Agricultural Studies

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Question One: Why the Rice Price in African was high between 2007-2009

Between 2007 and 2009, a bowl of rice could be hardly being noticed on the surface. The price of rice interestingly rose in Africa leading to food insecurity. Firstly, there was no fixed market rate on the prices of rice. By then, rice was not priced in an organized market. Additionally, it was difficult to set a fixed market price for rice with the wide varieties in the marketplace. Nearly half of the African population were engaged in trading of rice and negotiated prices all over the African continent. During that period, Africa was majorly depended on imports of rice from Thailand and Vietnam. Unfortunately, the Indians who could also export their produce decided to impose burns into their exports. This led to an increase of rice in Africa who by then depended on other nations’ exports.

Secondly, in 2007-2009, there was a global food shortage. For this reason, many countries enacted policies that prohibited export of their products. For example, the Indian government enacted policies prohibiting export of rice to other nations. This explains the increase in the prices of rice in Africa since there were limited imports. Additionally, by that time, the African continent was enacting policies to become independent and self-sufficient. However, in the real sense it was difficult for this policy to materialize. Furthermore, bad trading activities elicited the increase in the prices of rice in Africa. For example, the government of Philippines decided to import large amount of rice due to corruption among the politicians who were commissioned when they bought rice. This led to a decrease in rice globally, and Africa had no additional importing options. Therefore, when the traders realized that several governments were panicking and hoarded rice, they shot up the prices. Africa was on the receiving end as the costs for household consumers rose.

Question Two: The Effect of Land Grabbing on Agriculture

Land grabbing has harassing consequences on the production of agricultural products. Normally, the areas subjected to agricultural land practices are often remote. The farmers in the regions often apply traditional knowledge in agricultural practices with is vital in the protection of land productivity. The farmers who practice agricultural practices normally inherit land from their forefathers. However, after inheritance, the land rights are usually not passed to them creating chance for land grabbing. Therefore, when farmers are forced out of their lands they don’t receive compensation. For this reason, they often move to the urban areas and slums to seek alternative occupations. For this reason, the production of agricultural foods declines and resulting into food insecurity.

In addition, people who get violently displaced from their agricultural lands to investors in agribusiness practice large scale agriculture. The application of large scale farming often attracts the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers lowering the land productivity of the land. The chemicals are usually responsible for lowering soil productivity with several years of usage. In addition, chemicals lower the quality of water and soil which may render the land unproductive after a certain period. The land clearance techniques applied by large scale farming are often poor leading to soil erosion. During this process, the soil top layer soil which is often rich in nutrients gets carried away lowering the soil fertility. Indeed, this in turn derails the production of agricultural foods leading to food insecurity.

Finally, most large scale farmers use the agricultural lands to grow foreign plant species such as trees and other plantations. With time, this lowers soil biodiversity and disturbs several ecosystems that are all vital for enriching the soil fertility level.

Question Three: How to Improve the Soil to Plant Organic Food

Improving the soil leads to the production of high quality agricultural products such as vegetables and maize. The most commonly used materials in the improvement of the soil to plant organic foods are compost tea and the role of worms. For example, compost tea can be made locally at home to boost farm produce. Compost tea increases the growth of plants. It consists minerals and nutrients that give brighter and bigger blooms and greener leaves that in overall increase quality and quantity of the harvest. In addition, compost tea provides beneficial organisms that enhance soil and the immune system of crops. The growth of the bacteria beneficial for the soil, further, results into stress-tolerated and healthier crops. Compost tea assists in the compression against diseases between the crops and the soil thus increasing the ability to eliminate fungus, diseases and pests.

Additionally, compost tea replaces the toxic garden chemicals that poisons and harms wildlife, insects, human and the soil. It provides replacement for chemical based fertilizers, fungus and pesticides. They finally assist in reducing the cost of production. On the other hand, worm compost has additional benefits to the plants than plain compost. It can increase the crop yield drastically. Worms are also important in food productivity. For example, the worms are responsible for the decay of organic substances through decomposition. This adds the value and quality of organic manure which are instrumental for agricultural food productivity. The bacteria in the roots of legumes are important for the nitrogen insertion in the root nodules of the leguminous plants. This increases the productivity of the crops hence producing high quality and quantity of crops for food security.

