Histology Detective and Brains Cape

Histology Detective and Brains Cape- Cells
  • This case study focuses on the identification of metastatic tissues — cells that are “out of place” causing tumors elsewhere in the Name the cells you identified in this sample of lung tissue and the main characteristics that you can use to distinguish them.

From the observation of the sample there are variety of cells which can be identified as melanocytes. The main characteristics that can be used in distinguishing them is their attachment to the stratified squamous epithelial tissue. Moreover, they are larger and darker compared to the surrounding calls. Melanocytes are densely packed and have only one nucleus.

  • How did you use the main characteristics of different tissues that you learned in your lecture and lab sections as the basis for identifying those cells responsible for the tumor?

I applied my histology knowledge from my lectures in distinguishing the features of different cells. I had knowledge on how melanocytes and the natural cells look like on a slide hence it was very easy distinguishing and describing the cells. The cells under observations were abnormal from their look. They were larger in size, darker in color and round. Moreover. Their nucleus were larger compared to the other nucleus of the normal cells and has less cytoplasm. The melanocytes on the slide is always darker compared to the normal cells. According to Garbe et al (2010), there exists significant differences between the tumor cells and the native cells since the tumor cells are widespread in the extracellular fluid, are larger, much darker and more so cube shaped. On the other hand, the native cells are packed densely, smaller, and elongated.

  • In addition to the information in the case presentation (including the web sites contained in the case itself), what other information did you find to determine the identity of the cells and whether one type of cell had migrated from elsewhere in the body? Where did you find this information?
  1. Garbe, C., Peris, K., Hauschild, A., Saiag, P., Middleton, M., Spatz, A., Grob, J. J., … Eggermont, A. (January 01, 2010). Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2, 270-283. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19959353
  2. NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Early Melanoma, & National Institutes of Health (U.S.). (1992). Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma. Bethesda, Md: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Office of Medical Applications of Research. Retrieved from http://consensus.nih.gov/1992/1992Melanoma088html.htm
  3. Sonda, Vemon K., MD, Zager, Jonathan S., MD, Messiana, Jane L., M Hemonc today. (2008, Oct 10). Retrieved from http://www.hemonctoday.com/article.aspx?rid=37772

 What does each of these additional items contribute to the solution of the case? For example, the item contains data from specific tests, trials, or experiments, or presents analyses that can be used to understand the main issues in this case

The article “Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline” provided experimental illustrating melanoma components. This affirmed that native cells can be differentiated from the invasive cells by features such as arrangement, form and color. The study used histology in identifying the invasive cells from the non-invasive ones (Garbe et al, 2010).

In the NIH article, “Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma,” majorly the study was based on histology. The study distinguished fully developed melanoma and the early melanoma by categorizing their histological features. Moreover, they identified melanoma stages and different types of melanoma with application of histology (NIH et al, 1992).

In the third study, researcher physicians in two universities in three different melanoma cases of various origins in the body. However, all the characteristics of the abnormal cells were distinguished to be melanocytes. The identified abnormal features of the cells are similar to the ones in this case study, hence proving that the abnormal cells observed in the lung tissue were melanocytes (Sonda et al, 2008).

  • What other findings or information in this case are consistent with the information you located? Name those similarities in each of your additional resources. How do these resources apply what you have learned about identifying tissues and cells histologically?

From the article I reviewed, there was similarity with the case study in many areas. First, all the studies and the case used a similar method in diagnosing melanoma. They applied the cells histological characteristics in determining their status whether they are noninvasive or invasive cells. The characteristics identified helped in classification of the cells and in determining their origin.

  • What findings or information in each of the additional resources are not consistent with the findings in this case? Name those differences in each of your additional resources. How do these resources apply what you have learned about identifying tissues and cells histologically?

In the article “Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma,” the study asserted that the cells making melanoma were the stratified melanoma epithelium (NIH et al, 1992). This contradicts the results of the case

  • If your proposed resolution of the case is correct, what other observations might we expect to find in this case?

Other observations we might find include metastasis of the tumor to other organs hence the patients could suffer from other compounded problems like neurological problems, digestion and bleeding.

  • Give your solution to this case and, on a scale of 1–5, rate how confident you are in your conclusions in questions 1 and 2

I would rate my confidence at 5 out of 5 because of the observable characteristics of melanoma

  • In considering your resolution and level of confidence level from question 8, describe how you located the information you used in this case.

To begin the search, I started with the most comprehensive data base that is Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (NINAH) (Kennedy 2009). The search then continued to search engines such as British Nursing Index, MEDLINE. Moreover PubMed and NCBI were other major search engines which assisted some of the relevant articles. These search engines were used because they contained most of the peer review articles and books. To limit and narrow down the search for articles, internal searches of the databases was used by inserting full length of texts and searching the relevant articles from the list of journals displayed. Moreover, I limited myself to the current articles of up to 5 years

What you might do differently if you had it to do over again? For example, would you use different resources and strategies? Different information?

First, I would use different relevant articles to make companions of different studies. Moreover, I would try using group work to get opinions and arguments of different group members

References

Garbe, C., Peris, K., Hauschild, A., Saiag, P., Middleton, M., Spatz, A., Grob, J. J., … Eggermont, A. (January 01, 2010). Diagnosis and treatment of melanoma: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2, 270-283. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19959353

Kennedy, J. R. (2009). Library research guide to education: illustrated search strategy and sources. Ann Arbor, Mich, Pierian Press.

NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Early Melanoma, & National Institutes of Health (U.S.). (1992). Diagnosis and treatment of early melanoma. Bethesda, Md: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Office of Medical Applications of Research. Retrieved from http://consensus.nih.gov/1992/1992Melanoma088html.htm

Sonda, Vemon K., MD, Zager, Jonathan S., MD, Messiana, Jane L., MD.  Hemonc today. (2008, Oct 10). Retrieved from http://www.hemonctoday.com/article.aspx?rid=37772

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HUMAN RESOURCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

HUMAN RESOURCE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE.. 1

Communicating and promoting the project for organization restructure. 2

Defining The Project 3

Tools used to plan for the organizational restructuring. 4

Importance of the project to Human resource dimensions. 6

Marketing Human Resource Dimensions. 8

Addressing the customers. 9

Addressing the Competition. 10

REFERENCES. 12

ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

For organizations to obtain control and efficiency, managers need to understand the importance of change. Many scholars agree that without the organizations changing, then the job of the manager would be quite easy. Change makes the environment within which the organization operates would not be uncertain. Planning from tomorrow would be as easy as planning for today. Decision making would also be made much simpler since the results of each alternative would be easy to predict. Managers often have to respond and balance the need for an organization to improve the way it currently operates and of course change in response to events that have not been anticipated. Change in an organization can be defined as the movement of an organization away from the state that its currently operating under in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness, the important thing to note is that organizational change is not just about one aspect of the organization, even small simple changes can affect the entire organization leaving no aspect, department and system unaffected.

Organization change is any alteration that changes people, structure and technology. These are considered the three categories of change. Structure speaks to departments, definition of duties and the actual structure redesign. Technology is the second category, which is defined through work processes, methods and equipment used in the organization. The final category falls under people that is attitudes, perceptions and even culture of the people involved in the organization. Change in each of these categories often requires an individual or event to act as a catalyst. Decisions to make changes for adaptation or even efficiency requires complex planning because change often disrupts the status quo and poses a threat to the organization, (Mariotti 1997).

Communicating and promoting the project for organization restructure

Advances in IT have completely changed how the mangers have been communicating. It seems that for organizations such as Human Resource Dimensions, email has become the go to in terms of communication. The idea of technological advances is to save time and energy that would be spent on passing a message. However, proposers of this project understand that this is not always the case. The project is set to promote and implement organizational re-structure and emails may not be the best way to communicate the changes being implemented. The communication strategy for the project is twofold

In the first stage, the project team will be dispatched to the various departments where they will personally deliver and implement the changes expected. For example, I am expected to work closely with the sales team to implement the new marketing and client handling strategy. This strategy has been chosen to ensure that all team members understand what is expected of them. In addition, the team member can really the reactions to the change and therefore ensure that the next stage is properly carried out. Further, they can also report how the team handles challenges and obstacles in implementing the change.

In the second stage, the messages will be delivered through department and company meeting. This is especially necessary to ensure cohesion in the employees. Changes that are met with conflict and too many challenges will be addressed through the meetings to ensure that employees understand they are not the only ones dealing with that particular problem. when they come together to address the challenges, the company will experience togetherness and therefore make changes easier without killing employee morale.

Defining The Project

Management of change is not only about identifying the source of the problem, there is also the need to deicide the ideal future state of the company and how to reach and achieve such state. In this case, managers of the Human resource dimensions are making decisions on what kind of business level strategy should be. The changes made in the organizational structure will affect how the business will continue to prosper in the future, (Clifford and Thorpe 2007). Based on the knowledge have acquired through studying management and control of management, I have devised a strategic plan on how to deal with the problems facing the company. To improve the company’s ability to monitor and control its recruitment and human capital acquisition processes, the first step is to shift all recruitment and acquisition processes to the main offices in Atlanta. Currently, the eight departments had done their own recruitment for projects and clients. The recruitment through one center ensures that the managers are now free to focus more on improving customer sales and service henceforth. This is a major company weakness that I have noted with the company. It is also important to consider halving the size of the departments in order to concentrate and consecrate the strategies and activities. Majority of the workers in the departments are doubling on duties. That is, one duty is being completed by sometimes more than two people which results in replicating of the same thing at the cost of the company.

Defining the change also includes identifying obstacles that would cause resistance to the change. There are issues present in the organization from reaching the ideal future state. Obstacles are not just corporate or even divisional, they are also at departmental and individual levels. The project being proposed here is one that is at company level; change in the organizational structure will completely affect the current balance of power. The structure in itself is a powerful and often formidable obstacle to change. The company in itself does not possess a flexible culture which makes it quite inert in itself. The rigid culture makes it a much more bureaucratic organization. The same obstacles are expected to be encountered at the divisional and departmental levels. It is expected that the departmental managers themselves will differ in their attitudes towards change.

Tools used to plan for the organizational restructuring

The change management strategy as with all aspects of the company, the project based on restructuring management and decision making in Human Resource Dimension will be accompanied by a singular strategy. The project itself proposes to use a bottom top strategy in implementing the necessary change to make the company more efficient. This means that the change will in fact be more gradual rather than immediate. The staff and employees will take time understanding the new command and decision making structure. The project includes a detailed plan for the required and implemented change. The project has chosen this strategy in order to combat resistance that is expected when the changes in the company structure come into play. The emphasis of this strategy lies in exemplary communication that is, the company employees need to be kept in the loop, during and over the time of change. This means that the employees play a participatory role in implementing the change. As such they are able to combat much of the conflict that could arise.

