Fault lines in Canadian Society

The Aboriginal /non-Aboriginal Fault lines in Canadian Society

Introduction

There are existing tensions or fault lines in Canada amongst different regions. Fault lines according to Bone (2012) are the geological phenomenon where there are cracks on the crust of earth due to the tectonic forces. In relation to Canada, fault lines are political, social and economic cracks that divide people and regions and they also threaten to destabilize the integrity of Canada as a nation. According to Bone (2012), the geography of Canada is characterized by four tensional fault lines, and they include; English and French Canadians, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, centrist and decentrist forces, and the immigration forces. These are the forces that have ensured Canada remain a nation of regions. There are six regions in Canada and they include Quebec, Atlantic Canada, Western Canada, Ontario, territorial north and British Columbia. The essay will majorly discuss the Aboriginal/ non- Aboriginal fault line by comparing and contrasting the circumstances of their current existence in certain physiographic regions in Canada.

The Aboriginal/no-Aboriginal fault line

The 1982 Constitutional Act referred to the indigenous people of Canada which includes Métis, Indians and the Inuit as Aboriginal peoples. This means that they are the Canadian people who trace their ancestry to the native inhabitants of Canada who came from North America before the Europeans came in 15th century. The non Aboriginal people have no ancestry or blood relations to the Aboriginals. Status (registered) Indians has certain rights according to 1985 Indian Act and registered and acknowledged by the federal government such as exemption from generated tax from reserves. The non-status Indians are not registered but have Indian ancestry hence has no rights according to the Indian act. Similarly, the Treaty Indians are registered Indians who can prove descent from the band that signed treaties and hence has legal rights of living in reserves. The Inuit are located mainly in Arctic, while the Métis are individuals of North American and European Indian ancestry.

Harring & OSCLH (2013) pointed out that the Aboriginal/non Aboriginal front line in Canada is the most complex one. Its complexity is as a result of the historical relations tangled between the European settlers and the Aboriginal people. The first entanglement occurred between the Aboriginal peoples and the British crown and later Ottawa. According to Bone (2012), the class between the settlers and the natives for land, the federal governments’ forced assimilation policies added to the complexity and further solidified the distrust of the Aboriginal people to the crown and the Canadian state. The policies which failed to create a big difference between the Aboriginal people and the other parts of Canada. The consequence later was a disaster to the Aboriginal people who were pushed to the Canadians society’s margin, faced racism, ended up dependant on Ottawa and became ignored and invincible Canadian society members. An example of their isolation as observed by Harring & OSCLH (2013) are the treaty Indians got the vote participate in federal elections only in 1960

Circumstances of the current existence of Aboriginal people in Eastern Woodlands of south Ontario and Quebec in the Grand River Valley

  1. The Haldimand Grant

In 1763, the British formed an alliance with Pontiac, the chief of Odawa as well as other Indian leaders with an aim of holding the Ohio valley lands. George III strategically issued a royal proclamation in 1763 which west of Appalachian Mountains as the lands for the Indians (Bone, 2012).

However, after the American Revolution in which the Americans won, the proclaimed Indian lands in the Ohio valley ceased existing as many settlers hungry for land spread across the Appalachian Mountains. Moreover, the defeated Indians moved to Canada where they received the first major land grant termed as the “Haldimand Grant of 1784” (Harring & OSCLH, 2013). According to Bone (2012), the main purpose of the grant was to reward the Indian Iroquois who fought alongside the British during the American Revolution. Bone (2012) highlighted that lord Haldimand, the Governor of Quebec, in his proclamation prohibited the sale or lease of the land to anybody but only the government. The said tract of land extended from Grand River source in the present southwester Ontario to the river’s mouth at Lake Ontario. This explains the circumstances of the existence of the Aboriginal people and non existence of the non Aboriginal people around the area of the Grand River between lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario.

