idea had been analyzed in addition to how they query the attitudes of mass media, the consumer society and the commerce. The contemporary artists analyzed with their art works include Barbra Krugar, Edward Burtynsky, Micheal Ray Charles, Mel Ching and Andrea Zittle

6.                 Work Cited


Royal Art S. N. S. W. [royal Art Society of New South Wales: Australian Gallery File]. , 2000. Print.

Brockhoff, Gene, Alex Peterson, Peter C. Whybrow, Juliet Schor, Cecile Andrews, Duane Elgin, Chris Jordan, James B. Twitchell, Julian Darley, Jeff Deveraux, and Continuum Spacetime. Shop ’til You Drop: The Crisis of Consumerism. Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation, 2010.

Brutvan, Cheryl A, Marti Mayo, and Linda L. Cathcart. In Our Time: Houston’s Contemporary Arts Museum, 1948-1982 : Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas, October 23, 1982-January 2, 1983. Houston, Tex: Contemporary Arts Museum, 1982. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward. Edward Burtynsky · Quarries: The Quarry Photographs of Edward Burtynsky. Göttingen: Steidl, 2007. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward, and Mark Mayer. Edward Burtynsky. San Francisco, Calif: Robert Koch Gallery, 2001. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward, Juliette M. Bianco, and Pieter B. F. J. Broucke. Nature Transformed: Edward Burtynsky’s Vermont Quarry Photographs in Context. Hanover, N.H: Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, 2012. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward, Wade Davis, Russell Lord, and Marcus Schubert. Burtynsky: Water. Göttingen: Steidl, 2013. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward, Marc Mayer, Ted C. Fishman, and Mark Kingwell. China: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky. Göttingen: Steidl, 2005. Print.

Burtynsky, Edward, Michael Mitchell, William E. Rees, Paul Roth, and Marcus Schubert. Burtynsky: Oil. Göttingen: Steidl, 2009. Print.

Carmines, Edward G, and Richard A. Zeller. Reliability and Validity Assessment. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage Publications, 2009. Print.

Charles, Michael R, Calvin Reid, and Tony Shafrazi. Michael Ray Charles. New York, NY: Tony Shafrazi Gallery, 1998. Print.

Chin, Mel. Viewpoints: Mel Chin. Minneapolis, Mn: Walker Art Center, 1990. Print.

Chin, Mel, and Miranda I. Lash. Mel Chin: Rematch. Hatje Cantz Publishers, 2014. Print.

Chin, Mel, Albert Chong, and Kate Albers. Mel Chin. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN , 2001.

Chin, Mel, Marion B. Stroud, and Thomas McEvilley. Soil and Sky: Mel Chin : October 1 Through November 30, 1992. Philadelphia, PA: Fabric Workshop, 1993. Print.

Codrescu, Andrei, Lisa Crossman, Eleanor Heartney, Patricia Johnson, Miranda Lash, and Patricia C. Phillips. Mel Chin. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2014. Print.

Dill, Karen E. How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

Golden, Thelma. Art 21: Art in the 21st Century. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2001. Print.

Huerta, Benito, Mel Chin, and Lucy R. Lippard. Inescapable Histories: Mel Chin : an Exhibition. Kansas City, Mo: ExhibitsUSA, Mid-America Arts Alliance, 1996. Print.

Jamieson, Kathleen H, and Karlyn K. Campbell. The Interplay of Influence: News, Advertising, Politics, and the Mass Media. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub, 1992. Print.

Jordan, Chris. Taken. Don Mills, Ont: Mira, 2006. Print.

Jordan, Chris. Running the Numbers: An American Self-Portrait. Pullman: Museum of Art, Washington State University, 2009. Print.

Katz, Helen E. The Media Handbook: A Complete Guide to Advertising Media Selection, Planning, Research, and Buying. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003. Internet resource.

Kirk, Jerome, and Marc L. Miller. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 2006. Print.

Kruger, Barbara, and Kate Linker. Love for Sale: The Words and Pictures of Barbara Kruger. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1990. Print.

Kruger, Barbara, Lyn Blumenthal, and Kate Horsfield. Barbara Kruger. Chicago, Ill: Video Data Bank, Art Institute of Chicago, 1980.

Kruger, Barbara, Ann Goldstein, and Rosalyn Deutsche. Barbara Kruger. Los Angeles, CA: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1999. Print.

Barbara Kruger. New York: Mary Boone Gallery Michael Werner, 1987. Print.

Milesi-Ferretti, Gian M, and Nouriel Roubini. Growth Effects of Income and Consumption Taxes: Positive and Normative Analysis. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1995. Print.

Pant, Himanshu. Advertising and Media. Jaipur, India: ABD Publishers, 2007. Internet resource.

Pauli, Lori, Kenneth Baker, Michael Torosian, Mark Haworth-Booth, and Edward Burtynsky. Manufactured Landscapes: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press, 2003. Print.

Rosa, E A. “Review of Chris Jordan’s Photographic and Computer Image Exhibition, Running the Numbers, Curated by Chris Bruce, Director of the Washington State University Museum of Art.” Organization & Environment. 22.3 (2009): 327-337. Print.