Based on Campbell (2014), The top down approach could be easier and in fact faster to implement the necessary change. This strategy which involves the managers making the decisions for change, implementing the change and dictating the goals for change is revolutionary. However, it falls short when it comes to long term resistance to change.

The managers need a system of organizational learning , that is the process through which the company can increase the ability of the members to understand, adopt and respond to changing conditions. This process can help members including managers make proper and effective decisions about needed changes. For the managers of Human Resource Dimension, assessing the need for change calls for two activities to take place immediately recognizing that there is a problem and identifying the source of the problem. In the past, managers have had trouble identifying and determining that something is wrong in Human Resource Dimensions because the problem has been gradually developing. The organization performance has been slipping for years without any detection. With the company performance struggling and the future of the company looking dim the need for change is obvious.

The main problem lies with the founders of the company. Though experienced in human resource and capital acquisition, they fell short when it came to managing change and control. They instructed managers to do what they thought was best to grow their departments. This meant that in many cases, the departments are working in conflict. Extreme competition among the different managers means that departments are not working cohesively. This strategy was ideal during the early years when the company needed to tap a large market share. The strategy however, is no longer acceptable at a time when its experiencing intense and fast competition from other lower companies dealing with human capital. The problem for the managers is the need for change in the company, and not just change bust actually fast change. Assessment of the change is twofold

Changing structure the structure includes organizing responsibilities such as allocating authority to the different managers. It is important for the company managers to recognize that once the changes have been made in the decision making structure and formalization of the organization, they are not final. The company will be exposed to changing conditions and events that may bring about the need to make structural changes. The organizations structure is defined in terms of work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and formalization. Each of these structures will be affected by the proposed change in management structure. There may be need to drop, merge or expand the duties by each department manager. The traditional management structure needs to go completely.

Changing people which includes changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions and behaviors. Although this may not be simplistic, changing people is far from easy. Organizational development though in some cases refers to changes in all categories, in this case essentially focuses on techniques to change people and the nature and quality of inter-personal work relationships. The executives of Human Resource Dimensions, need to understand that the success of future customer sales and service strategies require and depend heavily on changing employee attitudes and behaviors. There are various strategy which the managers can use to ensure change in people such as team building, survey feedback and intergroup development.

Importance of the project to Human resource dimensions

Human Resource Dimensions is one of the fastest growing human capital consultant companies based in Atlanta Georgia. The company has topped the list for Atlanta’s most respectable and profitable companies . with more than $1million being reported in terms of profits, this company is set to be in the fortune 500 companies. However, when joined the company I found and identified a matter that required immediate attention by management. From the year 2000, the company’s sales and profits were reported to be declining sharply. Even though, the company itself still maintained some profit , the declining sales and profits are a matter of concern to the management. The company has for a while not experienced major changes that would allow it to stem out competition, especially since it has been in existence for much longer than most.

After studying the company for a while, I have been appalled to discover that the top managers have paid little attention towards monitoring and controlling Human Resource dimensions and developing centralized control system that would provide detailed information on the performance of the different departments. The company operates with a decentralized culture in which each department manager treats his or her own department as a kind of personal fiefdom in which they have the right to control the activities as they see fit.

The project in itself will provide the following strengths to Human resource Dimensions as a company

Provide alterations to managers skills one of the issues that is evident from studying the company is that the manager skills have been dormant or equivalently been misused for tasks that are too mundane. Managers in the company are engaged in destructive competition rather than employing their skills towards; critical planning, organizing and controlling. The project will include the process of redefining the roles of the managers, taking away some duties on one area and increasing responsibilities in another. This will ensure that the company makes good use of the skills of the managers in play.

Building a culture for change scholars have found that organizations with a culture that promotes change are more likely to experience growth and in return immense profits. Projects are changing the way they do things, companies and even large multi-nationals are changing their approach to various things, (Thompson 2012). Since the company is servicing such clients, it follows therefore that there is need to promote a culture for positive change rather than a static culture, completely resistant to change. It is important for employees from the most junior to the most senior to develop a need for identifying and making the necessary changes for the good of the company. Through this project, each member of the company will acquire the necessary skills to plan for, identify and respond to changing aspects of the organization and the market.

Human resource the company in itself deals with providing high end employees to their clients, however, it has become apparent that the company has slacked on improving its employees. For the project to work, there is need to identify talents and skills among the employees. Those who respond faster will of course be on the fast lane towards promotions and increased responsibilities. On the other hand, those who are laggards are most likely to be left behind, demoted or even let go. The employees of the company and the future human respire pool play a major role in ensuring that the project is successful and is implemented with as few hitches as possible. This also includes the managers who will be most affected by the changes in organizational structure.

Marketing Human Resource Dimensions

Despite being the fastest growing human capital service provider in Atlanta, the company has been experiencing a decline in income. Such decline can be attributed to slower decision making when it comes to marketing. In the past, the marketing manager has been delegated the responsibility of all decision making when it comes to promoting the business. Unfortunately, because he is working idependently without the input of other managers most of the marketing strategies employed have been disastrous. With the changes being implemented, the marketing manager and all other managers will be required to work together to implement the marketing strategy. To the clients, the company has always seemed disorganized in decision making, slow and bureaucratic. Thus, they have opted for other newer, smaller companies with excellent customer service.