Question Four: Genetically Modified Foods

Genetically modified foods refer to foods that have been modified by use of biotechnology. Some of the widely known genetically modified goods are tomatoes, pineapples, potatoes and strawberries. The GM foods are made to provide more nutrients, last longer and taste better with high harvesting quality. Despite the benefits, the cons and pros of GM foods have elicited hot debates among the consumers.

Firstly, genetically modified foods hold the future of food security. Several tests have been run on the GM foods with results showing several benefits. The tests that indicated rats getting cancer and tumors when tested with genetically modified foods were had no scientific backgrounds and some people have claimed that they were frauds. However, GM foods increase production of foods since it contains defenses against bugs built in them. Additionally, the GM foods reduce the chemicals used in crop production and the chemicals used in the production of GM foods do not run off into the water quickly.

Secondly, GM foods are very nutritional and produce a higher yield than normal crops. This is extremely beneficial in Africa where the soil is not good enough for crop production. Additionally, people altering does not using chemicals but they use the natural genetic make-up. Furthermore, GM foods are able to withstand droughts, cold weather and floods and their maturation period is shorter than crops.

Contrastingly, the GM foods have several drawbacks. Firstly, the consumers are not told what they are consuming. Indeed, the GM foods are injected with chemicals and the law does not obligate the scientists to tell the users what they use in the production. It is irrational to think that consumers do not want to know what they are feeding on. Secondly, reports indicate that the GM foods kill the rats in the laboratories. Rats fed with GM foods died faster than the ones fed on organic foods. Maybe the next generation may not live as long as their forefathers lived.

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Anne Moody – Coming of Age in Mississippi

Anne Moody – Coming of Age in Mississippi

When Ann was in high school, she started getting the attention of the boys and the men in their community. Moody (1968) pointed out that she wore jeans when she outgrew her  school uniform dresses, which her family was unable to afford  to replace for her even when they grew tight. Her popularity with the boys increased in that in her eighth grade, she was elected the home coming queen. Moreover, her father, Diddly, provided her with a beautiful dress. This made her homecoming parade in high school one of the few moments of joy in her young life. Her mother was not even able to recognize her in the new dress until she waved.

The experiences of Ann Moody in the book are shown of her struggle to overcome the post war era of racism and gender in the South America. The experiences of the author elaborate how it was like in the i1950’s and 1960’s for the young African Americans (Moody, 1968). The recollections of the author of her childhood and even adult acquaintances who were murdered by the KuKlux Klan, and the harsh experiences where she had to hide in high grass at night to avoid the Klan

Moody (1968) indicated that she grew up when the civil rights movements were thick, and therefore she had to deal with racism and prejudices from both whites and the blacks. Furthermore, the author had to struggle through the hardships because her family was poor. From her experiences in the parade, the author creates a picture of a hero being borne from her struggles. She was poor, she was black, but through her struggles she was able to struggle through and be elected the homecoming queen. She uses her strong will and heroism to make things happen. The feelings and the experiences of a black girl is therefore conveyed through the reflections of the author.

When Anne began her high school, she started to hate the different kinds of prejudices the Negros were given. She hated everyone from the white people who bore the responsibility of murdering many people. Similarly, she hated the blacks for not doing something and standing up against the committed murders (Moody, 1968p.129). this acted as a trigger and she started questioning the kind of treatment she received, and this saw her searching for what according to her was right.

Anne also experiences the prejudices of the whites against blacks, and the light skinned blacks towards the dark skinned blacks. Moreover, the people with money also had prejudices towards the poor people. The author is at great pain since she received all the kinds of prejudices of her time and this prejudice the author against the wealthy, the light skinned blacks and the whites.

Similarly, the gradation of the skin color amongst the blacks themselves brings out the racial discrimination during that era. The author refers to the blacks who are light skinned as “yellow” or “mulatto,” and they often curved out for themselves a higher social status, despite the fact that in no any way they were better off compared to the blacks or the whites legally (Moody, 1968). This according to Ann was at disunity among the blacks. The social construction of the racial distinctions had no real basis in the physical reality. But the prejudice made the author suspicious of the light skinned blacks, and that shows how prejudice can be destructive. 