Satorius, Katherine. “Andrea Zittle.” Artus 2011 – 2012: the Collector’s Edition. 32.1 (2013): 120-121. Print.

Schroeder, Jonathan E. Conversations on Consumption. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Smith, Emma. Using Secondary Data in Educational and Social Research. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill/Open University Press, 2008. Internet resource.

Kruger, Barbara, Alexander Alberro, and Hal Foster. Barbara Kruger. New York: Rizzoli, 2010. Print.

Sollins, Susan, and Marybeth Sollins. Art 21: Art in the Twenty-First Century 3. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2005. Print.

Sollins, Susan, Susan Dowling, Deborah Shaffer, Barbara Kruger, Michael R. Charles, Matthew Barney, Andrea Zittel, and Mel Chin. Art 21: Consumption. Eight Mile Plains, Qld: Marcom Projects [distributor, 2005.

Stewart, David W. Secondary Research: Information Sources and Methods. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 2004. Print.

Kruger, Barbara. Barbara Kruger. Wellington, N.Z: National Art Gallery, 1988. Print.

Weber, Amy, Gayle F. Gold, Gene Pulice, George Gerbner, John C. Hall, Chalmers Knight, Rick DeCroix, Tim Copacia, Catherine R. Squires, and Melanie Mannarino. The Media’s Influence on What We Buy. Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004.

[1] Several litrary works indicates the consumption habits in the society. See Kruger Barbara 21-126, Jordan Chris 31-201, Edward Burtynsky 11-81, Micheal Ray Charles 3-110,  Mel Ching 21-202, and Andrea Zittle, 13-67

[2] See  the video by Kruger, Barbara, Blumenthal,  Kate Horsfield for more collection of Krugers Art works

[3] On the images of Jordan that that deals with consumerism, see Jordan 120-261. The books has a collection of his artworks

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Relationship between IMA in Different Age Groups and Gender Variance

Relationship between IMA in Different Age Groups and Gender Variance


The purpose of the study was to find the relationship between IMA in different age groups and gender variance.IMA has been found to be present in high levels in cardiac ischemic patients. Many studies have been done on the relationship of other biomarkers such as troponin to gender and different age groups (Rodriguez-Ospina, 331; Wiviott et al, 1415).Therefore, further research need to be done to find out whether there exist differences in the levels of IMA between different age groups, and also in gender. The results of the study will be helpful in correct diagnosis of cardiac ischemia among patients, in addition to stratification of the patients that suffer from acute chest pains. Correct diagnosis means immediate treatment and management of the cardiac ischemia before it destroys the myocytes.


Cardiac bio makers According to Rodriguez-Ospina et al (14) are substances released by the heart into the blood stream when it is stressed or damaged. Measurement of the released bio makers in the blood stream is helpful in diagnosis, monitoring, risk stratification and in management of people suspected to have cardiac ischemia and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cardiac ischemia results when blood supply that goes to the tissues of the heart is not enough to meet the needs of the heart. ACS results from plaque rapture that causes blood clot formation in the coronary arteries. This results in a sudden blood decrease and oxygen that reaches the heart. Rodriguez-Ospina et al (15) highlighted some of the different types of cardiac biomarkers tests but the most used and effective one is the troponin test. However, cardiac troponin is only specific and sensitive for detection of damage in myocardium, but sometimes may not rise in there is reversible myocardial ischemia. In contrast, recent studies have indicated that Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) is very sensitive and effective biochemical marker of ischemia (Wiviott et al, 1414; Sinha et al, 209|).  During ischemic attack, IMA is produced and is present in blood in concentrations that is easily detectable. Recent studies have also indicated that there exist differences in the levels of biomarkers in gender but minimal differences in different age groups (Sinha et al, 72; radha et al, 225). Wiviott et al (1413) indicated that diagnosis of diseases of the coronary artery in women is more difficult. This is because of lower diagnostic accuracy of the non invasive tests and lower symptoms specificity. In their study, they found out that in patients with Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and Unstable Angina (UA), there existed different patterns of biomarkers presentation. For instance, men had had a higher likelihood of elevated troponins and creatine kinase-MB. Women, on the other hand, had a higher likelihood of having elevated brain natriureitic peptide and C-reactive protein. Similarly, age differences exist in the level of bio makers. The levels of Brain Natriuretic peptide (BNP) are higher in older populations and women compared to men (Wiviott et al, 1413). Further research is needed to clarify whether pathophysiological differences that are gender related exist in acute coronary syndromes presentation. The aim of the study was to find out the levels of IMA in different age groups and gender variance


Ninety six patients with acute chest pain between age group 30-60years admitted in ICCU of hospital participated in the study. Among these subjects, 40 were male and 56 were female.  Of the 96 patients, 16 of them had no evidence of myocardial ischemia. They were categorized as group II. The remaining 80 patients with evidence of myocardial ischemia were categorized into group I. About 41% of the patients of group I was between 50-60 years of age. The control group of healthy subjects was 28, of which 10 were males and 18 females.

Patients were evaluated as being non ischemic or potentially ischemic through standard coronary disease indicators [(CK), CK-MB, LDH and electrocardiography findings] and were tested by a Co (II)-albumin binding assay for IMA.

