Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty

Health Needs of the Homeless and Those Living In Extreme Poverty


Stephens et al (2002) defines poverty as a physical state where a person lacks money or material possession of a certain amount. Destitution or extreme poverty refers to the state a person is deprived of the basic human needs that commonly includes water, food, clothing, sanitation, healthcare, shelter and education. On the other hand, Stephens et al (2002) defines relative poverty as economic inequality in a society or a location where people live. Furthermore, he elaborates that the homeless people include the young and the adult people in insecure and fragile accommodation, and not necessarily the roofless population. Accommodation that is insecure damages both physical and mental health while housing that is improved improves the population health (Stephens et al, 2002). According to Conron et al (2010), homelessness impeded social capital acquisition, job opportunities and undermines the sense of identity of the young people exposing them to wide range of stressors and dangers.

Conron et al (2010) did a population based research on gender differences and sexual orientation identity in adult health. The study used multivariable logistic regression in examining self reported health patterns by gender and sexual orientation. From the study, the results was that sexual minorities such as the gay and the lesbians, bisexuals compared with the heterosexuals were more likely to show limitation of activity, worry or tension, drug abuse, smoking, asthma, HIV testing and lifetime sexual victimization but did not show any difference in Papanicolaou tests for three years, diabetes, lifetime mammography or heart diseases (Conron et al, 2002).

Furthermore Conron et al (2010) points out that in comparison with the heterosexuals, the bisexuals  reported  more health care barriers, suicidal ideation of past year, current sadness and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the gay men had less likelihood of becoming obese or overweight and to obtain the tests for antigen that is prostate-specific, while lesbians had more likelihood of becoming overweight to report many risks of cardiovascular diseases. From the findings, it comes out clearly that disparities in sexual orientation in risks of chronic diseases, access to health care, victimization, smoking and mental health merit some attention.

According to Stephens et al (2002), statistics shows that a third of global deaths which translates to 50,000 daily deaths or 18 million dying annually are poverty related. Therefore, since 1990, about 270 million people have died due to poverty and most of them are children and women (Stephens et al, 2002). Furthermore, those under the poverty condition currently suffer from diseases, starvation and hunger disproportionately (Stephens et al, 2002). Conron et al (2010) observe that those living under poverty conditions suffer from low life expectancy. World Health Organization further states that malnutrition and hunger are single threats that are grave to the public health globally. Moreover, malnutrition currently is the leading cause of child mortality among all the causes. Among 90% of child birth maternal deaths occur in sub- Sahara Africa and Asia, compared to the less than 1% found in the developed nations (Stephens et al, 2002).

Those who are homeless or are destitute have also been shown to be likely of incurring or having disability during their lifetime. Additionally, infectious diseases like tuberculosis and malaria can increase poverty by diverting economic resources and health from productivity and investments. In some developing nations, malaria decreases their GDP growth by 1.3% while AIDS reduces the growth of Africa annually by 0.3 to 1.5 % (Stephens et al, 2002).

Health needs of the homeless and those living in extreme poverty

            1) Poor mental health-it is high for the people living in rough conditions compared to the population in general.

            2) Poor physical health-the homeless population suffer from same physical problems like the general population but more severe and more often because of the limited access to the basic commodities.

            3) Risk taking behavior-self harming and sexual risk behavior is common among the homeless population, and suicide is the biggest death cause among the homeless people in the streets. Moreover, substance use and criminal activity are inevitable among the insecure homeless domicile (Conron et al, 2010).

The usefulness of the information to the human/social services career

The information in this essay will help in learning more about the homeless and their strategies for surviving and coping. It also provides more information on health needs support networks and examples of good practice of the poor and the homeless on health issues. Furthermore, it provides different aspects of health from mental and physical health among the people living in poverty for future studies to be done on these health issues. 


Conron, K. J., Mimiaga, M. J., & Landers, S. J. (January 01, 2010). A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of     Public Health, 100, 10, 1953-60.

Stephens, J., & Mental Health Foundation (London, England). (2002). The mental health needs    of homeless young people: Bright futures : working with vulnerable young people : a    report commissioned by The Mental Health Foundation. London: The Mental Health      Foundation.





PR manager to create awareness of a new product

PR manager to create awareness of a new product

DQ2: the CEO of your company has asked you, her PR manager to create awareness of a new product it is launching.  This is the first you’re hearing of the new product. According to your text and other research, Discuss the steps you would take in terms of  1) internal communication with management; 2) research; and, 3) contacting the media.  In your discussion, include the PR tools and strategies you would choose in each of the steps, and explain why you chose them.