The nature of the exchange processes between clients and the company has changed dramatically in the past few years. This singular change has contributed significantly to the decrease income and profits. Majority of the main clients are slowly and gradually pulling away from the company following poor client relations. This is a company that requires excellent, strong and long term relationships with the clients. Clients that are new, if satisfied with the service and handled carefully will continue generating income and business for many years. Poor handling of clients has led to many clients pulling out of the company. Many others only bring in business because they have no option. The marketing manager has often applied the traditional marketing tools that is market segmentation, target selection and strategy development. However, with increased competition and various other changes in the needs of the client these traditional strategies are falling short.

Addressing the customers

The marketing manager has often failed in one major aspect, he and the accounts managers have not been working together. This means that he does not understand and cannot comprehend the needs of the customers and clients. Human Resource Dimension in the past has been renowned for providing excellent talent for short term projects in non-governmental organizations. However, recent studies show that the company ahs untapped potential of providing the same services not only to large organization, businesses and multi-national corporations but also to small and upcoming businesses. Majority of the focus in the service provision industry focuses on the already saturated big companies market. This is where the traditional marketing strategies have been focused.

Relationship marketing on the other hand, proposes to work closely with small business and organizational structures. Such businesses are an ideal ground to build loyal clients who can grow the business through various networks. All they require is excellent customer service, as they grow so will the company. In addition, these small businesses provide a much better cushion. Should one of the small enterprises pull off from the company, the ripple effect into the organization will be much smaller as opposed to a large multi-national corporation.

The new marketing strategy requires proper planning, where all managers of the organistaion will play a major part. The plan requires input from all managers and employees, with the marketing manager only implementing the decisions agreed upon. Where in the past, the entire company has left the marketing strategy to be implemented by the marketing manager alone, this will be a joint responsibility plan for all members to apply. Relationship marketing will take place in all departments and divisions of the company. Each employee will be responsible for ensuring the client is not only satisfied but that his needs are also addressed uniquely. The unique experience is expected to create a large base of loyal clients over time.

Addressing the Competition

Marketing the company also means addressing the completion strategically. The company has in the past ignored the competition, imagining that because of past successes the competition is nothing to deal with. This has been fueled by the fact that the major competition comes from ideally small firms with less than 2employees and whose mandate requires dealing with specific clients. For example, the small Royston firm deals only with architectural clients, providing talent that is ideal for that industry. The increased completion has resulted from the fact that the company no longer plays at equal footing with such small firms. Studying the competition, it is obvious that the small firms have addressed relationship marketing and made this a priority. Some of the small firms have only two or three large clients, but are more focused on building those relationships rather than acquire new clients. In this way, it becomes difficult for the company to draw off and expand its market share.

This is why, the proposed marketing strategy includes aggressive building of relationships with the small untapped market to ensure that the company becomes associated with excellent customer service and receives high reviews.

REFERENCES

Campbell, H. (2014).-Managing organizational change.-Kogan Page

Clifford, J., Thorpe, S. (2007).-Workplace learning development delivering competitive advantage for your organization. London, Kogan Page Ltd.-

Mariotti, J. L. (1997).-The shape shifters continuous change for competitive advantage. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Thompson, A. A. (2012).-Crafting and executing strategy the quest for competitive advantage concepts and cases. New York McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Safety and Control Measures on Chemicals Usage and Associated Risks

Safety and Control Measures on Chemicals Usage and Associated Risks

Introduction

Chemical is a composition of pure substances combined in a definite proportion (Bretherick & Pitt, 2007). Some Substances involved in making of chemicals are soluble to others when given a certain solvent such as water in ethanol whereby they produce a chemical reaction. In the event of reaction substances are transformed from one state to another state. Consumption of chemicals is usually heavy in industries where different manufacturing of products is done. These products include fertilizers, plastics, fiber glass, pesticides and many home-based products. However, it is important to exercise care in use of chemicals. Some chemicals are naturally so hazardous that they have to be kept differently unique containers to evade contact with air. Others may seem safe but can result to injury upon contact. Chemicals may pose to bring about the following hazards: fire, explosions, poisoning, reaction, corrosion and other radioactivity side effects. Other assessments in use of chemicals include the dangers that can also be brought to others and the environmental effects. Hazards from chemicals depend on a number of factors such as the composition and physical properties, frequency of use and the amount used in the application of the intended purposes (Johnson, Rudy & Unwin, 2003). The essay believes that reactive hazards are serious concerns that should be better controlled by the chemical industry and better regulated by the regulating bodies.

Chemicals are grouped according to their physical status at normal temperature that is, solid, liquid or gas. Another classification depends on chemistry such as organic or inorganic. Inorganic composition is mostly solid in nature while organic composition is mostly liquid in state.  Once the chemical compositions are known, it is important to identify the hazards it poses and take preventive and controlled measures in preventing the possibilities of any possible hazards. Bretherick & Pitt (2007) defined hazard as a situation or an entity that is capable of causing harm to users, environments and damage of properties.

Identification and Management of Hazards

Johnson, Rudy & Unwin (2003) indicated that the risk management is the responsibility of companies involved in identifying all the chemicals that are used, handled, stored or generated at workplace while consulting employees. The characteristics of chemicals in use are usually determined by looking at the label and other manuals, and reading what ingredients are in each chemical or product. Classification of chemicals in a manufacturing plant is essential in establishing the hazards of a chemical against specified criteria. Classification is, therefore, an element that determines what information is included on the labels, label elements, hazardous information and pictograms (Bretherick & Pitt, 2007). Then the Authorities puts in place standards that requires traders and manufacturers to give clear directions through labels and that these instructions are reviewed whenever required in ensuring that the consumers are protected.