Of the 80 ischemic patients (group I) 34 were males and 46 females. The mean±SD age for the males was 50± 6.8 years and the female was 58±10.1 years. The control group was made up of 10 males and 18 females, and the mean±SD age was 45±8.6 years and 56±10.6 years respectively.

The patients of ischemic group (group 1) were further divided in to three groups based on their age &sex as follows; 30-40 years (M&F), 40-50 years (M&F), and 50-60 years (M&F).


The mean±SD of CK-MB for the age group 30-40 years was normal in both males and females. But for the females of age group 40-50years it was higher (24±1.6) compared to males. Likewise, in the age group of 50-60 years in females the CKMB values (56±4.8) had high mean than males (52±6.0) .In addition  to CK-MB, the LDH values were also higher in females (225±6.4)  than males (198±10.6) .The LDH levels were  normal in other  two  groups. 


Many important findings regarding IMA in different age groups and gender variance in Ischemic patients presenting with Co (II)-albumin binding assay for IMA have emerged from the analysis. Women had a higher likelihood of having IMA biomarker compared to men who were ischemic. Further analysis indicated that, as age increases (from 40 to 60 years) IMA levels get elevated among the ischemic patients. The study also shows correlation to a study done by Bar-Or D, Lau E, Winkler JV where myocardial ischemic patients had elevated assay levels, and for the age group of 50 to 60 years which had higher levels of IMA (Bar-Or et al, 12).

High levels of the IMA in women and the elderly is an indication that the accuracy of diagnosis of coronary heart diseases such as cardiac ischemia has been increased. The application of IMA to detect ischemia before destruction of the myocardium muscles will be helpful in treating the elderly who mostly suffer from the cardiac diseases such as cardiac ischemia. Furthermore, it would be helpful in stratification of the patients who have cardiac ischemic and normal chest pains (radha et al, 225).


In conclusion, despite the gender and age differences, IMA were higher in women, and gets elevated as age increases in ischemic patients. This is a breakthrough for the elderly and the women who are ailing from cardiac ischemia or just experience chest pain. Correct diagnosis would enable them get people treatment on time. 

Work Cited

Rodriguez-Ospina, LF, CP Rosales-Alvarez, and A Lopez-Mas. “Cardiac Biomakers for the Evaluation of Acute Coronary Syndrome.” Boletín De La Asociación Médica De Puerto Rico. 101.4 (2009). Print.

Sinha, M, Roy, D, Gaze, D, Collinson, P, & Kaski, J. “Role of “ischemia Modified Albumin”, a New Biochemical Marker of Myocardial Ischaemia, in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes.” BMJ Group, 2004. Print

[email protected], Govender, Radha, De Greef, Jacques, Delport, Rhena, Becker, Piet J., & Vermaak, William J.H.”Biological Variation of Ischaemia-Modified Albumin in Healthy Subjects. Clinics Cardiv, 2008.” Internet resource.

Wiviott, Stephen D, Christopher P. Cannon, David A. Morrow, Kausik K. Ray, Marc A. Pfeffer, and Eugene Braunwald. ” Differential Expression of Cardiac Biomarkers by Gender in Patients With Unstable Angina/Non–ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 46.8 (2005): 1411-1416. Print.

Bar-Or, D, E Lau, and JV Winkler. “A Novel Assay for Cobalt-Albumin Binding and Its Potential As a Marker for Myocardial Ischemia-a Preliminary Report.” The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 19.4 (2000): 311-5. Print.


Table No I: Age distribution in ischemic and control groups:

Ischemic subjects


Control group



Mean ± SD


Mean ± SD


Mean ± SD


Mean ± SD

50±6.8Years 58±10.1Years 45±8.6Years 56±10.6Years

 Table no II: Age wise distribution of cardiac markers in Ischemic group      

Table no III Mean ± SD of males & females in Ischemic & non isch

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Table of contents


Task 1………………………………………………………………………………………………3

1.1 Explain briefly the following organizations and their purposes. 3

1.1.1 Virgin Group LTD.. 3

1.1.2 Tesco PLC.. 4

1.1.3 McDonalds. 4

1.1.4 National Health Services (NHS) UK.. 4

1.1.5 A corner shop near where you stay. 5

1.2 The extent in which Tesco meets the objectives of different stakeholders. 5

1.3 Responsibilities of Tesco and strategies employed to meet them.. 6

Task 2. 6

2.1 How different economies attempt to allocate resources effectively. 6

2.1.1 Market economy. 7

2.1.2 Planned Economy. 7

2.1.3 Mixed economy. 7

2.2 Impacts of fiscal and monetary policy on Activities of Tesco PLC UK.. 8

2.3 Impact of competition policy and regulatory mechanism on Tesco PLC UK.. 8

Task 3. 8

3.1 How marketing structures determine pricing and output decision of the Tesco PLC UK.. 8

3.2 How marketing forces shape Tesco PLC UK responses. 9

3.3 How the business and cultural environments shape the behavior of Tesco PLC UK.. 9

Task 4. 10

4.1 Significance of international trade to Tesco PLC UK.. 10

4.2 Impacts of global factors on Tesco PLC………………………………………………….11

4.3 Impacts of Policies of the European Union on Tesco PLC UK.. 11

5.0 Conclusion. 12

6.0 Reference. 14


Many companies are in different organization environment and such will be mentioned in this report. However, before we go deep into our discussion, we will first determine what organization environment is and the causes behind company’s operation. Company environment is a process by which the inner and external causes amalgamate so as to impact the important scenario of an organization.   The inner and external causes consist of government activities, team factors suggestions, replacement, globally control, provider, alternatives, improvements, team factors, clients, suppliers and opponents. There will also be an addition of a detailed view on how different companies implement suggestions to manage their organization environment successfully. To begin our discussion, we will first look at different companies and the purpose of those companies.