Communication with CEO and Management

During the internal communication, I will sell the concepts of the new product to the senior management to get their commitment for the resources during the launch. Additionally, I will ensure I win the support of many departments to form part of the process of the product launch. For instance, designing, manufacturing, development, research, marketing and distribution (Cutlip et al, 2005)

Research Steps

  • Internal Company Research

During the internal communication research, I will do communication planning which entails gathering of information and analyzing the company and the situation. This will enable me draw the needed information for the product that will drive the decisions that may come later in the process of planning.

  1. Step1-I will do analysis of the situation to ensure all stakeholders of the new product are in agreement.
  2. Step 2-I will conduct analysis of the company. This will include the company’s internal environment, the public perception and the external environment
  3. Step 3-I will conduct analysis of the key publics which interacts with the company (Morley, 2008).
  • External Media Vehicles Research

I conducting the research on the external media vehicle, we will ensure the most popular media vehicles that reach many people, that is cheap cost wise and uses minimal staff of the company. The most popular media vehicles include the broadcast, the print media and the online media.

Communication with the Media

  • Do’s and Don’ts with the media.


  1. Develop many newsworthy scenarios to showcase the message
  2. Build a good working relationship with the media
  3. Have a good kit for press like timely information on the company,management and sales figures
  4. Use every effort in spreading the word in all media rooms
  5. Keep promises especially on scheduled interviews


  1. Do not decide on the story the reporter should write even before getting the show
  2. Do not snub the little guys
  3. Do not pad the press kit with exaggerated information or gimmicks
  4. Do not hold a press conference with nothing newsworthy
  5. Do not make assumptions that the reporter knows everything of the company (McQuail, 2002).

What PR tools and strategies you’d use

  • Building awareness

Creation of awareness will make the potential market be interested in purchasing the new products. I will use the following tools in strengthening my efforts; press releases, press outreach, website updates, twitter announcements, endorsements and advertisements.

  • Building demand

I will use the following tools to create demand for the new product; email campaigns, referrals and tradeshows.

Media vehicles you would select and why

  • Online advertisement

Online advertisement will place adverts of the new product in the internet. With the large traffic number of the internet users, many will get to see our product and buy it online (McQuail, 2002).

  • Broadcast

Broadcast will entail radio and TV broadcast that reaches many viewers across a wide regional area. This will make the product popular in the area.

  • Print

The print media that will be used include the popular magazines, news papers and the Dailies. This will enable the information of the product to reach many people (McQuail, 2002).


Cutlip, S. M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (2005). Effective public relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Morley, J. (2008). Launching a new product. London: Business Books.

McQuail, D. (2002). Media performance: Mass communication and the public interest. London: Sage Publications.





Global, political, social and economic development has in recent years distressed the relations amongst European, western and Islamic cultures strongly.[1] With time now, there has been unsettling changes worldwide since Non-Muslims and Muslims became preys of violence and terror by persons pretending to act in the title of Islam. As a result there occurred an increased misunderstanding and prejudice against Muslims in the media by the sophisticated media this era wars begin, continue and end with media.[2] The Media shapes the peoples opinion and reports by their censorship hence can be used as an important weapon. The media forms how we see the world.

It is common that emergencies often determines the policy making process of the public. These reveal journalists’ vital role in communicating the information. But choosing destructive and alarming names for groups that influential policymakers distaste, are all parts of tricks in the media.[3]

In this day and age, several media campaigns are going against Muslim and the Islam culture. A lot of Western media with large financial assets and several channels show rough images of Islam to their communities. [4]The Muslim groups at the same time are trying to convey positive messages through their media, however their efforts are not fruitful due to the global saturation of the western media.

The World Trade Centre attacks of September 11, 2001 are still felt and the deeply affected is the American Muslim group. Since the attacks Muslims in the US have been violated economically, politically and socially, amidst these this discriminations are clear misunderstandings about Islam hence development of Islamophobia (deep social anxiety towards Islam).[5]Polls directed between 2001- 2009 show American misunderstandings concerning Islam. Almost 45 percent of Americans assumed that Islam is more likely to inspire violence among its followers than other religions; also 36 percent of Americans did not recall any beliefs of the Islam faith .The two most publicized images in the media are of the Muslim male who is a terrorist and the veiled woman. [6]Most media, use these images to portray the male as being fundamentalists and the female as being subjugated by her religion.