Circumstances of the current existence of Aboriginal people in Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Quebec ad Labrador

  1. Taking over of the Indian rights by Canada

The 1867 British North America Act shifted the responsibility for the Aboriginal people from Great Britain to Canada (Harring & OSCLH, 2013). Subsequently, the government of Canada enacted the restrictive Indian act. The effect of the legislation was to isolate the Indian tribes from the rest of the Canadian society, in addition to stripping them governance powers. This was based on assumptions that the Indians cannot govern themselves or manage their affairs. Therefore, the federal government through the Department of Indian Affairs was entrusted with the duty to be their guardian until they were fully integrated into the Canadian society (Harring & OSCLH, 2013). This was in contrast to the Haldimand Grant which gave the aboriginal people land, allowed them to govern themselves and did not implement restrictive laws to the Indians.

Bone (2012) indicated that the federal department consequently intervened in many issues including management of the Indian lands, band issues, money, and resources with the main aim of assimilating them into the Canadian society. This promoted dependency and left the affairs of the bands on the hands of the local agents who were Indians, hence suppressing the initiatives of the Indians (Bone, 2012). The isolation of the Indians in Canada was done by denying them citizenship rights including voting rights. In contrast, the British crown did not create dependency from the aboriginal people. Moreover, they did not manage the land on behalf of the Indians like the federal government of Canada does.

As much as the Indians were being suppressed in reserves, the Métis and the Inuit were not included in the Act but they also had to live in the Canadian society where they were not fully accepted. Currently, the Inuit have homes in Nunavut, Quebec and even Labrador.

  1. Land claim treaties

With almost the whole of the British Columbia province tied up in several land treaties, the relationship between the Aboriginal and the non Aboriginal communities are highly strained. According to Harring & OSCLH (2013), the Aboriginal rights are collective rights that originate from the occupation of land by the Aboriginal people before contact. These treaty rights apply mostly to the Inuit and the status Indians unlike the Métis who are less protected by the rights. When the governance of the federal government and the British crown are compared, there are similarities in that both embraced treaties with the aboriginal communities on land and settlement issues

  1. Métis Rights

The less protection of the Métis by the Aboriginal rights stems back from 1870 when the Ottawa accepted that the Métis has Aboriginal rights because of the Indian ancestry (Bone, 2012). The government further gave individual members of the Métis community land grants in a three component agreement. The first component of the agreement indicated that the occupied land before 1870 by the Métis became private property, second the Métis children had eligibility of 140  acres, and lastly each Métis family head received in scrip 160 acres which could be sold or claimed in Manitoba. Furthermore, the federal government of the day set 1.4 million acres in Manitoba for the estimated 10,000 Métis children in 1871(Bone, 2012). However, the allocation was increased to 240 acres after census which found there only 5000 Métis children (Bone, 2012). However, Harring & OSCLH (2013) pointed out that few Métis people claimed their land allocated to them and majority sold leaving them landless. Compared to the Indians of the Grand River Valley, there is similarity because both Métis and Indians were given land by the authorities of the day

As much it is a historic fact that many Métis dispersal from the Red River Valley, the reasons for their dispersal remains a controversy with two interpretations. According to Ottawa, the rights were distinguished in accordance to Manitoba Act of 1870 by giving the scrip to the Métis. This is supported by Harring & OSCLH (2013) who argued that the federal government of that time did not act in bad faith as much it was slow in settling the claims by the Métis. In contrast, Bone (2012) argued that the Métis communities were victims of federal government’s deliberate conspiracy to prevent the land of Métis community in Manitoba. However, the matter was settled by the Supreme Court in 2013, in a case filed by Manitoba Métis Foundation, which ruled in favor of the Métis.

  1. Treaty rights

The treaties favored the Aboriginal people because they defined the reserve lands that were collectively held by the band in addition to negotiating other beneficial rights for the communities. Harring & OSCLH (2013) elaborated that there were different reasons for signing treaties and it depended on the historical contexts. For instance, late 19th century treaties were signed to remove others tribes for the settlers. To the Aboriginal people, any treaty to them was a land promise as well as a shift support from hunting and nomadism to more settled farming. Therefore, this was a protection from the influx of the settlers during that time and a guarantee of government protection.