Moody, A. (1968). Coming of age in Mississippi. New York: Dial Press.

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Comparison of Approaches in Social Welfare Provision

Comparison of Approaches in Social Welfare Provision


The victory of the Liberal Party by a huge scale in 1906 general elections brought new faces in the Liberal Members of Parliament’s ranks. This came about with many changes in the social welfare field (Lund 2002). The Liberals who formed the government took steps to improve the living and working conditions, and health standard of the lower class. The key areas that was concerned with people was targeted by the legislation, was on the working-class population who were being faced with the risk of poverty due to unemployment or sickness, the old aged people under pension and the children. Finlayson (1994) observed that Liberal rule effectiveness on these matters was clear because the legislation gave solution to the problems of poverty, and what was intended to achieve was successful.

The initial task that was considered by the new Liberal government was the children’s welfare. Malnourished children had surfaced increasingly because of the aid rate extension in all schools and the formation in 1902 of the local education authorizes (Fisher & Collins 1993). Therefore, it is documented that too hungry, and debilitated children ware present, and to solve it, the government introduced the 1906 Education Act (Harris 2004). The authorities of the local education were empowered to provide school food to the destitute children by levying some money.

According to Powell (1996), the Education Act in 1907 made compulsory medical inspection of the children. This was done to reduce frequent diseases outbreak. Lastly the 1908 Children Act introduced measures to deal with abuse and neglect of children and set up remand homes, and juvenile homes to separate child offenders from the prisons and courts of the adults. Lund (2002) observed that the act ensured that the children were not going without food and were not living in the streets. The events of improving the welfare of the children were successful in general (Finlayson 1994).

The second target according to Fisher & Collins (1993) for the new Liberal government was the old age pensioner’s welfare. Because of lack of government financial backing, poverty was high. In 1908, the old age Pensions Act was introduced to provide 5s pensions per week for people aged 70 and over. Harris (2004) indicated that as much as the legislation helped in improving the social conditions and prevented extreme poverty for the pensioners, there existed much exclusion. For instance, the claimants of the poor relief the previous year, ex convicts were not entitled to the government funding. Powell (1996) pointed out that as much as the program was successful; the small amount issued was not enough for poverty prevention.

In addition to old age pension, the government tried to address the problem of earning loss due to sickness and unemployment. This is because the economic situation generally was becoming difficult for the low-income people. Moreover, as unemployment was rapidly increasing, the wages declining.

Lund (2002) pointed out that by 1909, schemes of introducing unemployment and sick insurance were advanced the implementation of The National Insurance Act of 1911 was delayed. The explanation for the delay was due to the powerful entrenched vested interests for the sickness benefits, for instance the insurance companies, friendly societies, the doctors and the state. Finlayson (1994) indicated that The National Insurance Act was in two dimensions; the Unemployment and the Health Insurance. This act was a plausible move by the government in poverty reduction. This is because of the bad health levels at the time for the people who were not earning.

According to Senior (1834), the poor people got help in the 1800s, but in 1834 changes in the law made life harder. The Poor Law outlined how people were helped. Each parish was mandated to take care of the poor people in their jurisdiction. If an individual was unable to work, they were provided with money for survival (Knott 1986). However, it was costly because the money was from taxes from upper and middle-class people. This caused resentment and complaints that the money went to the poor lazy people. Furthermore, critics argued that the allowance system worsened the situation because it encouraged giving birth among the poor people for children they could not take care. Similarly, critics argued that the law was the reason wages of workers was kept low because the employers knew the poor workers will be supplemented by the law. This called for amendment, and consequently Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 was passed by the parliament.

The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 was designed for reduction of cost of caring the poor. It stopped money reaching the poor people, and if they wanted, they had to go to a warehouse to obtain it. Cadman (1976) pointed out that the poor were given food and clothes in the workhouse in exchange for manual labor for several hours daily. Furthermore, splitting of the family was common in the warehouse where they wore uniforms, were on a bad diet, followed strict rules.