As a result of the attacks, the government of America modified and added on immigration policies and security measures. These joint enactments of the CLEAR Act and Patriot Act culminated in increased tailing of Muslims. Muslims were and are still being denied formal charges and council while being held for long periods of time. Scrutiny of Muslims is constant in mosques, library records, bank accounts, and places of work and on the Internet.[7] A year after the 9/11 events ,the Attorney General broadcasted the introduction of the National Security Exit Entry Registration System (NSEERS).this  The program was functional to men from Muslim countries living in the United States. They were expected to report for multi-phase registration .This program proved futile in two ways. Firstly, they did not put clear information regarding the requirements and secondly, the program used inhumane detention methods on Muslims resulting to violation of human rights and mistreatment.

The U.S. CLEAR Act and Patriot Act negatively influences the civil rights of Muslim minority groups and have resulted in the devastation of Muslim community and the U.S. Government relations. In addition, use of racial profiling has encouraged media stereotyping.[8]

Muslims face social discrimination and physical abuses U.S. Department of Justice report allegations of abuse that include:  internet, telephone, threats, assaults, vandalism and bombings of houses, companies, and mosques.[9] These assaults generate fear throughout the Muslim community are as targeted in safe places such as their homes and the mosque, ten years after World Trade Centre attacks a debate has rose in the mainstream media outlets against building of mosques around the nation.[10]

Muslim professionals have stated that they have been discriminated against when it comes to employment. They report being called names by co-workers, like terrorist or Osama, and protest that their bosses do not allow wearing the headscarves or partaking in prayer times.[11] The wide spread nature of this hatred perpetrated by the media can be seen in the comments of well-known public figures, for instance Franklin Graham a Christian evangelist said during an interview in one of the western medias that the God of Islam is not the Sovereign God plus he is not the God of the Christian faith and that he firmly believes that it is a different God concluding that Islam is a very wicked and evil religion. Pope Benedict XVI also referred to Muhammad’s offerings as inhuman and evil. Mary Jo O’Neill, advocate of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission said, there has been a level of spite and hostility that is appalling.[12]

Even before the World Trade Centre attacks the views of Muslims in the United States had already been tarnished this can be traced to intentional myth making by film and media, coming up with images categorizing the unwanted ‘other’ in its midst. A few days after 9/11 attacks almost all news channels were showing images of what the hijackers looked like resulting to Americans turning their fright and hatred on to anyone who resembled the faces of the suspects. The media only served to fuel the hatred.[13] Ever since 9/11 the media has continuously depicted the Middle East as unappreciative for the assistance that the United States has purportedly brought. Complete with dishonest lies and reporting part of the stories, it is not a surprise that 600,000 dead Iraqis were never named or counted.[14]

Media outlets in the U.S. do not report facts about the war in Iraq it only tells a side of the story. These media represent Islam as fundamentalism, extremism and radicalism. Definitely, in the current world where the role of media is vital, the image of authenticity can be worked to distort the actual facts. The media have tried to depict Muslims as terrorists posing a threat to the security to the western nations. By this, they try to justify the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the recent years, this method has led to the advent of Islamophobia. Diminutive efforts have been made to answer to these negative campaigns. On the contrary, the actions of terrorist sets that kill people, aid their media to show that they are mutually preys of terrorism.

The consciousness raising of  experts, scholars and media analysts after the 9/11 period  through the media has created a problem for legislators and the public as they look for answers to queries like: What are the reasons of radicalism and anti-Americanism?, Why do they dislike us?, What do Muslim women think about their position in Islam? , Is Islam harmonious with democracy? What are the origins of global terrorism? And many more. Consequently, a reader is trapped between the opposing positions of superficially competent experts as well as a new force of Islamophobic authors who participate in a heretical reading of Islam and Islamic history.[15]

The logic of threat to the Muslim cultural uniqueness is heightened by a predominant feeling that a powerful and secular West inflicts its ideals upon the Muslim world. For instance ,When asked a question like ,what do they dislike most about the West in their own words?, the most recurrent answer across all Islamic countries for both political  and moderate radicals was sexual and cultural promiscuity then; ethical and moral corruption and finally hatred of Muslims.[16] Another source of hatred comes from the representation of Muslims in the Western media.