  • Explain briefly the following organizations and their purpose

1.1.1 Virginia Group Limited

According to Cengage (2001pp67), this organization was created and began by Richard Branson and it is one of the British Centered international companies. The company’s important dealings are in wellness and fitness, entertainment, way of way of life and regional travel agent and also deal in cell mobile cellular mobile phones. The independent features of companies comes due to companies being sub units hence leading to the complexness and difference of commercial set up of companies. In Virgin Group Restricted, Branson who is the creator of the organization often permits a brand to an organization that has come up with an organization unit.

  • Tesco PLC

Given a rank as the second greatest store based on its earnings, Tesco is an British organization working in general merchandise and food such as beverages, foods cost-effective alternatives and Tesco Mobile cellular mobile phones. U.K form the headquarter of Tesco (Gott  et al 2010pp128). The important purpose of Tesco is to create sure that its clients are well offered and its employees are also well motivated to help in the growth and growth of the organization. The organization is a aspect of the FTSE 100 index with a capital of 24.4 billion cash money Dollars this year (Hellriegel et al 2009pp273).

  • McDonalds

This is a fast foods restaurant serving dairy products pizza and also one of the greatest trash foods restaurants. The secret head office of MacDonald Industry is in U. S. The restaurant gets its earnings from the earnings on the restaurant. Apart from dairy products pizza other foods sold at MacDonald consist of poultry, Chips, milkshake or smoothie or shake or shake, sodas, deserts and they also offer breakfast among other things (Innotica 2003pp98).

  • National Health Services

According to Oenb (2002pp 35), the healthcare program provides real wellness and fitness, physical wellness and wellness and fitness alternatives and operates in U. s. Empire. The Nationwide Health Solutions has four techniques that function individually and they consist of Northern Ireland in Europe in Western nations, England NHS, NHS Scotland, and NHS Wales. These method features using different suggestions, management’s and authority with its funding originating from taxation. The Country Health Service is known to cover emergency treatments, long illness, fatalities, antenatal care and transplants and many more.

  • A neighboring corner shop

A nearby place shop can be referred to as a small shop in the team that earnings item such as beverages, magazines and household specifications. The business owners of such shops often create important options regarding the growth and growth of their shops. These shops are usually not big in size and there for are only on the team or the neighborhood it serves at plenty of your energy and effort. The business owners of these shops also create options in regards to the problems and earnings developed within a particular time frame (Steers et al 2006 pp107).

  • How does Tesco meet the objectives of different stakeholders

The employees, the clients, the administration and the provider’s type aspect of the stakeholders’ of Tesco. For the common outstanding of stakeholders, Tesco understands from concentrating on its stakeholders. The question that needs to be addressed is how do they comprehend from their customers? How do they get to know that they are satisfied with the alternatives that they get? What about the traders and the employees? How does the organization fulfill their objectives? On the issue of clients, Tesco does this by examining the activities of clients whenever they offer their alternatives.

However, contrary to the clients, Tassoni (2007) noticed that the traders are up-dates on different success of the organization and also different programs that they have. The organization also has strategic marketing strategies that create sure that the organization has outstanding growth earnings hence concentrating on the traders and investor’s growth. For the employees, the organization assures that they execute in a beneficial environment. The employees also have forums where they air out their problems to the organization. The priority goals of Tesco are to create sure those clients are offered top quality alternatives and that their employees are properly secured and healthy. The organization also assures that no stakeholder is discriminated based on gender or public. Having respected non- government companies and control segments Tesco has enhanced in its growth. The control department and the non- government companies support Tesco in its growth by giving their views on the coming up problems within the organization and the way forward. Lastly, through efficient communication, Tesco has recognized outstanding relationship with their suppliers (Warner 2010 pp14).

  • Responsibilities of Tesco and strategies employed to meet them

Angiello (2005pp347) pointed out that different obligations are available in Tesco as an organization which comes from working, environmental, worker’s responsibility to team obligations. Under working responsibility, to create sure that earnings are developed, the organization has in place efficient suggestions. These suggestions help in the growth of the organization and its expansion in terms of advantages (Ghidini 2010p.37). On the issue of environmental responsibility, Tesco contains in properly secured organization so as to reduce damaging the surroundings. This is done through techniques that the organization has in place to create sure a maintainable environment and such techniques consist of recycle of spend elements. Under team responsibility, the organization identifies the customer’s needs in different places and joins a lot of importance to its clients. Lastly, there is the employee responsibility. Under the employee responsibility, Tesco provides necessary rewards so as to create sure that its employees are motivated accordingly. By motivation, it means that the employees are motivated to execute more smartly for example by satisfying them whenever the organization makes more advantages or by increasing their salary (Harris et al 2004pp89).