Traders, manufacturer and suppliers, may also provide further details of the chemical in use, in simpler explanations to the consumer whereby, this information is sourced from Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) databases. Hazardous chemicals that are used as elements of the production process, such as a piping system, should be known to ensure that necessary controls are available in the event of an accidental burst, leakage, repairs and or cleaning is required. Consumers are required always read the label in order to identify all chemical hazards. In other instances, product specification sheets provide elaborative details of the types of dangerous chemicals produced during the manufacturing processes, or from other information resources such as codes of practice or supportive documents on the process (Johnson, Rudy & Unwin, 2003).

Documentation about the product should show information on the identity of the product, any hazardous components, possible health effects, toxicological characteristics, and physical dangers, how to use, handle and store, emergency procedures, and disposal procedures in relation to the chemical products. Where there is no documentation on the product, the consumer should contact the manufacturer or trader (Johnson & Unwin, 2003).

Domestic chemicals such as detergents and known to be safe, but may present greater risks in the workplace depending on the way and amount that is being used. This is particularly important, for example, where domestic cleaning chemicals are bought from a supermarket, consumers should always follow label directions which include the familiarity with some basic symbols as shown below:

  1.                    3.

Meaning:          Flammable                            Toxic                                Warning

In case, the container, is unknown it should be labeled by giving some information such as ‘Caution – do not use: unknown substance.’ The contents should be stored in an isolation location until its well identified and appropriately labeled otherwise it should be disposed away according to waste management authorities requirements.

According to Johnson, Rudy & Unwin (2003), risk assessments are not compulsory task hazardous chemicals under the World Health Standards Regulations Act, but it is useful for companies in identifying which employees are at risk of contact to chemicals. Once identified, the company determines what sources and processes are causing that risk and what kind of control measures should be employed. Assessment can be conducted by checking the success of existing control measures in comparison to the degree of that risk. Whereas, risk assessment is useless in conditions that are well-known and have fine established and accepted control measures. For instance, where there are fewer amounts of chemical usage hazards and risks are well identified.

The manufacturing companies must protect and equip workers with necessary tools and protective clothing. Protection assists employees not to be exposed to air contaminations that are above the contact standards of that substance or mixture. Air condition checkups are far important in ensuring that employees are not subjected to airborne concentrations higher than the chemical’s exposure levels.

Control procedures seek to eliminate the hazard and associated risk where some are more effective than others. Depending on the degree of hazard is usually minimized through Substitution, Isolation, Implementing engineering controls.

Administrative controls are considered as routine practices such as the use of suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) that helps in minimizing risks. Administrative preventive measures and PPE depends on human behaviors, administration or when used on their own, they tend to be the least effective ways of minimizing risks (Bretherick & Pitt, 2007).

Engineering regulations should be applied in ensuring that the physical operations are flowing well and as required. There should be a routine checkups and maintenance of machines by the company to eliminate other product contaminations in the event of spills and leaks. For example, use of exhaust ventilation or automation of processes. More so, engineering controls are monitored and must comply with regulatory laws (.

Supervision, training and regular follow-ups should provide to make sure that administrative controls are effectively realized. Information, instruction and training must be offered simple and precise way that is easily understood. Details of the information and extent of training depends on the characteristics of the hazards, density of the actions to be used and control measures required minimizing the risks. Records of training given to workers must be kept, documented, staffs involved, when and what was taught.

Emergency and Safety

Disaster preparedness is a vital element in minimizing the potentials of any dangerous occurrence at a workplace resulting from handling of hazardous chemicals. For companies that use, handle and store greater quantities of hazardous chemicals, it is helpful to give a copy of emergency plans and procedures of steps to use in the occurrence of an alarm or emergency state to neighboring Authorities whose responsibilities is to handle these situations. Emergency authorities include fire brigade, health providers, police and ambulance.

Emergency authorities are best suited to outsourced firms services in a time of tragedies. For instance, is the responsibility of water supply companies to guarantee a constant water supply to its consumers and also ensuring that enough water storage containers are put in place. Where adequate supply of water is not available from main suppliers, it may be necessary to increase additional water storage and/or pumps. Authorities are responsible in overseeing the company’s operations, protecting of environments and ensuring that manufacturing companies adhere to laws of business operations.

Supervisors have to ensure that safety equipment are provided, installed in accordance with manufacturers prerequisites, maintained and readily accessible at the workplace. To ensure that alarms stay useful, responsible organization should be conducting occasional testing of installing gadgets. 

References

Bretherick, L., & Pitt, M. J. (2007).Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards : an indexed guide to published data (7. ed.). Amsterdam [u.a.: Elsevier.