Senior (1834) outlined the reason why the approach was changed. The aims of the policy were to transfer the rural workers who were unemployed to urban areas to work, and to protect the middle class tax payers from urban from paying too much. However, the implementation of the law was impossible because it was costly to the tax payers; building of the warehouses was slow and costly and lastly high rate of unemployment and burden of transferring the paupers to the warehouses (Knott 1986).


From the discussion, it comes out that the Liberal approach to social welfare was successful compared to the approach employed by The Poor Amendment Act. The magnitude of the task undertaken was huge, and they also created a welfare state that gave a solution to poverty. The legislation like Pensions Bill and The National Insurance Act reduced poverty chances for the old aged people and working class people. Moreover, by introducing the juvenile courts, health inspection and food provision for children, it helped in reducing the number of children who were homeless. The introduction of minimum wages and working hours in an attempt to regulate the workers treatment was also a sign of success.


Lund, B. (2002) Understanding state welfare social justice or social exclusion? London: SAGE. Retrieved on 2nd  August 2013 from

Finlayson, G. B. A. M. (1994) Citizen, state, and social welfare in Britain 1830-1990. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press.

Fisher, K., & Collins, J. (1993) Homelessness, health care, and welfare provision. London: Routledge.

Harris, B. (2004) The origins of the British welfare state: society, state, and social welfare in England and Wales, 1800-1945. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan.

Powell, D. (1996). The Edwardian crisis: Britain, 1901-14. New York, St. Martin’s Press.

Senior, N. W. (1834) Outline of the Poor Law Amendment Act. London: B. Fellowes.

Knott, J. R. (1986) Popular opposition to the 1834 Poor Law. London: Croom Helm.

Cadman, G. A. (1976) The administration of the Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834, in the Hexham Poor Law Union, 1836-1930. Newcastle upon Tyne, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

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Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences

Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences



  1. Comparison of Phonology of English and Arabic
  2. Stress

Stress is defined as the relative prominence given to specific words in a phrase and to specific syllables in words. According to Halliday (1970), there are three word levels of stress in Arabic language. These include the primary, the secondary and the weak levels. Swan and smith (2001) pointed out that stress in the Arabic language is regular and predictable. This means that an individual can determine and predict the stress of the words in Arabic. Furthermore, Swan and smith (2001) asserted that the learners of Arabic often face difficulties in predicting stress in English language, specifically in the stress of word. The difficulty in word stress grasping in English may lead to changing of the word meaning. For example, a learner may try to pronounce the verb “con’vict” like the noun “convict” where the position of stress is different completely. Aiken & Pearce (1993) summarized the stress of Arabic in following way:

  1. If a word has super heavy syllable or even more, the stress falls on, as in the super heavy syllable
  2. If a word has light and heavy syllables, the stress falls on heavy syllable just before the final syllable s in (non-final heavy syllable).
  3. If a word has light syllables, the stress falls as in, on the first syllable
  4. If a word is a past or present verb, the stress falls as in on the first syllable
  5. If a word is a feminine or masculine Arabic noun, the stress falls as in, on the second syllable

Jenkins (2003) suggested that just like the Arabic language, the words of English are also predictable, and many sets of rules that are complex have been put forward for stress prediction. In English, stress is very important as it is the main feature that distinguishes certain word pairs. According to The New Englishness 13 Nation & Newton (2009), English has the following rules of stress:

  1. The majority of the two-syllable words, on the first syllable are where stress is placed. For example, many words have two different patterns of stress according to whether they are nouns or verbs, verbs or adjectives. For instance, the first syllable of adjectives and nouns are where stressing is done, while on the verbs, the second syllable is where stress is given.
  2. Derivational suffixes can be categorized into three types; that is stress-shifting, stress attracting, and stress preserving. Stress preserving suffixes does not change placement of stress in words. For example “–ful,” such as wonder changes to “wonderful.” moreover, stress attracting type gets primary stress. For example, “-ee,” such as, employ becomes “employ’ee.” Lastly, stress shifting type makes the stress to shift. For example “-ive,” such as reflex become “re’flexive” (Pennington 1996).
  1. Rhythm