Bone (2012) pointed out that the conflicting ideas from the crown authorities and the first nation, on the treaties significance shaped the relations between non Aboriginal and Aboriginal people. For instance, during the crown authorities viewed the treaties as mechanisms for extinguishing the rights of the Aboriginals and the land titles and hence opening up the lands for the settlers to do agriculture. In contrast, the Aboriginal people understood the treaties as agreements between the authorities to share resources and land. With the diverse perceptions, it was inevitable to have disagreements between the Aboriginal and the non Aboriginal people.

Modern treaties

For many years the legal meaning of Aboriginal land title has changed until 1970, when Ottawa recognized two land rights forms, which are the reserve land and the crown land. The reserve land was a type of ownership or right where the government of Canada held land for the Indian people. In contrast, the Indians had limitless right to use the crown land for trappings and hunting. This implies that the Indians were allowed to freely enjoy and use the crown land the crown lands without making any claims on it in form of ownership. According to (Harring & OSCLH, 2013), the crown lands included the lands where there were no settlements in Canada. However, the Aboriginals, the Métis, Inuit and Indian families lived and used the crown lands to fish, trap and hunt. However, Bone (2012) pointed out that the provincial governments and the federal governments could sell the crown lands to corporations or individuals or even lease them for specific purposes such as logging or even mineral exploration without compensating the Aboriginal inhabitants and users of the land.

As much as many groups among the Aboriginal people did not have treaties with the federal government and therefore no control over the lands, many events changed this situation radically. To begin, the emergence of the emergence of educated leaders who understood legal and political systems who used the courts to force the provincial and federal governments to address issues o the Aboriginals concerning land claims. For instance, the Nisga’a residing in northern British Columbia took their claim for land in court in a case known as the Calder case. As much as the Supreme Court in 1973 ruled against their favor narrowly, six out of the seven judges were in agreement that the title for Aboriginal on the land existed at the confederation time in brutish Columbia. Similarly, that same year, the federal government was in agreement that the Aboriginal people who had not signed a treaty may also have a claim on the crown lands (Bone, 2012).

Conclusion

In conclusion, as Bone (2012) proposed, there exist fault lines in Canadian society. The current existence of the Aboriginal/ non Aboriginal fault line in Canada in some parts of Canada has been due to many circumstances. The Haldimand Grant occurrence saw the existence of the Aboriginal people around the Grand River valley. The taking over of the Indian rights by Canadian federal governments has seen suppression, restriction and confinement of the Aboriginal people in reserves and this also explains there existences in certain parts. Moreover, the treaties signed between the Aboriginals and the crown authorities and also with the cabadian federal   governments in a bid to protect their land rights have seen the existence of the Aboriginals in certain parts of the country.

References

Bone, R. M. (2012). The Canadian north: Issues and challenges. Don Mills, Ont: Oxford University Press.

Harring, S. L., & Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History. (2013). White man’s law: Native people in nineteenth-century Canadian jurisprudence. Toronto, Ont: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press.

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Victimologist’s Report-caralyn king

Victimologist’s Report-caralyn king

Is the deceased a victim or an offender? Why do you think so?

The deceased from the point of a victimologist was a victim. The deceased, Caralyn king, since her childhood through her teenage life, until her adulthood had been faced by many social challenges. Some of her decisions she made until her death were made when she was still underage, under the influence of drugs or through mental disorder. Therefore, lawfully, it cannot be wholly accepted that she did them by her own will as an adult. One social factor after the other had led to Caralyn king’s problematic life. To begin, the victim had a learning disability and this affected her leaning in school and finally resulted to her failure to excel in school.  Her dismissal performance in school further affected her self esteem and this contributed majorly to abuse of drugs at an early age. Evidence points out that at her teenage years she had started using drugs and taking of alcohol and she eventually dropped out of high school prematurely.

Given that she dropped out of school, was unemployed and had ran away from her home, she had to find alternative means of finding a shelter, feeding herself and to sustain her new lifestyle. By that time, her neighborhood was a den of prostitution from young girls and the moral social fabric of her community was being torn apart. Sex in the streets was the order of the day. Being a victim to immoral social vices comes out because of her vulnerability to pimps, gangs and men in her community because of her tender age, mental illness and being an addict to drugs.

