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 Part A

The difference between web 1.0 and web 2.0

Web 2.0 refers to how people use the internet today. Some scholars assert that there is no definite definition of web 2.0 and believe that the term is used for marketing. However, there is a definite distinction between web 1.0 and web 2.0. In web 2.0, people do not use with the internet but, instead interact with the internet. The key words used to describe web 2.0 are collaboration, community and user-driven. In the past, the use of web 1.0 was very linear. In the past, the internet applied in the as a business and utility tool. According to (Mitrović 2010), webmasters were responsible for creating the internet while the users visited and had a view of the websites. The communication was between the web users) and the webmaster. The pages of the webs were static, for instance, when the users wanted to enquire, the only option was to enquire from “Yahoo” or “ask Jeeves.” Today, the internet has the option of Google and Bing.

Web 2.0 sites permit interaction with the webmaster and site and other individuals who use the site. For instance, web 2.0 websites include internet social pages; MySpace and Facebook. Web 2.0 is about applications of the web that can allow users to interact with it as well as have control. Today, almost everyone is creating his or her own site and fill with contents that make them happy. However, in web 1.0, web creation was done by the web experts.

Blogs

A blog is a website that encompasses personal journals online with the comments, reflections, and hyperlinks indicated by the writer or the owner. The contents of a blog incorporate the following; the blog verb, blog.ging noun and the blo.ger noun. The blogs are often frequently written and in chronological order written online for everyone to have a view. The common types of blogs include; artlog, photoblog, sketchblog, vlog and MP3 blog.

Microblogs

Microblogs are server software that allows the internet users to post a small piece of any digital content in the website. The contents may be pictures, texts, links and short videos. Microblogs permit communication portability mode with an organic or spontaneous feeling to the users. It assists friends to keep in touch, associates in business use for meeting coordination.

Wikis

Wikis refer to collaborative server software that consists of a collective work of many authors. Wikis are often similar to blogs in terms of logic and structure, however, wikis allow people to edit, delete or modify online content that has been put on the website by use of the browser interface.


Social Networks

A social network is a dedicated website or any other website application that allows communication between the users by posting comments, information, images and messages. In social networks, the users gather and share fresh experiences and information about their all day activities (Partridge 2011).

Networking

Networking refers to the act of information exchanging between two individuals. Networking incorporates relationship establishment with individuals who are important in one’s life.

Social Collaboration

Social collaboration in business allows companies to use social media interactions and exchange information and business ideas in an integrated manner. When the companies use social media interactions, the customers become knowledgeable and collaborate in their work through mass media communication. With growing technology, new research reveals that the social collaboration can enable the business attain concrete benefits. In the business context, the increase in global business competitions and frequent innovative pressure has forced the companies to adapt to the changing conditions (Simone 2003). Social collaboration enables companies to innovatively raise awareness of their products and services hence attain a competitive advantage in the market. Web 2.0 websites that enable sharing of business information may include facebook, MySpace and blogs.

Social Publishing

Social publishing is any form, emerging or new, creation of online contents. Social publishers are often interested in using the social publishing contents to come up with successful, honest and financially healthy careers. Social publishing can also be referred to as a logical progression of the new networking generation. Today, companies use social publishing to advertising their products and services on the internet. Companies own blogs as well as social networks that they use to raise product awareness.

Social Intelligence

Social intelligence refers to the ability of the mind to understand emotions, motives, intentions and actions of other business opponents and partners. In the business context, companies recognize the fact that the use of social media can enable them understand the demands of their customers better. However, businesses often use social intelligence to have the right information about their customers’ demands that will assist in competition and revenue returns. Business experts analyze social conversations and the behavior of customers online.

Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing is the use of collective intelligence gained from the public and applying the information to accomplish the tasks of a business. The tasks may be completed by a third party or a company. For example, facebook has of late used crowdsourcing to translate their website into various languages. Wikipedia is also another example of crowdsourcing, encyclopedia published by various people worldwide is also some examples of crowdsourcing. The most popular crowdsourcing websites include; freelancers and the elance.

Benefits of using Crowdsourcing

There are various genuine advantages that result from the use of crowdsourcing to the companies and individual businesses with the aim of affordable competing prices. The use of crowdsourcing is fairly priced as compared to hiring of a professional. Additionally, crowdsourcing requires low prices and, therefore, there will be many people willing to work for the company anytime due to the fair pricing. Crowdsourcing is suitable for simple business tasks indicated ŽUpič (2013). For example, it can be a splendid option for people who are in the designing business because they can get the feedback about the usability of the product or service before making it public. Additionally, entrepreneurs developing huge photo or product libraries can exploit the features of crowdsourcing. Crowdsourcing permits the businesses to gain great insight to the consumers and their desires. For instance, a business may opt to build an online site for shopping by use of crowdsourcing and spend a little cash for people to describe and categorize their inventory.