Johnson, R. W., Rudy, S. W., & Unwin, S. D. (2003). Essential practices for managing chemical reactivity hazards. New York: Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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Investigation Completion and Analysis

Investigation Completion and Analysis- Evaporation, Distillation, Crystallization

Task 2

The poster reports on the investigative techniques used in separation of the soluble solute in a solvent. In this experiment, the solute is salt, and the solvent is water. The techniques used include evaporation, distillation, and crystallization.
Techniques used in the investigation
1. Evaporation

Evaporation is a process where liquid is converted to vapor with the purpose of separating it from a dissolved solid or from a liquid that is higher in boiling point in experiments or investigations on how to separate soluble solid in liquids (Holland, 2005). Evaporation technique was chosen for the experiment because it is easy and simple to execute compared to other methods of separation such as distillation.
2. Distillation

Distillation is an investigative technique used in separation of mixtures based on conditional and differences required to change the components phases of the mixture. It can be applied in a mixture of liquids, and the mixture of soluble solutes and solvents like in this experiment. During the distillation process, the water is heated into the gas phase of the vapor leaving the salts deposits, then condenses back into liquid form that is then collected. The process is then repeated again to improve the water purity (Porteous, 2010). This method was obtained because pure water can be obtained
3. Crystallization

This technique is a process of solid crystals formation from a solution. This technique is a technique of separating solids and liquids in which transfer of solute from a solution to a solid crystalline which pure occurs (Jones, 2002). This method was chosen because pure solutes can be obtained
Modifications made and justification for the changes
1.         In evaporation, I applied some heat from flames to the containers holding solution of water and salt. I applied the heat to increase the rate of evaporation instead of leaving it open in the air and under the sunshine that is slow
2.         I used ice in the condenser to condense maximum amount of vapor. Moreover, I re-distilled the condensed water to get maximum dissolved salts again
3.         In crystallization, I left the crystallization process to proceed slowly undisturbed instead of fast cooling. This was to prevent impurities from getting attached to the salts and also to get bigger crystals

Ways to ensure the accuracy

To ensure accuracy, I ensured that the same amount of solvent and solution was used in the three experiments. Moreover, an equal amount of time was applied on all the experiments to get accurate results. Lastly, I ensured that the salts and the water had no impurities that could affect their boiling points

Ways to ensure reliability

Reliability in the techniques was determined by the experiments producing consistent results. To ensure reliability, I started with the evaporation method which the results were salt and water, distillation and crystallization also produced consistent results of salt and water.
Ways to ensure validity

Validity indicates the extent to which the applied technique in the separation process separated the components it was intended to separate. To ensure the validity, I ensured that salt and water, which were the components of the solution that was to be separated were the end products.

Task 3
a) Evaluation of the investigative techniques used
Evaporation

The process requires a lot of heat energy which might be expensive. However, solar heat is slow and evaporates small quantities of the solution. The method is suitable in situations where salt is the only product needed. However, collection of water vapor is difficult

Distillation

The distillation process desalinates water removes dangerous heavy metals like mercury, arsenic and lead, and the soluble salts that harden the water such as magnesium, calcium and phosphorous. Therefore, it is preferable for distillation of drinking water. However, this process is ineffective in separation of soluble salts that has lower boiling points than water such as synthetic chemicals, chlorine solutions, herbicides and pesticides (Porteous, 2010). Moreover, it requires a large source of heat which is costly. Lastly, the distillation process strips water its natural trace elements; hence the hydrogen composition in water increases and makes water acidic (Porteous, 2010).

Crystallization

The process is complex compared to the evaporation method. It is also unsuitable where water is to be collected as an end product. However, it is advantageous since pure salts can be obtained for usage (Jones, 2002).

  1. b) Suggestions of possible improvements

Alternative sources of heat could be used such as the use of solar energy to reduce high costs incurred in the evaporation and distillation process. Despite the fact that solar energy cannot produce a high amount of energy needed to heat the large amount of the solution for a longer duration of time, it is the best cost-wise.

Given that some dissolved salts have lower boiling points than the water hence difficult to separate them from water, the boiling point of water can be lowered by lowering the gas pressure above the liquid.

The distillation process strips water its natural trace elements, hence making water be acidic due to increased proportion of hydrogen. To avoid water being acidic, beneficial salts can be added into the water for human consumption such as calcium that is good in formation of bones.

References

Holland, C. D. (2005). Fundamentals and modeling of separation processes: absorption, distillation, evaporation, and extraction. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Jones, A. G. (2002). Crystallization process systems. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Porteous, A. (2010). Saline water distillation processes. London: Longman.

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Essay on liberty deprivation

Essay on liberty deprivation

Introduction

The paper will critically analyze the court decisions concerning the mentally incapacitated persons. The case is all about the judging criteria whether the arrangements for living made for the person who is mentally incapacitated amount to liberty deprivation. If they do, then authorization of the deprivation has to be made either by a court, or through the known procedures as the safeguards of liberty deprivation, as expounded in the Mental Capacity Act.[1] However, if they do not, no conducting of independent checks whether the arrangements are in the area for the mentally incapacitated person’s best interest. Although the social and health care bodies who often make the arrangements do so in the belief and hope that can be devised practicably. This is not to criticize them if the safeguards are needed, but just a recognition that human rights caters for everyone; and that also includes the community’s most disabled members, and that the rights also include the same liberty rights as everyone else.

  1. P (by his litigation friend the Official Solicitor) (Appellant) v Cheshire West and Chester Council and another (Respondents)
  2. In this case, the court was to make a determination o the correct approach for determination whether under Article 5 of the Human Right European Convention[2]; a person is deprived of his liberty rights. In application of the approach, the court made a determination whether P was deprived of his liberty
  3. P has severed learning and physical disabilities and is aged thirty nine years and therefore in making decisions, as to his residence and care, he lacks the mental capacity. Pursuant of the court order, he was placed in 2009 in Z house. There was no dispute about his Z house package between the parties as it was in his best interest. However, the only disagreement between the parties was whether the Z house package imposed restrictions upon P that deprived him of his liberty, which engaged under the Article 5 of the ECHR’s protective procedural rights.[3]
  4. Z house is single-level spacious and large bungalow and P had access to two bathrooms and his own rooms. Furthermore, he continued attending a day center four times a week, and on the fifth weekday the hydrotherapy pool, where he used to leave the Z house at 9.30am up to 5.00pm when returns back. Similarly, was being supported to access the leisure ad community facilities by the staff, for instance, visiting his mother and trips to town.