Similarly, evidence pointed out that Caralyn king was suffering from psychosis, a mental disease that is induced by drugs. Furthermore, she turned to prostitution at some point in life. Professionally, it cannot be ruled that she willingly engaged in prostitution, but she may have been forced due to the prevailing financial problems she was facing in the streets. From police evidence, prostitution in the Edmonton community was rampant because young were girls had to fend for themselves, or they were easily duped into prostitution by pimps.

Who are the other victims in this case?

The case of the death of Caralyn king unraveled the deep rot in the community. There were also other victims apart from Caralyn king. Evidence from different experts pointed out that there were other lost young women in the community who were also victims of the factors Caralyn king was a victim of. To begin, statistics indicated that since the year 1988, 12 bodies of women that lived in similar lifestyles of high risks have been found in the area of Edmonton.

Evidence from the undercover law enforcers brought to light the other victims.  The other victims are teenage girls in the streets who are abusing drugs, lack positive parenting from their parents or even suffer from mental problems. The teenagers are not good in making right decisions, and some are even underage girls and therefore they end up being sexually assaulted or sexually abused. Therefore, they can easily fall prey to the unsuspecting pimps, gangs or the customers who might have hidden agendas, or just see them as machines of making money. Therefore, from the victimologist angle, the young girls are not criminals rather victims of different forms of exploitation.

These young girls who are victims have been set from their tender ages to willingly agree to sex to support themselves whenever they are broke, are in streets, desperate or in trouble. Similarly, a scenario where a young woman is single mother of a young baby and has no way of feeding the child, they willingly opt for prostitution to survive. On the other hand, the victims also engage in prostitution to support their drug addiction, and to pay for their drugs which they started using at a younger age.

From the victimologists point of view, the victims are not perpetrators by buying the banned illegal drugs, but they are just merely survivors. They are trying with their own means to cope with the situations they have found themselves in, and are also stuck in.

What are the needs of these other victims? How should they be addressed?

The other victims have many needs that force then into drugs and even prostitution. To begin, the victims have no meaningful source of income. They are unemployed and therefore faced with the hard economic times; they opt for prostitution to make ends meet.

The victims also suffer from torn social fabric. There are no organizations that assist in steering the community moral values. Positive parenting is lacking also in the community. The teenagers engage in drugs and prostitution from a tender age and it is deemed ok in the community. Therefore, leadership and positive role models is needed in the community.

To address the discussed needs of the victims, the community where the victims hail from should come together and talk as one entity to address the problems that face them as a community. Many positive things can be achieved if people come together and discuss the way forward for their children and the teenagers who have gone astray. The discussion should not be focused between “us” and “them,” but it should be centered as “we,” the people of Edmonton community and the changes needed for the betterment of the community.

Another way in which the problems can be addressed is though formation community based nonprofit organizations that address the problems of the community. For instance, formation of organizations that sensitizes the victims on the negative effects of drugs, sexual assaults, prostitution and importance of positive parenting. The programs should be attended by both the victims, the young community teenagers, professionals and the parents.

Economic empowerment programs should also be started to offer alternatives to the victims to hinder them from engaging in dangerous activities such as usage of drugs and prostitution. This could be done by the state government starting business programs for the community, inviting investors and encouraging other forms of economic activities.

The law enforcers should also play their part by conducting investigations who are the pimps, the clientele of the young teenage prostitutes, investigate the sexual assaults among the young women too. Solutions to these problems should also be researched to address the social problem in the community.

Do you advise the judge to recommend legalization and regulation of prostitution? Explain your reasoning.

I would advise the judge to recommend that prostitution should not be legalized. This is because the vice of prostitution comes with many wrongs such as teenage sex, drugs and murder as in the case of Caralyn King. Sex should not be done in strangers’ cars, streets, in open public places and parks, but comfortably in private houses (Gerdes, 2006).

Similarly, legalizing prostitution in a society will encourage rot of the moral society’s fabric. The community organizations are playing their part by ensuring dignity is restored in communities. Therefore, by legalizing prostitution, the gains made by community organizations will go waste. Furthermore, the married couples would not have to worry about their partners cheating, or maybe the young teenage girls to think prostitution is a profession (Roleff, 2006).

I also believe that by legalizing the vice of prostitution, the government will be agreeing to use of young girls and women as merchandise. Similarly, prostitution will increase the street crimes incidences, in addition to violence, mental trauma and health hazards.