PART B: Toulmin’s Model Theory of Argument

Stephen Toulmin was a modern rhetorician who believed that some arguments should follow the classical model of logic. He indicated three main parts and three optional parts that are necessary for an argument. The major parts include; the claim, warrant and support (Savolainen 2012).

Claim- is a major point or the thesis of the idea in control. It may be stated directly or it may be implied. Claims are often derived from asking questions.

Support- refers to the reasons one will give in relevance to claim. They are evidences, data, proof, grounds or arguments. Support of claims may originate from experts’ opinions, facts, statistics or logical reasoning.

Warrants– these refer to presuppositions or assumptions underlying the argument. Warrants are accepted values, beliefs and common culture ways of viewing matters. Warrants are usually unstated and implied because they are compliance in most cases. The audience and the author may share the beliefs and values or the author and the audience may conflict one another (Hitchcock 2006). Warrants are usually important because they form the common ground of audience and author. However, when the warrants are shared, the audience is usually invited to unconsciously be part of the argument. Warrants also provide the underlying reasoning that links the claim and support.

Qualifiers– are statements that assist in limiting the strength of the statement or argument and usually propose the circumstances for which the argument is true.

Rebuttals- counter-arguments or statements that indicates the situations when the argument is not truth.

Backing– statements that support warrants

A Case Study of Jouhhen Animal Research Business

Jouhhen animal research institute has been using animals to conduct research used in the cosmetics industry for over two decades. The company I a certified research institute with worldwide recognition. The public, however, views this practice as a torture of animals that are considered to be adding more value in the economic growth of the society.

The public has of late raised claims that Animal research Institute should burn animal research (first claim). They assert that animals are labored in experiments that do not benefit the human beings such as cosmetic testing (data). However, the well- being of the animals supersede the profits the cosmetics industry gets and its contribution to the societal development (warrant). Only the public representatives have the authority to make and implement such law (warrant). This is because the corporations can move from one country to another to circumvent legal penalties (Backing). Indeed, the ban should not incorporate research in the medical industry (qualifier). A law to ban all research practices would go for as the bans are concerned (Rebuttal). Therefore, the law would probably (qualifier) have to be written with care to define a list of research intended (claim number two).

In this example, the claim is that the research institute should stop using the animals to conduct their cosmetic research. The public knows the importance of preserving animals and the value of the animals to the society. According to this model, however, the point is not to win or beat the involved counter arguments. But, the aim is to come close to the reasonable truth to find a feasible solution for the animals and the cosmetic industry. The Toulmin’s model of argument reminds the users that arguments are usually expressed with rebuttals and qualifiers rather than indicated as absolutes (Mali 2010).

References

(2006). Social intelligence design 3.

(2010). Expression web 2 advanced. [Fairport, NY], Axzo Press.

(2011). Use and control of social media in international franchise systems. International Journal of Franchising Law. 9.

HAMMON, L., & HIPPNER, H. (2012). Crowdsourcing. Business & Information Systems Engineering. 4, 163-166.

HITCHCOCK, D., & VERHEIJ, B. (2006). Arguing on the Toulmin model new essays in argument analysis and evaluation. Dordrecht, Springer. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=301361.

MALI, J. (2010). The sources of intergenerational collaboration within social work. Teorija in Praksa. -dec.

MITROVIĆ, M., PALTOGLOU, G., & TADIĆ, B. (2010). Networks and emotion-driven user communities at popular blogs. The European Physical Journal. B, Condensed Matter Physics. 77, 597-609.

PARTRIDGE, K. (2011). Social networking. New York, H.W. Wilson.

PILUSO, M., et al. (2003). Charlotte’s web 2 Wilbur’s great adventure. Hollywood, Calif, Paramount Pictures.

SAVOLAINEN, R. (2012). The structure of argument patterns on a social Q&A site. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63, 2536-2548.

SIMONE, A. (2003). Reaching the larger world: new forms of social collaboration in Pikine, Senegal. Africa : Journal of the International African Institute. 73, 226-250.

WINICK, G., et al. (2007). Charlotte’s web. Hollywood, CA, Paramount Pictures.

ŽUPIČ, I. (2013). Social media as enabler of crowdsourcing. Social Media in Human Resources Management. 243-255.

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