Rhythm, in speech is defined as an effect that involves isochronous recurrence of some form of speech unit. Rhythm is also the regular recurrence in a speech of the stressed syllables (Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Griner. 2010). Yavas (2006) argued that the perception of various forms of rhythm as majorly to do with the syllable structure differences, type of stress and the vowel reduction. According to Couper (2006, p.47), Arabic and its different dialects are stress-timed all. From the different articles and studies, there is a consensus amongst writers and researchers that the listeners of Arabic make use of the rhythm of speech in distinguishing Arabic speakers from North Africa and the ones living in Middle East. Numerous studies have been conducted on the rhythm of Arabic. Dauer (2005, p.544) observed that one of the significant findings is the vocalic intervals highness, in the dialects of the eastern Arabs like the Palestine, unlike the western dialects of the Arabs such as Tunisia.

In English language, with the alternation of unstressed and stressed syllables, is actually stress-timed. Derwing (2008) asserted that rhythm is very important in English basically because many instances of miscommunication are attributed to the failure of a person to interpret words that are familiar as they are uttered with a rhythm pattern that is unfamiliar. As discussed earlier, words of English may contain one or several syllables. These words has stressed syllables that are clearer, louder than the unstressed others. Hansen & Zampini (2008, p.352) believed that combining of the stressed and unstressed syllables will result in the rhythms that are found in the words of English. This combination also brings out the pitch, length and strength of syllables. Furthermore, English sentences, just like words also have rhythm. Halliday (1970) stated that if a person wants to get a good rhythm of the sentence, he or she should know how to join together the syllables into bigger units, in addition to the clear difference between unstressed and stressed syllables. 

  1. Intonation

Yates & Zielinski (2009) indicated that definition of intonation difficult. However, in general, intonation is the speech melody or the falling and rising of the pitch of voice in conversation, and its analysis should be in terms of pitch variation. Intonation can point out different utterances types, such as questions, statement, attitudes commands, and the speaker’s emotions. Swan and smith (2001) indicted that English and Arabic have intonation patterns that are closely similar, especially in the contour and meaning. Ashby (2005) summarized the stress of Arabic in the following way:

  1. Falling intonation, in Arabic is used at the end of the declarative statements and in commands. In declarative statements is when it is on amid pitch, the voice starts, slightly rises on the syllable lastly stressed, and drop at the end to a low pitch as in. in command is when it is in the “Wh- questions.” That is the voice is high in the syllables stressed and quickly falls to mid pitch as in for the remaining part of the sentence.
  2. In Arabic, the rising-falling intonation is used normally at the end of the “yes-no questions as in,” and in the “vocatives as in.” In the yes-no questions, they are used in utterances that contain protest element and surprise element. That is the voice is flat and there is no fall or rise as in. in the vocatives, on the other hand, they are used in requests and the voice somewhat falls and rises, with as in optional pause.

Yavas (20011) summarized the rules of intonations in English in the following manner:

  1. Rising and falling intonation is usually used at the end of simple facts statements, which is the declarative statement. For example, commands or the questions that begins with the interrogative words.
  2. Rising intonations usually used in the following scenarios; for instance, at the end of the yes-no questions such as requests.
  3. In utterances that contain an element of surprise or protest


Learners Profile

I am a teacher who teaches English to 20 to 30 young SaudiArabia boys aged 13 to 15 years as their foreign language or second language. Some of my students study in private schools which use English as their mode of teaching. Other students also study in international schools which belong to people who work in Saudi Arabia and are from other overseas countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are special institutions that teach English in detail. This means different aspects of English are taught and they also develop positive attitude to learning of English language.

My students learn English only in school but they do not use it home or in the streets because they lack English speakers whom they can converse or talk with since the local language is Arabic. However, the slight chances of speaking English are in some hospitals and also in some restaurants, but not from the natives. Similarly, other places where an individual can hear or speak English are in the institutions of higher learning such as the universities, and some companies which use English as their mode of communication. These are mostly international companies and use a policy that English is the mode of communication in the company.