A study by Jack Shaheen in his manuscript, Reel Bad Arabs- How Hollywood Vilifies a People, established that the huge majority of Arab characters in 900 American films were complete racist characters. Imageries of day to day life and usual Muslims in their nations are almost non-existent or one-sided in the western media.[17] Additionally, the western media which are widespread in the Muslim world boost imitation of Western style, behaviors and values.

Television news are the most significant source of public information about world events.[18] Just about 80 percent of people rely on it as their leading source of news, Western media with huge financial means try to show a bad picture of Islam to their public.

Selected scholars are certain that there is a direct association between modern global communication and terrorism. Their readings show that most terrorists’ actions are propaganda. Terrorism is a secondary psychological approach which avoids at all costs direct connection with opponents.[19] Thus, without media attention terrorism disappears. After the world trade Centre attacks, the word terrorism and Muslim or Islam became synonymous in western countries.

The illustration of Muslims in the media recounts to the lack of taking and accepting of differences, the media creates public fear around the terrorist menace. One scholar said terrorism war is a war of images and the ones that are most effective are those of victims of terrorism. On the flip side there is discrimination related with Islamophobia which tries to show that Muslims are a threat to safety. The emphasis on terrorism merges TV coverage of Muslim news and the central image is Islamic Terrorism.[20]

Due to frequent repetitive destructive propaganda by the numerous media sources, religious and cultural prejudices against the Muslims have gone round like wild fire. The media, is further interested in dramatic news than functional constructive news.[21] It is well known fact that Islam condemning goes on in the western media. Western countries like the USA majorly take up very hostile attitudes towards Islamic countries like Libya, Iran, and Iraq who challenge USA authorities. USA not only reprimands them brutally (as for instance bombings on Iraq and on pharmaceutical factory in Sudan) but also starts publicity warfare against Islamic countries and its people in their media.

Out of frustration, some militant youth carried out ferocious attacks on some American establishments (for instance, bombings on the World Trade Centre). As a consequence of this a regular American has a very bad prejudice toward Islam and Muslims as it is thought to be a religion of violence and fanaticism.[22] In the same way the internal radical violence in Algeria has spread over to France. The Algerian radicals carried out bombing occurrences in Paris too as it believes the French Government collaborates with the Algerian authorities in eliminating Muslim militants, hence this leading to strong prejudices against Islam among the French.

During the development of history there have been journeys from one country to another and from one region within a country to other regions. These conflicts are not new. Muslims and Christians fought on the query of control over Palestine and these historical wars are known as the crusades.[23] The enthusiasm with which these wars were battled between Muslims and Christians made crusade synonymous with fanaticism and thus a new phrase crusading spirit came into reality. It was the crusades that instigated great deal of confusion about Islam in western countries through the medieval period.

The image of Muslims’ holy book in one hand, and blade in the other, was the conception of these crusades.[24] Likewise, the Muslim conquests on North India led to image of Islam as vicious religion in the thoughts of many Hindus (though just a few Hindus were partners in these attacks). All of These images are being recovered in the modern settings to work for present-day political interests. Nevertheless, due to propaganda buildup an average Hindu thinks of a Muslims as violent and fanatic. The media again plays a significant role in spreading such images and ideas.[25]

According to several studies, Muslim Australians normally experience discrimination, racial slander, actual violence and threats of violence. Others observed that a general inconsiderateness towards Muslim cultural practices like refusal to allow prayer breaks and negative judgments about their dressing and names.[26] The studies in their conclusion stated that Muslim Australians were highly experiencing discrimination along the theme that Muslim Australians are possible terrorists, that there was no home in Australia for Muslims and that Muslims should reject their cultural practices and integrate .Muslim children and women were specifically defenseless in Australia and reported sentiments of fear of attack or cruelty at home and even in public places. Muslim Women recounted being verbally and physically abused on a daily basis with intimidations such as I am going to tear that scarf off your head and crash your bag over the top of your head and smash it in, as described in when cultures disagree.

Development for the public longitudinal needs of Muslim women in Sydney, Muslim and Arab Australians gave detailed accounts of their kids undergoing intimidation and bullying in institutions, thus many parents resort to admitting that they have no other choice but to send their children to Islam schools, not essentially for the education, but for their security and safety.[27]

Concern has been amplified in Australia since the Bali bombings and the responsiveness given to the controversial readings. Some analysts speak about the Muslim issues and the need for Muslim Australians to integrate, while on the other side others maintain that the Australian people should continue to embracing multiculturalism.