Task 2

2.1 How different economies attempt to allocate resources effectively

Distribution of resources is done successfully in accordance with the kind of the economic system. There are three types of cost-effective techniques which will be looked unto in the repot and they consist of structured economic system, market economic system and mixed economic system.

2.1.1 Market economy

Based in market economic system, main options are joined on market process. The factor of production under the marketplace economic system is not owned by the main government but by companies and personal groups. Requirement, offer and ability execute a significant factor to create options (Steers et al, 2006pp30).

2.1.2 Planned Economy

In comparison to the marketplace economic system, in a structured economic system, the government is the key player in resource allocation choice. The government Agencies execute all the planning regarding how sources will be allocated (Hutt et al 2010p.195). Before the allocation of sources an intense research on different needs of people is performed to establish how successfully the restricted sources can be allocated to create value for the globe. A nation with a structured economic system tries to create sure reasonable resource allocation to all techniques of way of way of life. The examples of nations that execute structured economic system consist of main Western nations, Asia and Latina in the U. s. States.

2.1.3 Mixed economy

In mixed economic system, there is the combination of structured economic system and market economic system. Under mixed economic system, the sources are split between the Government and the person sector (Kutz 2007pp98). Example of a mixed economic system is the nation of England where the government controls resource allocation to education and real wellness and fitness while the person companies have taken over resource allocation to Telecoms and energy generation and submission.

2.2 Impacts of fiscal and monetary policy on Activities of Tesco PLC UK

Monetary policies or guidelines are suggestions that are applied to help in handling cash offer. Cost-effective technique directly outcomes item forex costs, asset costs, financial commitment and consumption. The UK working technique has confident lower rates for borrowing which has confident that different trader can easily access loans hence according them to be able to spend cash on Tesco companies (Stanley 2002p.227).

Unlike working technique, Cost-effective technique in the UK contains the State`s taxation and making an investment on companies. The UK government has decreased the level of taxation of companies and this has caused a beneficial impact to Tesco PLC due to the factor that it is now able to enhance its investments across the globe without the initial fear of outstanding taxation costs (Tassoni 2007pp328). Reduced taxation has decreased the costs of products at Tesco hence encouraging more purchases by the clients and creating customer’s commitment. Reduced taxation has also led to an important reduction of the amount of selecting and working hence it has enhanced the chances of Tesco Company growth.

2.3 Impact of competition policy and regulatory mechanism on Tesco PLC UK

Warner (2010pp187) noticed that a company’s harassing activities are often banned by aggressive law. The aggressive law assures that a organization does not execute rejection to deal, aggressive costs and price gouging. The rival’s technique has led to a rise in opponents within Tesco marked thus creating earnings for the companies. Just like the opponents technique, the handling process has also developed earnings to the organization by ensuring that the obligations carried out in the organization achieves the business’s goals and is legal.

Task 3

3.1 How marketing structures determine pricing and output decision of the Tesco PLC UK

Many market elements are available such as oligopolies, and monopolies. There is also a aggressive market structure where there are many clients and suppliers. Many clients and suppliers usually bring the issue of market costs. The combination market provides and demand conditions usually determine the marketplace costs. A greater opponent reduces the discussing energy for the buyer hence they will be price takers. In perfect opponents Tesco will continue to emphasize its outcome given that the value (Price=MR=AR) exceeds Tesco`s minimal price (MC) (Xahir 2012p.53).

3.2 How marketing forces shape Tesco PLC UK responses

Indirect and direct external pressure usually types the promotion causes. Within Tesco PLC UK, there exists the following forces; cost-effective, opponent, legal, government, particular growth, handling and socio-cultural (Cengage, 2001, p71). Tesco`s environment is quick changing and it is important for the control to monitor these factors carefully to be able to survive because environmental causes generate threats, opportunities and question or risk to the organization (Gott et al 2010pp227). If the company’s managers fail to identify the external causes, it will leave the organization not really prepared to deal with problems and threats. Tesco should therefore concentrate on monitoring so that it can respond properly to the promotion energy. For instance, there can be an enhanced need for the products which Tesco offers. If Tesco was monitoring this, they can enhance offer to the marketplace hence enhances earnings for the organization. Industry causes monitoring help to check the company`s activities in regards to the alternatives and products offered by a organization.

3.3 How the business and cultural environments shape the behavior of Tesco PLC UK

Business environment controls and Influence Organization’s activities (Hellriegel et al 2009 pp165). The team environment has also an outstanding impact on the activities of a organization such as Tesco. Company activities have a shared meaning and common belief that is held by affiliates of the organization. Social values determine how different affiliates within the organization will act towards each other (Innotica 2003pp75). Good environmental way of way of life leads to greater employee commitment to the organization, helps in selecting and communicating of the new employees and enhances the company`s performance through promoting and creating workers` effort.

Environmental way of way of life outcomes on the right thinking and charges of different employees within an organization since it provides specifications that must be upheld by the organization. To help in the improvement of performance in Tesco, the organization has put in place a way of way of life that motivates employees to create, comprehend and offer their very best. The leadership and control of Tesco usually affect the way of way of life (Oenb 2002p. 118). The way of way of life of growth has helped Tesco to extremely create every time.