In these multinational companies, they often give scholarships to their employees who are interested of learning English or developing in their jobs to enhance their personalities. Moreover, learning English enable them to develop intellectually and in their professional abilities.

As a teacher, I am entitled to teach my students to:

  1. Learn the English language basics that would form the foundation of the languages mastery in future
  2. Learn the basic structures of the English sentences
  3. Learn and understand the vocabularies that are recommended to every stage of learning
  4. listen and understand the simple language of English
  5. Orally express themselves using the simple language of English
  6. Read and understand the materials of simple English language
  7. Write simple guided sentences in the language of English


Evaluation of Resources

The essay will evaluate two online resources for teaching prosody to the ESL/EFL learners. The resources include the Classical Arab Language and an online video resource.

  1. Arab Linguistics: an Introductory Classical Text with Translation and Notes

This resource has been written in both English and Arabic languages. This makes it beneficial to both the learners and the teacher who is teaching English to the Saudi Arabic students. The resource is also beneficial for learning since it uses simple English and Arabic languages that are suitable for the beginners. However, some of the limitation of the resource is that it does not detail all aspects of the prosody, thus it is limiting in terms of information.

Some of the elements of prosody that have been presented in this online learning resource include the accent and stress. The other elements have not been included, Stress and accent is very relevant in teaching English to the Saudi Arabic student especially to the young ones. Accent is important to the learners and the teachers because it is impossible to know where stress should be placed on a syllable in a word, and it become even more complicated in the English language since the stress can fall on any syllable (ShirbīNī & Carter 2014).

Although the resource has been written and explained in a continuous prose, the language is realistic, simple and easy to comprehend. The resource has also given the students opportunity to read, listen from the teacher, practice, receive feedback and to make pronunciation in a communicative way. This has been enabled by provision of clear guidelines with examples. This has simplified pronunciation for the students if they practices and also listen to the pronunciations.

Similarly, the resource by ShirbīNī & Carter (2014) has enhanced learning by making the prosody elements have different presentation. The resource has also used tables to present some data to the learners and also to make comparisons between the two languages. Lastly, after going through the guidelines, practicing, there are few exercises for the learner to do and get feedback of their progress and mastery of the two languages. This is good to the students and also to the teachers as it enables the learners gauges their level of understanding and also makes the teachers know the progress of their students.

  1. The Arabic guide to Standard English

This is an audio visual resource that explains in Arabic and in English. The audio and the visual video is helpful to the learners as it explains the English words to Arabic words. The elements of prosody that have been included in this online visual resource are the rhythm, stress and intonation.

The online visual resource has many benefits to the learner as well as the teacher. Some of the benefits it has to the learners are that it gives the visual pictures of objects and name them audibly in English. This is very beneficial to the learners as they learn to understand how to pronounce some English words and also where stress should be put in an English word. The resource also gives the sound that is required when teaching students ESL especially the young Saudi Arabia boys. However, the online video resource has some limitations. First, the video takes only seven minutes and also has limited resources that will equip a learning student. Averagely a lesson should go for 40minutes to 1 hour and therefore a resource of 7 minutes is limiting to the students (n.a 2014).

The presentation also contains new vocabularies for the students of my class. It shows new words in the lesson with their meaning in English. Similarly, there are also new grammar items for the visual lesson, new idioms, new phrasal verbs, proverbs and expressions. Lastly, the resource provided drills and practice for my students. This step is intended to reinforce the items the teacher has explained. The drills are in form of exercises, and there are also some exercises given to the students as part of their homework for them to apply what they have learned at school. The prosody elements that were presented were relevant and also comprehensible to young Saudi boys’ learners. The language used by the presenter is appropriate, realistic, easy and simple to understand by young learners of English. The video has used a monologue form of presentation where the presenter shows different words, pronounce and also explain some. Additionally, visual support have been provided to the leaner and these include; word spellings, visual objects, tables and the moving cursors that point and directs learners to objects and word for easy understanding.