Many studies (Weitzer, 2011; Roleff, 2006) pointed out that most prostitutes are runaway teens, and the prostitutes end up in the streets because of maybe a sexual assault committed to them when they were still children or were beaten. Given that the prostitutes trade in their bodies, they do it not because they are willing but because of situations they have found themselves in. For instance, Gerdes (2006) indicated that prostitutes have to put their thinking and minds away to assume that they are not doing sex. Moreover, they are at high risks of being sexually assaulted or beaten by their clients. Therefore, even legalizing of prostitution does not guarantee that violence to the prostitutes will end.

According to Roleff (2006), tax payers incur million of dollars for incarceration the prostitutes, but even by legalizing them will even be more costly since checking of all prostitutes monthly for STDs is very costly. Moreover, prostitution comes with emotional turmoil and low self esteem after a woman having sex with many different men.

In summary, prostitution should not be legalized because it the risk of contracting and spreading STIs increases like HIV/AIDs. Moreover, it is also wrong for any woman to sell her body, increased chances of rape, shameful, lack of alternative source of income for the women when they age, and lastly high chances of the prostitutes becoming drug addicts (Weitzer, 2011). 

Does your review of this testimony suggest any other recommendations the judge might make to prevent similar deaths?

  1. The parents should be engaged closely with their children’s lives and to understand them better. If the child tends to be performing dismissal in school, it should not be taken lightly. Diagnostic testing should be done on the children to determine their IQ level to help them in reasoning and making of best decisions. This would prevent them from falling prey to gangs who perceive them as adults while their reasoning capacity is still low.
  2. Intervention services should be provided to children who symptoms or behaviors such as moodiness, tantrums, impulsiveness, delays in development, learning difficulties, poor judgment, attention disorders, delinquency and aggression. These could be because of neurological disorders or Fetal Alcoholic Spectrum Disorder.
  3. The teenagers in their adolescent age should be assisted by their teachers, counselors and parents to find their identity and for them to have self esteem. This would prevent social deficits that would make it difficult for a teenager to fit well in the world, understand things well and find a community where they are accepted.
  4. Make regulations on consumption of alcohol and usage of drugs. There should be a minimum set age limit where people can consume alcohol. This will control the alcohol consumption in the name of recreation which can slip and over to addition level. Addiction to drugs and alcohol especially to young people leads to self destruction of life.
  5. Establishment under law for minimum number of community support groups to assist the people with mental illness. This can help the teenagers who have been diagnosed with mental illness problems.
  6. Establishment of government homes for the homeless teenagers who wonder in the streets. The homes could be under the government, Non-governments organizations, community organizations and even churches. This could offer alternatives to the homeless street  children
  7. Prevent incarceration of young adults who did not have juvenile crime records, or give alternative sentences like community work instead of jail terms. Courts should also consider deferment of court cases for treatment suggestions to the charged teenagers. Furthermore, determining mental state of the teenagers when crime was committed should also be determined before sentencing the charged teenagers or young adults to jail.

References

Gerdes, L. I. (2006). Prostitution and sex trafficking: Opposing viewpoints. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Roleff, T. L. (2006). Prostitution. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Weitzer, R. J. (2011). Legalizing prostitution: From illicit vice to lawful business. New York: NYU Press.

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Case Study Proposal

Case Study Proposal

Introduction

Currently, budgeting and financial statuses in the Samuels Waters College are a hindrance to the developments of the organization. Budgeting involves handling the funds within the organization most of which comes from the students’ tuition fees and others from the investors in the organization. Financial statuses involve the payments made to the respective stakeholders concerned and working together with them as a team to share opinions in order to increase the affected business. The statuses in the organization hold the largest part in the organization development since without proper funding and budgeting system no benefit can be realized in the organization. The poor budgeting makes the situation in the organization very harsh such that it is not able to cater for all its financial processes such as paying the staff (Yin, 2003).