 

On the other hand, P has a long history of shredding and putting his continence pads into his mouth. Several techniques have been applied to solve the problem. Methods that are non physical have been attempted and included dressing him in an onesie with a zip at the back for access. However, sometimes the members of staff have to opt for physical interventions such as insertion of fingers into P’s mouth to get out the materials.

  1. P and Q (by their litigation friend, the Official Solicitor) (Appellants) v Surrey County Council (Respondent)

In this next case, the Supreme Court was to decide how it should make a determination whether there was liberty deprivation for the Mental Capacity Act 2005[4] purposes. By the time of the first judgment instance, P and Q were sisters aged 18 years and 17 years and both were severely impaired mentally.

Both of them until 2007 lived with their mother where their lives were abusive and dysfunctional. By the time of the first hearing instance, P was residing with a foster carer. On the other hand, Q was residing in NHS children’s home that is special. The court restricted contact of P and Q with their mother and were also not permitted by the court to live with her.

At the foster carer’s home, P had a bedroom of her own where the door of the bedroom was never locked, moreover, P has never attempted to leave and in the instances where she attempted, the foster mother restrained her just for her safety. She was being taken for outings and she also attended college, but she was not receiving medication.

At the children’s home, Q was allocated her own bedroom. Occasionally she also suffered outburst that required physical restraints sometimes. Furthermore, to control her anxiety, she was being treated with a medication called Risperidone.[5] She was also being taken to outings and was attending a college.

What is liberty deprivation?

Under the Human Rights Act 1988[6] cases, the courts have to consider frequently, in section 2(1)[7] how far their duty in taking into account the Court of Human Rights and the European Commission’s jurisprudence goes. In these cases, the difficulty is not a troubling. The Mental capacity Act section 64(5)[8] states that in the Act, in reference to a person’s liberty deprivation has the same meaning as in the Human Rights Convention Article 5(1).[9] Because the main objective was to avoid the identified violation in HL 40 EHRR 761,[10] it therefore seems clear that the expectations were to turn the Strasbourg’s court’s jurisprudence and to find out the meaning of liberty deprivation in this context.

The paper will summarize the general principles in the perspective of persons with mental disabilities or disorders.  According to Susan Varghese et al,[11] in determining whether an individual has been deprived of his or her liberty, analysis should begin at his or her concrete situation and include the whole criteria such as duration, type, manner and effects of implementation of the measures that are in question.

Secondly, Robin and John[12] stated that in the deprivation of liberty context on grounds of mental health, the courts could held that a person can be considered as having been “detained” including the duration when he was in the open ward of the hospital with the frequent unescorted access to the hospital grounds that are unsecured, and the unescorted leave possibility outside the hospital.

Thirdly, Slobogin[13] argued that in relation to the mental disordered persons placements in an institution, liberty deprivation does not only include the objective element of confinement of a person in a specific space restricted for not a given length of time. An individual can only be regarded to have been deprived of their liberty if, he has not consented validly, as additional subjective element, to the confinement.

Fourthly, Elliott[14] explained that liberty deprivation also applies in the following cases;

  1. Where the applicant legally declared incapable and admitted, at the request of his legal representative to a psychiatric hospital, had attempted unsuccessfully to leave the hospital
  2. Where initially the applicant had consented to her admission to a clinic but had attempted to escape subsequently
  3. Where the adult applicant is incapable of providing his admission consent to a psychiatric institution which, nevertheless, he had never made an attempt to leave.

Therefore, the case law of Strasbourg has some clarity in some respects in others but not all. So far, the court has not dealt with a case that combines the following case features;

  • An individual lacking both factual and legal capacity to make a decision upon her or his placement, buy who has not demonstrated  objection to it or dissatisfaction
  • A placement in a domestic setting or a small group, but not in in a social care home or a hospital, which is morels close or similar to a normal life at home
  • The initial authorization by courts of placement as being in the best interest of the concerned persons. Of course, the issue here is whether that authorization by the courts will indefinitely continue or whether there should be some independent periodic checks upon the placements made whether they are in the best interest of the concerned people.

Critical analysis

To begin, the most fundamental   question is whether the physical liberty concept that is protected by Article 5 applies equally to every person regardless of whether or not they are physically or mentally disabled. In a scenario of P’s case, I believed this concept did not apply because the trial judge failed to grapple with question whether the restrictions and limitation on

The life of P at the Z house is anything more than consequences that are inevitable of his various forms of disabilities. To be honest, the truth is that they are not because the disabilities of P, he is restricted inherently in the kind of life that he can lead. The life of P in any place he may be living  be it  at home with a friend, family or in any place like the Z house is dictated by his difficulties and disabilities (Para 110).

Similarly, in the case of P and Q, the life of a person had to be compared to another person’s life with the same characteristics. For some people, what was a liberty deprivation might not be the others deprivation.