This material by n.a (2014) gives by the students many opportunities to listen, to practice and also to get feedback. The audio part of the video is there for the students to listen and hear the words clearly and to comprehend. The students can also practice the words since the video can be rewinded and forwarded. The feedback part is left for the teacher since it has exercises for practice of the students. Lastly, the presentation of the video is made in a manner that is appropriate in pronunciation in a communicative manner.


Aiken, G. & Pearce, M. 1993, The sounds of English, Blackfriars Press, Sydney.

Ashby, P. 2005, Speech sounds, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.

Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., with Griner, B. D. 2010, Teaching pronunciation: A course book and reference guide, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Couper, G. 2006, ‘The short and long-term effects of pronunciation instruction’, Prospect, vol. 21 no. 1, pp. 46-66.

Dauer, R. G. 2005, ‘The Lingua Franca core: A new model for pronunciation instruction?’, TESOL Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 543-550.

De Jong, K, &Zawaydeh, B. A. 1999, ‘Stress, duration, and intonation in Arabic word-level prosody’, Journal of Phonotics, volume 27(1), pp. 3-22

Derwing, T. 2008, ‘Curriculum issues in teaching pronunciation to second language learners’, in J. G.

Halliday, M. A. K. 1970, A course in spoken English: Intonation, Oxford University Press, Oxford. (a) Tone (b) The meaning of tones [CD tracks 48-64]

Halliday, M. A. K. 1985, Spoken and written language, Deakin University Press, Geelong, VIC.1

Hansen Edwards & M. L. Zampini (eds).2008, Phonology and second language acquisition, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 347-369.  <>

Jenkins, J. 2002, ‘A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an International Language’, Applied Linguistics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 83-103. 12

Jenkins, J. 2003, World Englishes: A resource book for students, Routledge, London.

  1. 2014 The Arabic guide to Standard English. New York. <>

Pennington, M. 1996, Phonology in English language teaching: An international approach, Longman, London. (a) Regional and social variation

Rogerson-Revell, P. 2011, English phonology and pronunciation teaching, Continuum, London.

ShirbīNī, M. I. A., & Carter, M. G. 2014, Arab linguistics an introductory classical text with translation and notes. Amsterdam, J. Benjamins. <>

Smith, B. 2001, ‘Arabic speakers’, in M. Swan & B. Smith (eds), Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems, 2nd edn, Cambridge university press, Cambridge, pp. 195-213.

Swan, M., & Smith, B. 2001, Learner English: a teacher’s guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire], Cambridge University Press.

Tench, P. 1996, The intonation system of English, Cassell, London.

The New Englishes 13 Nation, I. S. P. & Newton, J. 2009, Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking, Routledge, New York. 14

Watson, J.C. 2007, The phonology and morphology of Arabic, Oxford university press, Oxford.

Yates, L., & Zielinski, B. 2009, Give it a go: Teaching pronunciation to adults, Continuum, Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP) Research Centre, Macquarie University, pp. 120-123.

Yavas, M. 2006, Applied English Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, Malden.


ShirbīNī, M. I. A., & Carter, M. G. 2014, Arab Linguistics an Introductory Classical Text with Translation and Notes.

Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences

Comparison of English and Arabic in Word, Stress, Intonation, and Rhythm and their Differences

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Intuition and Reasoning: A Dual-Process Perspective

In the article of Intuition and Reasoning: A Dual-Process Perspective, the author discusses the current theorizing state about the dual processes in the performance of adult on decision making and reasoning tasks, whereby type 1processing is differentiated from the type 2 reflective thinking. The author shows that there exist many types of theory of which some distinguish modes instead of the type of thinking, and that the underlying assumptions on the cognitive architecture vary (Evans, 2010).

From the article, the author substantiates their arguments with evidences. For instance, the author shows that some theories of the dual system have recently been replaced by the idea that there exist two or more minds that are distinct with different histories of evolutionary. The article present the formulation of the author that is most recent on dual processing within the theory of hypothetical thinking, at a more easily applied level to specific tasks performance. The article then considers the implications for cognitive development, and indicating that while type 2 thinking is evidently linked to the cognitive ability development, it combines and then competes with processing systems of multiple Type 1 which persist in cognition of adult (Evans, 2010). Each of these could have their own time course for development. Therefore, while theories of dual process should and can inspire much theory and research in cognitive development, the predictions derivation for cognitive development is very far from straightforward.