The problem in the case study is as a result of poor budgeting due to lack of a strategized budget plan to handle and cover the situation in the organization. The concern of the case study aims at coming up with the proper and strategized budgeting plan to make the realization of goals in this organization easy. It is in the plan of creating a new budgeting layout to improve the institution in its processes. The college, therefore, fails to improve the goal’s set and target plan. The president of the college initializes a budgeting retreat to improve the situation in the organization by inviting representatives of the stakeholders and involve them in the decision-making process. Involving the members of the organization sets it to the development since the views collected favors each and every member of the organization after the implementation. The teams need proper information sharing, and this reduces the chances of development of the organization, (Yin, 2003)

Concerns of the case study

The first solution involves emphasizing and improving collaboration in the business. Since no man is an island in any institution, having a team to support the proceedings and plan for the company. There is a need to make each member feel valued and encouraging them also. Before any collaboration carries a set job, the benefits should be outlined. The team should also have an objective before starting the process. All the team members should feel important by taking each and every ones’ opinion in order to come up with a well-outlined proposal. The team leader should organize meetings which will make it a general way meeting, therefore, when a job on the table needs a study, the laying down of the opinions will be very easy since it is a general way. Turn taking during discussions should get emphasized. It is perfectly acceptable to pause when it is one’s turn in a conversation and give oneself a moment to organize one’s thoughts and think about what you want to say. Outlining clear roles to the team members should also get emphasized. It boosts the collaboration ability to carry out a given task appropriately and efficiently. By cooperation and the responsibility in the institution will be strengthened, and the tasks will efficiently run on a study note (Jackson, 2011).

The plan pointed the methods to improve budgeting of the Samuels Water College to solve the challenges faced during the financial and economic executions. The budgeting in an organization handles and occupies the largest part in every organization since it ensures that the funding of each and every sector of the organization runs smoothly. The necessity to pass knowledge and appropriate skills required in a discussion. Each and every person’s proposal should get considered. There should have an efficient information exchange. The way in which negotiators communicate and exchange information affects the outcome reached via the negotiation. Every member of the team should get an opportunity freely to express the views relating the issue at study. The collaboration emphasis should be carried out by explicitly allocating the tasks to the respective   team members. It shall reduce the problem of confusions and lack of understanding when discussing a particular topic (Jackson, 2011).

Recommendation

The proposal however gives way to handle and tackle the tight budgeting issue in the Samuels Waters College. The proposal is based on the case study there earlier as discussed by the team members, and the conclusion aims at giving an outcome as per the discussions. According to the team members’ discussion and the drawn conclusions, the institution should implement and set into practice the new budgeting the system. The new system budgeting plan to be implemented includes having an assessment of what the organization uses as expenditure on the all the funds paid to the organization. Secondly, the organization should have several financial engineers to perform the arithmetic executions on the budgeting procedures and make rectifications if need be on the wrong trends in the budget. Apparently set and focused institution must also embrace the views from each and every person in an organization. The organization must exercise the opinions from all the stakeholders of the organization since the success of any academic institution lies on the hands of the students, staff and the administration. The organization should aim at emphasizing and improving collaboration in the business (Caren, n.d.).

Since no man is an island in any institution, having a team to support the proceedings and plan for the company. There is a need to make each member feel valued and encouraging them also. Before any collaboration carries a set job, the benefits should be outlined. The team should also have an objective before starting the process. All the team members should feel important by taking each and every ones’ opinion in order to come up with a well-outlined proposal. The external bodies include the suppliers to the organization, the banks and the investors to the organization. After the implementation of the new budgeting plan, the institution must make an effort to ensure that the partners of the institution get notified for them to have an idea on the new resolutions in the organization aimed at improving the performance of the organization. The notification to the external stakeholders of the organization gives them the courage to invest more and restore the motivation to continue serving the organization effectively (Caren, n.d.).

References

Caren, J. (n.d.). The recommendation (1st ed.).

Jackson, B. (2011). The proposal (1st ed.). Don Mills, Ont.: Harlequin.