It is clear that the Muslim who is citizen or non-citizen in westernized countries continuously face difficult and extreme challenges from social, political, economic and institutional discrimination. The people are pursued in order to be influenced by political interests.[28] This manipulation is eased by the power of mass media and which now the media is not only print but also in electronic form. These media play great roles in spreading inter-cultural and inter-religious prejudices. The pictures about some culture and religion fabricated by media may not be factual but can play complete mess by distributing strong prejudices against specific groups. The media’ responsibility has become very crucial in this modern time. Electronic media even more so.[29]

But the media can take part in positive contributions as we have to exhaust every possible way to promote the dialogical life-force among the disagreeing groups.[30] There are also clear strategies that can assist in alleviating some of the misunderstanding and hatred of Islam and Muslims. Islamic establishments and societies can provide a platform for education on Islam and offer outside members to Islamic seminars and get-togethers to cultivate better relationships with the outside community.[31] Also an American chronicles of Islam can be created, comparable to the African-American narratives. These can assist to expand the average American’s understanding of Islam and its basic code of beliefs. With increased knowledge, abuses and discrimination are more likely to be done away with ultimately.

The image of Islam and Muslim in the western media has to transform for the better and Inter-culturalism has to substitute Islamophobia.


Benazir Bhutto .Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[1] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[2] Ibid.,34

[3] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[4] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008

[5]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[6] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London; New York, 2007.

[7] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[8]  Steve Drake & Joanne Azern. 9/11 backlash: being Muslim in America DVD. Silver Spring, 2005.

[9]  Ibid.,6

[10] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012

[11] Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[12] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007

[13] Ibid,.66

[14] Harris E Metzler. Country reports on terrorism. Hauppauge, N.Y., 2007.

[15] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

[16] Ibid.,71

[17] Shahram Akbarzadeh & Fethi Mansouri .Islam and political violence: Muslim diaspora and radicalism in the west. London;  New York, 2007.

[18]  Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[19] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives.Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[20]  Stephen Hess & Marvin L Kalb… The media and the war on terrorism. Washington, D.C., 2003.

[21] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[22] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[23] Robert Spencer & Jeff Riggenbach .The politically incorrect guide to Islam (and the Crusades), Blackstone Audiobooks, 2007.

[24] Ibid.,12

[25] Ibid.,29

[26] Ibid.,33

[27] Des Freedman & Daya Kishan Thussu .Media and terrorism: global perspectives. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2012.

[28] Doris A Graber. Media power in politics. Washington, D.C, 2007.

[29] Ibid.,46

[30] Ibid.,48

[31] Benazir Bhutto. Islam, democracy, and the West. : New York: Harper, 2008.

Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Newly graduated nurses

Preparation of Newly Graduated Nurses through Residency Programs and their role in Emergency Department

Nursing Training

Nursing is a type of health provision that looks into the management, coordination and delivery of care services using different programs within the domain of patient-care. Nurses use the nursing process to provide care for individual patients or defined population in different health facilities or hospitals. Nursing education begins with student have to either cover different levels in nursing education that starts from a Diploma, Degree and finally Baccalaureate degree in nursing. A diploma courses are is trained in hospital that offers sponsorship training programs just within the facility and in other cases a student works as an attaché. Baccalaureate students are well placed to receive advanced working positions such as tutoring diploma students, health-care administration and patient-care.

Nursing Action

Graduate nurses are usually ready to take up different challenges in health care whereby they can work in any department such as emergency rooms or administration. New RN graduates finds themselves getting direct employment without necessarily need for orientation to different working positions. Hence, nurses need to be competent with enough knowledge to assist then in using healthcare system whereby a nurse need to think about how to use then while administering to patients needs.

Role of Residency Programs in Promoting Nursing Competency

The residency programs has been helpful in promoting health in emergency departments as it highlights importance of creating a healthy public policy ,strengthening of nursing actions, development of personal skills and reorientation of health services (Nelson et al,. 2001). Graduate nurses in a public setting or in a community they are likely to promote health through mobilizing the communities, training on health related and environmental aspects that affects health and health policies. The promotion of nurses education is an important component of health practice in form of care is the ability to physically provide diagnostic services.