Task 4

4.1 Significance of international trade to Tesco PLC UK

It is of great important to companies in worldwide business in various ways. In scenario of Tesco, Worldwide organization has offered Tesco the probability to expand its market shifting on the globe like into African-American, Asia and North America. These new markets have efficient for Tesco UK because it has enhanced the earnings for the organization.

Apart from growth of market shifting, globally organization has led to particular details sharing; Tesco usually gets details from other nations to enhance its organization (Steers  et al 2006 pp48). A large market has significantly decreased organization difference since there is extensive offer and need for Tesco`s products globally. Tesco can now import more cost-effective raw content and sources that are more cost-effective elsewhere hence enhanced success for the organization (Tesco 2002 pp26).

4.2 Impacts of global factors on Tesco PLC

The globally factors that impact Tesco PLC organization consist of legal factors, team factor, cost-effective factor, government factors and particular factors. Under Guidelines, Tesco familiarizing itself with different rules from different nations has helped the organization to act as per the suggestions all over the globe. Tesco has a duty of familiarizing itself with team factors in instances where they want to successfully bring out their organization in a new and different region. Under cost-effective law, cost-effective techniques vary from one nation to another and Tesco has to determine the tendency of cost-effective techniques in different nations.

Economical techniques determine the success of a organization in that nation since some countries` economic system value personal goals better than mixed goals. In comparison with the cost-effective factor, the particular factor comes in a consequence of the growth in the field of Technology. Tesco has to create sure an efficient technique in the particular growth so that it is not left behind by the marketplace trends. Lastly, under government factors, the organization has to take government problems of different places or nations that it plans to execute its organization in. Countries which are politically unpredictable are not beneficial for organization this is because of government anxiety (Xahir 2012pp153). When this occurs, Tesco PLC`s property may be taken, broken and the normal dealings revoked.

4.3 Impacts of Policies of the European Union on Tesco PLC UK

According to Angiello (2005pp57), the Western Collaboration has come up with different control that impact organization and organization activities through making an investment and taxation, supply of organization support and advice, control, rules and directives. Below are some of the Western labor unions which have outstanding outcomes on Tesco.

The Western Collaboration has an efficient profession technique that tries to activate profession through encouraging organization efficiency to create sure Western companies are more aggressive in the globally market, hence creating more jobs.

The Western Collaboration has acquired funds to back up places of outstanding team hunger and lack of employment. This technique is known as Local technique which sets out on spending for the factor that enhanced growth of more efficient places of Western Collaboration, profession has been lost in other places (Ghidini 2010p. 49). This has motivated the growth of Tesco. With the growth of Tesco more profession opportunity has been began out for various people in different places.

European Collaboration technique of globally organization motivates engagement in globally trade; this has helped Tesco to take factor in globally organization by creating shops in different places hence enhanced earnings to the globe. With the Western Method of Worldwide Company, Tesco has also been able to take factor in organization in different places with ease without any fear, thus enhance in its advantages creating.

The Western union`s technique on personal right protection has confident that Tesco details different problems in regards to personal rights. This is through ensuring efficient hiring and protecting of personal rights. The Western Collaboration Strategy on Human Rights has also confident that the rights of the employees in regards to the wages are properly secured and that the employees are not molested at their place of execute (Harris et al 2004pp164).

5.0 Conclusion

In summary, it can be said that the process of ensuring an efficient organization companies are not an easier process since several factors come into execute. It is therefore, very vital to create a beneficial organization environment for a organization through efficient control of the external energy that face a organization. As pre-specified in the technique, the organization should create sure it achieves its responsibility in an appropriate way and by achieving its liability; the organization should consider what has been mentioned above to help in the success.

People ignore research in company’s environment and sometimes see it as a ineffective. However, that should not be the scenario. Enough research should be done on the an organization`s environment to enhance efficient response to different threats, question and opportunity developed by the changing organization environment. An efficient organization companies are the one that knows the different globally factors that outcomes it features and knows how to take advantages of them. Different nations should create an advantageous environment that enhances organization success. With organization success, the Government is sure of a constant economic system for its citizens hence a better way of way of life.

6.0 Reference

Angiello, R. (2005, March 3). How Political, Legal, Economic and Technological Systems Affect International Business Tutorial. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Bergen Community Clloge: Retrieved from

Cengage, G. (2001, December 4). Economic Systems Study Guide & Homework Help – Reference – Retrieved August 14, 2013, from Retrieved from

Ghidini, G. (2010). Innovation, competition and consumer welfare in intellectual property law. Northampton, Mass, Edward Elgar. Retrieved from

Gott, E. S., & Loughran, K. (2010). Contemporary African fashion. Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press. Retrieved from

Harris, P., & Mcdonald, F. (2004). European business and marketing. London [u.a.], sage.

Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W. (2009). Organizational behavior. Mason, OH, South-Western Cengage Learning.

Hutt, M. D., & Speh, T. W. (2010). Business marketing management: B2B. Mason, OH, South-Western Cengage Learning.

Innotica. (2003, June 1). Organizational Behaviour and Culture | Innotica. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Innotica: Innovation for strategic change: Retrieved from

Kutz, M. (2007). Environmentally conscious mechanical design. Hoboken, Wiley.