According to Evans (2010), several authors have assessed critically the usefulness and the viability of the two system approach. The exposition by Evans (2010) in this article suggests that they understand and recognize many of the problems and therefore they seek to make rectifications. Unfortunately, it is clear that their attempts are futile. Moreover, if anything, it only increases confusion because of the addition of the new theoretical constructs In addition to the propositions that there may exist more than two systems.

The commentary in this paper will take tow levels in offering a critique to the article. At one level, the paper will directly address the article, commenting specifically on what it term now as a two process theory. At the higher level, the paper will consider the author new model to be another version yet of what is referred generically as two systems models. Furthermore, the paper will ask whether indeed these constitute models or theories as usually conceived and understood by the scientific community (Evans, 2010).

It is obvious that it is outside the scope of this paper to provide a detailed discussion of the nature of scientific theories that are adequate. Yet, it is agreed commonly that proper models should be founded on the well defined constructs, yield testable predictions and motivate new questions that will either refute or corroborate the theory being investigated. The commentary’s central claim is that none of the elaborated two system theories, together with the current version provided by Evans (2010) satisfy the scientific theory cardinal requirements. Satisfying these cardinal requirements is difficult, if not impossible. This is because the theories are so broad to the extent that they can account supposedly for almost all social-cognitive phenomena of high level.

A necessary and an important feature for any scientific theory is an unambiguous and clear statement regarding the constraints of the theory and the boundaries that are corresponding. Otherwise, the theory will be nothing more than a set of nominal definitions as the empirical testable world is not constrained. An in-depth inspection of the of the two system theories as provided by Evans (2010)shows unequivocally that the stated selective evidence that support their claim, is consistent, at best, with the theoretical position instead of being grounded on direct tests gotten from their theories.

The article by Evans (2010) narrows down to three main points in the article. First, the author agrees with many of the provided criticisms of the two systems models, yet again believe that they were overstated. The second point is that they indicate that the most of the criticism to the theories apply to a generic model. However, Evans (2010) asserts that different models differ on various dimensions and therefore should not be identically treated. Lastly, Evans (2010) propose a new two process theory in which they believe is invulnerable to the criticisms that are common.

The paper has commented briefly on each of the elaborated points. However, to close the commentary, two questions are being raise. The first is whether the current, just like its predecessor, the two system model, is testable under scientific grounds and further probe whether the given empirical evidence proposed by the theory proponents, really support and back their claims. The second question is whether ontological inquiry into the existence of the theory is viable.

From the article by Evans (2010), the evidence shows that many people have confidence of the initial intuitive answer. This implies that they are less likely to spend much time to change their answer or to rethink it after reflecting. This is very insightful to my role as a student because it applies in situations where there is no accuracy and confidence relation at all. Furthermore, there exist thinking dispositions that are measurable that tend to incline toward rational thinking and also disinclined to accepting intuitions without checking. As a student, the cognitive ability is significant in type 2 reasoning and in solving of problems.

The article is also very insightful to the managers of organizations or companies. The article favors both forms of the dual process theory which are default interventions in nature. Evans (2010) asserted that they believe that intuitive answers by the managers are prompted rapidly when they are faced with problems in their organizations or companies. Where the managers lack the relevant experience, the answers can be inappropriate and can fail to meet the set goals. Therefore, they key concept in this type of dual process theory is that of reflective and intervention reasoning intuition.

Evans (2010) pointed out that often managers’ act as cognitive misers by engaging themselves in attribute substitution. This implies the substitution of a characteristic that is easy to evaluate for a harder one, even if the one that is easy is inaccurate. However, being a cognitive miser may lead the managers astray. For example, when the managers are evaluating important risks, they do not want to make a substitution of vividness for a careful thought about the situation.


Evans, J. S. B. T. (October 01, 2010). Intuition and Reasoning: A Dual-Process Perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 4, 313-326.

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