Yin, R. (2003). Applications of case study research (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

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Cathedrals of Consumption

Cathedrals of Consumption

1 Why and how is the organization/corporation/business you have chosen a Cathedrals of Consumption?

“Cathedrals of Consumption” concept was coined by George Ritzer and it means a site of consumption that is part of a, multinational corporation, and has international success of exceptionally high level (Ritzer, 1999). Ritzer (1999) explained that the corporation success and its Cathedrals of Consumption, is in a way that it displays of excess and abundance and gives rise to consumer cult. Besides providing different commodified services and goods at their different locations existing around the globe, Ritzer (2015) indicated that Cathedrals of Consumption often allows the consumers to do things themselves, and other strategies making consumers believe that their shopping attitude that is new found will change their lives forever. Cathedrals of Consumption are designed with an expectation that the consumers will develop the passion for getting goods and services gradually. They are places of excessive consumption, and this has led the consumers to hyper-consume than they need.

Disney World and its other aspects are of interest to this paper because it represent a Cathedrals of Consumption in myriad ways. From the definition of Cathedrals of Consumption, as provided by Ritzer (2015), Disney World falls as one of the Cathedrals of Consumption. Disney World or Walt Disney World Resort is operated and owned by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, which is a branch of Walt Disney Company which is a corporation (Walt Disney World, n.d). This implies that Disney World is part of an international corporation, and it is just a site of consumption for the larger corporation.

Ritzer (2015) further showed how Disney World is a Cathedral of Consumption. Disney World in a way displays of excess and abundance and gives rise to consumer cult, besides providing different commodified services and goods at their different locations existing around the globe. At Disney World, I have consumed many things such as a day at Walt Disney World, T-shirts, fast foods and other non-obvious things such as a day at the ballpark, medical service and a lecture. I have become a loyal consumer of Disney World’s many goods and services that I think I need and other essential goods and services. Additionally, Disney World has global presence through its several products, theme parks and many of its business enterprises such as the television shows (the Disney channel),movies (Walt Disney Studios), and cable television network (Walt Disney World, n.d). Lefkon & Safro (2013) pointed out that the CEO of Disney World claimed that over one billion people globally use Disney products monthly. Moreover, there are 229 Disney stores online and in innumerable stores, Radio Disney for children, Disney Mobile which are wireless phones that are very popular in Japan, Disney Cruise Line, Disney Publishing that is the largest publisher of children’s books globally, Disney Ownership of ESPN and ABC, Disney credit card, Disney catalogue, and Disney theatrical. Lefkon & Safro (2013) asserted that all these are synergistically employed to market one another in a system that is tightly integrated and this sells the brand of Disney and yields large profits, hence has created a consumer cult.

2. How is this cathedral an example of re-enchantment in a disenchanted world? Give concrete and specific examples.

The Cathedrals of Consumption, such as Disney World, must be re-enchanted continually if they are to maintain their attracting ability of sufficient number of consumers. Disney World is an example of re-enchantment in a disenchanted world in many ways. Ritzer (1999) defined re-enchantment as a process of creating a spectacle through simulations and extravaganzas. Spectacles According to Ritzer (1999, p. 96) are astonishing shows such as the Mardi Gras, conventions, fairs and even the department stores. You must offer something extra for whatever you have to sell.

Disney World re-enchanted by transforming the amusement parks, creating moral order compared to the early parks, cleaned them up and making them be accepted as family entertainment. Walt Disney World (n.d) pointed out that Disney offered controlled, self-contained environments free from different forms of problems that undermined earlier parks. Despite the fact that visitors who arrived in early parks felt danger and sense of looseness, the tourists arriving at the Disney World take comfort and know for a fact that within Disney World lies a world that is tightly regulated.

2.1 How does it enchant and re-enchant? What mechanisms does it use to do this? Show this by using the following concepts from Ritzer, Chaps. 5 & 6: Spectacles, extravaganzas & simulations.

Disney World enchants and re-enchant using different mechanisms such as spectacles, extravaganzas and simulations.