Retention of graduate nurses in the health facility not addressed the shortage of staff in hospitals and health centers dealing with facing different complications. Graduate specialists such as psychiatrists and nurses are often few in numbers compared to the population that requires their services in an emergency room. Therefore, many need to be trained for NLN competency to be able to handle different challenges in emergency rooms which are currently originating from lack of adequate personnel (Happel K, 2007). There is need for reform on fundamentals health system through education and change of governance in order to be in a position to offer better services. This way, practitioners will be able to address the aspect of changing service delivery in the health sector by making integrated care more accessible to the patients. Moreover, there is the need to improve the infrastructure in hospitals by hiring competent nurses to handle these facilities (Brady, 2009). More information should be given to trainees as it is believed that the stigma surrounding health is a cause for low level of health practitioners’ interested professional fields. With an adequate working force, the health system would be better equipped to deal with the emergency crisis. 


Brady. W. (2009). Comparison of traditional and nontraditional new Graduate RN’s in a NICU (1st ed.)

Happell . K. (2007). Employment through residency program: A strategy to address the workforce crisis in Psychiatric Nursing. Psychiatric Nursing Archives, 21(3), 126-131.

Nelson. M. Olson & Yougn, L. Kleinsasser. A. (2001). Nursing Student Residency Program: a model for seamless transition from Nursing Student to R.N. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(1), 40-48.

Price Waterhouse Coopers

Price waterhouse coopers

Price Waterhouse Coopers


Price Waterhouse Coopers is privately owned organization with headquarters in London, United Kingdom. It was formed in 1998 through a merger between Price Waterhouse and Coopers and Lybrand. It deals with professional services and it is the second largest professional services firm. It is a multinational organization and has offices in one hundred and fifty nine countries across the world. It faces competition from KPMG, Deloitte, and Ernst & Young. It was rebranded in 2010 in light of competition and the need to attain competitive advantage.

Leadership and Management Style

Price water house coopers apply change leadership style and interactive management style. The company is a global corporate with decentralized leadership and management in specific countries. They execute their duties by empowering the organization to accomplish the company’s strategic objectives. The process is systematic and requires leaders to identify precisely and focus narrowly on the most impacting goals, concentrate the efforts of the team and employees on actions of high impact, share transparently the real time results, make course corrections timely and lastly ensure mutual members accountability (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.64).

The effective leadership and management styles in Price Waterhouse Coopers is grounded on principles of commitment, clarity, translation of the companies goals to daily goals, synergistic teamwork, enabling sponsorship and accountability.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.109) observed that the principles of focused leadership and management include clarity, commitment where the members of the company believe in the company’s goals to be achieved, translation to action which means the ability of the management to know what to do to achieve their goals, enabling sponsorship, accountability and synergy.

Organizational Culture

The organizational culture according to Deiser, R. (2009p.229) is derived from people who created it. At price Water House Coopers Company, the people form the heart f their success and strategy. They focus on equal opportunity for employment, inclusion and diversity in the process of recruitment and ensure they attract many candidates from various backgrounds, non traditional and traditional. The company provides people with different types of tools to enrich them in daily coaching, professional experience and have productive feedback. The organizational culture of Price Water House Coopers has four dimensions; professional development, life or work flexibility and quality, commitments to the communities, the Price Water House Coopers family and support to the working parents (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.331).

  • Professional development

According to Evan & Chan-Gon (2010p.97), Price Water House Coopers emphasize on significance of the real time feedback to make them enhance their brand and improve on professional skills. The company also offers training and opportunities for development to stay relevant

  • Life/work flexibility and quality

The company understands that to perform maximally, people need to be flexible. Their holiday and vacation policy supports the company’s commitment.

  • Commitment to the communities

Price Water House Coopers is committed to transparency and trust in the markets, development of responsible community and leaders that flourish and managing the company’s environmental impact (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005p.87).

  1. Support the working parents

Price Water House Coopers programs, resources and benefits are designed to assist the working parents meet their career and family demands. The culture of the firm acknowledges the challenges and therefore provides the flexibility and career options.

  • The Price Water House Coopers family

a person is considered a family of Price Water House Coopers  when they come on board as professionals. Even after choosing to depart, the company stays connected to them through the community network of the alumni (Deiser, 2009p.34).

Corporate Values and Norms

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.57) pointed out that Price Waterhouse Coopers corporate values are in form of three pillars; teamwork, excellence and leadership. The company believes that under teamwork, best solutions come from the clients and colleagues working together. Effective teamwork needs sharing, respect and relationship. Under excellence, the company believes in delivering of what was promised and adding more value beyond what was expected (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.335). Excellence is achieved in Price Waterhouse Coopers through agility, learning and innovation. Finally, under leadership, the company believes in leading with clients, people and leadership thought. Leadership demand integrity, vision and courage (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.336).