Oenb. (2002, April 22). How Does Monetary Policy Impact the Economy? – Oesterreichische Nationalbank. Retrieved August 14, 2013, from OESTERREICHISCHE NATIONAL BANK: Retrieved from

Stanley, M. (2002, February 22). Various Issues in Competition Policy: Regulation. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Regulation: Retrieved from

Steers, R. M., & NardoN, L. (2006). Managing in the global economy. Armonk, N.Y., M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved from

Tassoni, P. (2007). Child care and education: cache level 3. Oxford, Heinemann.

Tesco. (2002, July 20). Corporate Responsibility – Tesco. Retrieved Agust 14, 2013, from Tesco PLC: Retrieved from

Warner. (2010, July 20). Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from Webicy: Retrieved from

Xahir, A. (2012, May 29). Market Structures – Price and Output Determination in Monopoly. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from EconoMaldives: Retrieved from

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Role of IMA in Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia in ischemic and non ischemic groups

Role of IMA in Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia in ischemic and non ischemic groups


The purpose of the study was to find out the Role of IMA in Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia in ischemic and non ischemic groups. Diagnosis of myocardial ischemia has been done using other bio markers such as troponin. However, their lower diagnostic accuracy, in addition to lower symptoms specificity has made them unreliable. IMA levels have been found to increase in cardiac ischemic patients, and this makes it useful in accurate diagnosis of cardiac ischemia. However, its role in the diagnosis of cardiac ischemia is little known. Therefore, the study aims to find out the role of IMA in the diagnosis. The results of the study indicated that ischemic patients had a higher level of IMA compared to the non ischemic patients. This will be useful when diagnosing a patient who has acute chest pain, and also stratifying the patients.


Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) according to Bar-Or et al (12) is a marker of myocardial ischemia. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) from different studies have shown that it is an early marker in patients that are undergoing the process of coronary angioplasty for ischemia (Charpentier et al, 33). Moreover, IMA is very sensitive compared to cardiac troponin (cTn) and 12-lead ECG levels when diagnosing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients that experience chest pain, and within three hours are attending the emergency department at the onset of the pain (Aparci et al, 369). Further research need to be done in chest pain patients to assess the role of IMA in myocardial ischemia as a marker. 


The study was conducted on two groups; ischemic and non ischemic groups. 96 patients with acute chest pain between ages group30-60years were admitted in ICCU of hospital were included for the study. Among these subjects 40 were male and 56 were female.  Out Of the 96 patients, 16 of them had no evidence of myocardial ischemia. They were categorized as group II. The remaining 80 patients with evidence of myocardial ischemia were categorized into group I. Of the 80 ischemic patients (group I) 34 were males and 46 females. The control group had healthy subjects who were 28 in number, of which 10 were males and 18 females.

Patients were evaluated as being non ischemic or potentially ischemic through standard coronary disease indicators [(CK), CK-MB, LDH and electrocardiography findings] and were tested by a Co (II)-albumin binding assay for IMA. The patients of ischemic group are further divided in to three groups based on their age&sex as follows ; 30-40 yrs (M&F), 40-50 yrs (M&F), and 50-60 y0rs (M&F).


The mean±SD of CK-MB for the age group 30-40 yrs is normal in both males and females. But for the females of age group 40-50yrs it is higher (24±1.6) compared to males. Likewise, in the age group of 50-60 yrs in females the CKMB values (56±4.8) have high mean than males (52±6.0) .In addition  to CK-MB the LDH values are also higher in females (225±6.4)  than males (198±10.6) .The LDH levels are  normal in other  two  groups. 

Table: Cardiac bio marker in Ischemic and non ischemic groups: 


From the results, the ischemic group had higher levels of IMA compared to the non ischemic group. This is an indication that patients with chest discomfort but have low IMA, in addition to other tests like the cTn, is enough rule out myocardial ischemia.  This study reflects the previous study done by Januzzi (116) where the study found that the IMA was positive in four of five patients with evidence of ischemia in ECG being 16 of 20 patients who had negative ECG but with coronary ischemia. The combination of IMA along with the other standard biomarkers among these patients increases the sensitivity for detecting ischemia to 97% (Tousoulis et al, 102). Additionally, Sinha et al (112) conducted a study to find out the role of IMA in the early diagnosis of ACS among the ischemic patients.  Diagnosing cardiac ischemia in patients that shows symptoms of ACS in emergency departments is often difficult. The study by Sinha et al (112) evaluated IMA with ECG and cTn among 208 patients at the emergency department with acute chest pain within three hours. The results of ECG, IMA and cTn, in combination and alone showed correlation with the final diagnosis of, ST segment elevation, unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation, non-ischemic chest pain myocardial infarction (Kazanis et al, 1). Gaze (335) indicated that in the entire group of patients under study, IMA sensitivity at presentation for the ischemic chest pain origin was 82% compared to ECG of 45%, and lastly cTnT of 20%. Similarly, when IMA was used in conjunction with cTn or ECG, the sensitivity was 92% and 90% respectively. However, when all the three tests were combined together identified 95% of chest pain patients attributed to ischemic heart disease (Charpentier et al, 31). This supports this study in which there is an appropriate setting in which to consider the use of the multimarker combination of IMA plus markers of myonecrosis would be for the rapid assessment of low to intermediate patients with chest discomfort risk.  Correlation was also shown in a study conducted by Mowafy et al (145-149) which indicated that ischemic group had higher levels of IMA compared to the non ischemic group. Mowafy et al (145-149) conducted a study on the role of IMA in excluding ischemia from the coronary artery disease patients that had chest pains. The study was done on 50 patients with average age of 54.7 ± 9 years, and was grouped into three groups. Group one had 13 patients with unstable angina, group two had 17 patients with NSTEMI, and finally group three was the control group. The results indicated that IMA was significantly statistically higher in group one and two compared to group three patients (p value<0.05) (Mowafy et al, 145-149). The average level of IMA was significantly cardiac biomarkers that include TIMI risk score, troponin and a number of the vessels affected but not correlated to the short term prognosis and Modified Gensini Score (MGS).  The optimal cutoff value of the levels of IMA in prediction of poor prognosis according to Yakut et al (174) was 9.65ng/ml. This study shows correlation to the findings of this study that showed that the ischemic group had higher levels of IMA compared to the non ischemic group. Therefore, it can be concluded that the IMA serum is a useful biomarker in ruling out patients who are non ischemic and are suspected to be suffering from ACS, and is related significantly to many affected blood vessels. The ability to detect ischemia using IMA before destruction of the myocyte will make it possible for more accurate and earlier management decisions for the patients suspected to be ailing from cardiac ischemia (Tousoulis et al, 752). Furthermore, it improves the ability to stratify patients with acute chest pain and in therapeutic decisions guidance. 