Spectacles

These are astonishing shows such as the Mardi Gras, conventions, fairs and even the department stores (Ritzer, 1999 p. 96). The new consumption means in Disney World create spectacle in order to bring very many people to buy services and goods. A casino, a mall or a theme park that is half full or empty has a smaller population of selling and does not generate a similar excitement as a full house. Disney World uses spectacles since it understands well that sparsely populated consumption cathedrals generate less appeal and can fail. Many people are animated by presence of a large number of persons, and this translates to increased sale of services and goods.
Extravaganzas

These are different devices used in creating a spectacle (Ritzer, 1999 pp. 98). They are also intentional shows put to produce spectacles. In Disney World, they distinguish themselves by putting on spectacular shows than their competitors. Disney World uses variety of devices in creating their spectacular shows such as legendary stars, large orchestras, huge casts, potentially dangerous and live animals, elaborate production numbers, booming sounds, blinding light shows, breath-taking technology. Ostentatious sets, daring nudity, incredible costumes among others (Ritzer, 1999 pp.98)

Simulations

This is the process of creating an illusion of reality, where the real imitates the imitation now, and the unreal becomes the reality (Ritzer, 1999 pp.103-111). Some of the entertainment simulations at Disney World include the video and computer games that correctly simulate the environment. Film simulations are also popular in Disney World since they are controllable, of high quality. Moreover, theme park rides are simulators where the ride simulators feel like they are realistically moving according to the motion scripts pre-recorded.

3 How does the Cathedral use science and rationality to create the magic of these spectacles? Be sure to give concrete examples

The Cathedrals of Consumption uses rationality and science in creating magic of these spectacles in many ways. AS they attract more consumers of their products, their enchantment must be reproduced on demand over and over. In addition, branches of the enchanted settings that are successful are opened globally and across the nation with the result that the same magic essentially must be reproduced in many locations. To realize this, the magic is systemized in a way that it is recreated easily from one place or time to another. For example, use of wienies, the examples seen on DVDs (Ritzer, 2015)

3.1 Is your cathedral a landscape of consumption? Using Ritzer’s definition explain why or why not

Landscape of consumption encompasses a number of Cathedrals of Consumption r geographic areas encompassing two or even more Cathedrals of Consumption (Ritzer, 2015, pp. 103). Disney World is a landscape of consumption because it has a variety of Cathedrals of Consumption. Walt Disney created a revolutionary amusement park that is the theme park devoted to a particular motif. Others include Disneyland Park, Downtown Disney, Disney World in Florida, Tokyo Disneyland, and Disneyland Resort Paris. Moreover, magic kingdom is at the heart of the Disney World. According to Lefkon & Safro (2013), a trek through the Disney World begins and then ends on the main street of United States, an outdoor shopping mall. This leads to other six lands that are themed which includes Tomorrowland, Fantasyland, Adventureland, Frontierland, Liberty Square, and Mickey’s Toontown Fair. More broadly, all of these theme parks as well as other consumption means are found in one geographic area or even adjacent to Disney word, making it landscape of consumption

4. Is your cathedral in devolution (Chap. 8, p. 189) or in some other postmodern transformation (p. 188)?

Disney World is in postmodern transformation since recently it experienced setbacks and declines and there is a possibility that the declines could be transformed into devolutions that are long term where consumptions continue to retreat (Walt Disney World, n.d).

4.1 How do you think the Great Recession has affected your cathedral? Be specific.

The great recession affected Disney World in many ways because before the great recession; Disney Wonderland had irrational exuberance, and this led to overbuilding of different structures and a great deal of excess capacities. After the recession, newer settings of consumption that were able to overcome the challenges and the weaknesses came up (Ritzer, 1999).

4.2 Are there some social and political policies that have affected the development, growth, or devolution of Cathedrals of Consumption?

There are some social and political policies that have affected the development, growth, or devolution of Cathedrals of Consumption. There are efforts through policies to find new uses for of the consumption cathedrals such as the big box stores, soon-to-be empty. Additionally, in some cases, I have seen true devolution as where contemporary consumption means are replaced by independently owned small shops. Moreover, I have seen in some malls especially the strip malls vacated by the chains being occupied by independent small entrepreneurs. All these changes are as a result of social and political policies. 

References

Ritzer, G. (2015). Essentials of Sociology.

Ritzer, G. (1999). Enchanting a disenchanted world: Revolutionizing the means of consumption. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge Press.

Walt Disney World. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/

Lefkon, W., & Safro, J. (2013). Walt Disney World 2014: Expert Advice from the inside source. New York: Disney Editions.

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