In corporate norms, Price Waterhouse Coopers conduct businesses within applicable framework of professional law, standards and regulations in addition to the company’s policies and standards. Price Waterhouse Coopers has code of conduct for all its firms and people based on the company’s values.

Every member is obligated to understand and know the codes guidelines and values they are based. Furthermore, they are obligated to comply with the spirit and letter of the code and assist others comply too (Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.102).

PricewaterhouseCoopers (2005p.221) observed that some of the corporate norms of Price Waterhouse Coopers include upholding the name of Price Waterhouse Coopers, the company’s core values, respecting others, behaving professionally, corporate responsibility, performing their responsibility and ethical decision making

Teams and Employee Empowerment

  1. Volunteer continuum

Price Waterhouse Coopers Company has established structures of employee and team empowerments. Some of the employee empowerment is engaging the Price Waterhouse Coopers employees in community experiences that are meaningful that help them build their capabilities. Through this initiative, the company deepened the understanding of their employees in issues related to nonprofit sector through the company’s volunteering continuum, a strategy that helps the company guide its work in the community (Deiser, 2009p119).

According to Leadership Development Strategy in PricewaterhouseCoopers (2007p.88), team empowerment in the Price Waterhouse Coopers company is enhanced through volunteering. During the financial year of 2013, about 2300 staff members participated in the 313 company led team volunteering initiatives. This is translated to about 17,200 volunteering hours to the community (Bowen, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam, 2008p.340). The company uses the volunteer continuum to assist expand and deepen the firms ways of volunteer programs enhance the leadership skills, while at the same time maximizing on their commitment and effective level within the charitable sector.

According to Evan & Chan-Gon, 2010p.105), the company formalized the skills based volunteering definition across the Price Waterhouse Coopers global network. Skilled volunteering incorporates use of professional skills of an individual but in the informal way that does not include service deliver for the Company will be liable. These include to coaching, mentorship and training on financial literacy

  1. Environmental stewardship

To further empower the employees and teams, Price Waterhouse Coopers environmental network empowers the employees. The network is led by employees who are enthusiastic who also strive to be change catalysts. The environmental committees within the firm provide opportunities for the staff members who are passionate about stewardship of environment to connect with others and exchange ideas. The members of the committees drive change both within the Price Waterhouse Coopers and out into the larger community, raising some awareness among some clients and colleagues and building skills as leaders who are responsible (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005).

  1. Diversity and inclusion of people

Price Waterhouse Coopers invest in their employees and teams at every career steps to help them achieve their personal and professional goals. Everything in the company is done based on collaboration and teamwork. These may include submission of proposal to clients, learning experiences and ideas from others and engaging in volunteering activities with fellow colleagues (Deiser, 2009p.138). This way the empower the employees and create culture and high performance where everybody supports and challenges each other and members can play their role as individuals for collective success.

The Price Waterhouse Coopers company also continues to help their employees to develop new skills through working practices which are enhanced, inclusion of initiatives, diversity, supporting life or work flexibility, coaching which are enhanced. The company also encourages the development of a strong mindset of responsibility by engaging employees in conversations that are related to both marketplace and environmental initiatives. Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007p.54) observed that by the company giving employees the right tools; they are able to understand the impact of their doings on others and the society interconnectedness


In conclusion, Price Waterhouse Coopers is well established and functions effectively. The management and leaders are of high integrity and good values. The company has corporate culture of good moral values compounded by the culture which enhance employee development professionally. The organization also invest some of their profits through charity work and assistance to the community through corporate social responsibility, volunteering and environmental stewardship.


PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2005). 8th annual global CEO survey: Bold ambitions, careful choices / PricewaterhouseCoopers. New York: PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Leadership Development Strategy: PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007). S.l.: American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC.

Deiser, R. (2009). Designing the smart organization: How breakthrough corporate learning initiatives drive strategic change and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bowen, R. M., Rajgopal, S., & Venkatachalam, M. (September 06, 2008). Accounting Discretion, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance*. Contemporary Accounting Research, 25, 2, 351-405.

Evan, M. B., & Chan-Gon, K. (June 01, 2010). Creativity Management in Public Organizations. Public Performance & Management Review, 33, 4, 619-652.