In summary, IMA is an effective marker for ACS diagnosis. High negative predictive IMA values make it an independent predictor of ACS development among patients. Furthermore, IMA is not just specific to cardiac ischemia. This makes it potential as a biomarker for other acute ischemic events. 

Work Cited

Bar-Or, D, E Lau, and JV Winkler. “A Novel Assay for Cobalt-Albumin Binding and Its Potential As a Marker for Myocardial Ischemia-a Preliminary Report.” The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 19.4 (2012): 311-5. Print.

[email protected], Govender, Radha, De Greef, Jacques, Delport, Rhena, Becker, Piet J., & Vermaak, William J.H.”Biological Variation of Ischaemia-Modified Albumin in Healthy Subjects. Clinics Cardiv, 2009.” Internet resource.

Rodriguez-Ospina, LF, CP Rosales-Alvarez, and A Lopez-Mas. “Cardiac Biomakers for the Evaluation of Acute Coronary Syndrome.” Boletín De La Asociación Médica De Puerto Rico. 101.4 (2009). Print.

Sinha, M, Roy, D, Gaze, D, Collinson, P, & Kaski, J. “Role of “ischemia Modified Albumin”, a New Biochemical Marker of Myocardial Ischaemia, in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes.” BMJ Group, 2014. Print

Wiviott, Stephen D, Christopher P. Cannon, David A. Morrow, Kausik K. Ray, Marc A. Pfeffer, and Eugene Braunwald. ” Differential Expression of Cardiac Biomarkers by Gender in Patients With Unstable Angina/Non–ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 46.8 (2011): 1411-1416. Print.

Januzzi, James L. Cardiac Biomarkers in Clinical Practice. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2009. Print.

Tousoulis, Dimitris, and Christodoulos Stefanadis. Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013. Print.

Kazanis, K, M Dalamaga, C Nounopoulos, AS Manolis, N Sakellaris, G Jullien, and A Dionyssiou-Asteriou. “Ischemia Modified Albumin, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Coronary Atherosclerosis.” Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry. 408 (2009): 1-2. Print.

Mowafy, H.H, M Hamdi, M Khaled, and M Ashraf. “The Role of Ima in Ruling Out Ischemia in Patients Presenting with Chest Pain, and Its Relation with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease.” Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 1.3 (2013): 145-149. Print.

Chawla, R, N Goyal, R Calton, and S Goyal. “Ischemia Modified Albumin: a Novel Marker for Acute Coronary Syndrome.” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry : Ijcb. 21.1 (2010): 77-82. Print.

Yakut, Ibrahim, Cüneyt Tayman, Osman Oztekin, Mehmet Namuslu, Fahri Karaca, and Aydın Kosus. “Ischemia-modified Albumin May Be a Novel Marker for the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 28.3 (2014): 170-177. Print.

Gaze, DC. “Ischemia Modified Albumin: a Novel Biomarker for the Detection of Cardiac Ischemia.” Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 24.4 (2009): 333-41. Print.

Aparci, M, E Kardesoglu, N Ozmen, O Ozcan, BS Cebeci, BY Cingozbay, and M Dincturk. “Prognostic Significance of Ischemia-Modified Albumin in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.” Coronary Artery Disease. 18.5 (2011): 367-73. Print.

Charpentier, Sandrine, Jean L. Ducassé, Maxime Cournot, Françoise Maupas-Schwalm, Meyer Elbaz, Cécile Baixas, Henri Juchet, Thierry Lang, and Dominique Lauque. “Clinical Assessment of Ischemia-Modified Albumin and Heart Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in the Early Diagnosis of Non-St-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department.” Academic Emergency Medicine. 17.1 (2010): 27-35. Print. 

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