The given answer by Mr. Richard Gordon QC, that appeared to be instructed by, on behalf of all the other three appellants by the official Solicitor, confuses the deprivation of liberty concept with the justification for imposition of such a deprivation. Individuals who lack the capacity to implement of make their own decisions concerning where they should live may be deprived justifiably of their liberty in the best interest of their own.[15] Great Britain[16] added that they may be a good deal happier, and looked better after if they are. This does not mean that the individuals have been deprived of their liberty. Furthermore, confusion should not be made on the question of the arrangements quality, which has been made with whether the arrangements constitute liberty deprivation.

Similar to the argument of “inevitable consequences,” Cohen[17]suggested that an individual cannot be deprived of his or her liberty if he or she lacked the capacity of understanding or objecting to his or her situation. It is quite clear that in any event that an individual may be deprived of his liberty without him or her knowing it. For instance, a sleeping person or an unconscious person may not be in a position to know that he is locked in a room or a cell, but still he has been liberty deprived. Reisner and Christopher[18] also gave an example that a person who is mentally disordered and has been kept inside a cupboard under stairs may not be in a position to appreciate that there exists any other alternative way to live, but in essence, he has been deprived still his liberty.

Discussion

It is self evident that the disabled people both physical and mental have the same human rights just like the rest of the human race. Sometimes it may be that the rights have been restricted or limited because of their disabilities, but all in all it should be the same just like those of everyone else.[19]

These rights according to Wildeman[20] include the physical liberty right that is guaranteed by the European Conventions’ Article 5. This as ICECHRCE [21] stated is not a right to go where or do what pleases one, rather it is a right more focused, not to be deprived that physical liberty. However, Philp[22] argued that to be deprived of liberty means it must be the same for everybody whether they have or not the mental and physical disabilities. If to a normal person it would be liberty deprivation if they are obliged to live in a specific place, subjected to constant control and monitoring, allowed out only with supervision, and are unable to move away without being permitted, then must be also a deprivation of the disabled persons liberty.[23]

For that reason, this article reject the approach of “relative normality” of court of appeal in the case of P, where the life he was leading was compared with the life of another disabled person might be leading. The approach to some extend was premised on the purpose of and reason for the placement (Para 76). This is inconsistent with the general view that the disabled persons have the same rights just like any other person.[24] Moreover, there is much more sympathy with “relative normality” approach adopted by the appeal court in P and Q where the kind of lives which P and Q were compared with the ordinary lives of the teenagers of their ages might be living with their families. However, as much as this seemed to be human and sensible, the facts remains that the kind of lives which P and Q were living was not the same as those which the teenagers of their age would be living. The comparative normality by the court of appeal in their basis of “homelike”quality does not address the question of whether it involved liberty deprivation where the state bore the responsibility.[25]

The cases were not about the distinction between freedom of movement restriction, and the liberty deprivation. P, Q and P have no freedom of going anywhere without close supervision or permission

The application in the P’s case

In the p’s case, the decisions of the judge should not have been set aside by the Appeal Court for their provided reasons. In the judgment paragraph 46, the judge directed himself correctly as to the liberty deprivation three components. The judge reminded himself that the difference between the restriction and deprivation of liberty is one of intensity or degree rather than substance or nature.[26] Furthermore, he held that the main factor is whether the individual is not or is free to leave. Gostin et al[27] elaborated that this may be tested by making a determination whether those managing and treating patients exercise effective and complete control of the movements and care of the person (Para 46(5)). However, when he made considerations of the circumstances in the life of P at the Z house, the judge remarked (Para 58) that “upon the great care undertaken by the staff of Z house and the  local authority to ensure that the life of P was as normal as possible.” In (Para 59), the judge continued “his life, on the other hand, is completely under the control of the Z house members of staff. He cannot do anything or go anywhere without their assistance or support. More particularly, his aggressive behavior that is aggressive and the worrying habit of eating and touching his continence pads, which require many measures including physical restraint at times, and when needed, the intrusive procedures such as insertion of fingers into his mouth while being restrained.”

According to this article, the judge in substance was applying the right test and his conclusion in overall looked at P as being deprived his liberty should be restored (para 60).

Application in the P and Q case

The judge found the case of P the lady difficult and therefore concluded that she has not been deprived of liberty (Para 34).[28] The judge relied upon the small size of her adolescent home, her attendance  at  school, her lack of life objection there, her good contact of the family, and her active social life. However, there is much difficulty in seeing how her case can be differentiated from that of P of the Z house, at had all the features. P the girl did not require the kind of restraint which P of the Z house needed because of the incontinence pads, but sometimes she required physical restraint and  also medication for controlling her anxiety. Generally, the staff exercised control in her life’s every aspect. She was not being allowed out without their supervision, do things they do not want or even see people they do not want her to see.[29]

The case of Q was different in one aspect in that he was residing in an ordinary home, attending an educational unit and enjoyed good contact of the family. The reality, however, is that in the situation of Q was similar to that of her sister P. The people responsible for her care including the foster mother exercised complete control on her life.  She was not allowed out without supervision, do things they do not want or see whom they do not want her to see.[30]

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is easy to focus on the positive nature  of the placements of P,P and Q. there is no doubt the local authorities responsible  for then did the best for them to make their lives safe, fulfilled and happy. However, Article 5 ensures no one is deprived of their liberty without safeguards that are proper, will secure the legal justification for any constraints. The subjects have no capacity to decide for themselves and therefore, any arrangements made are in the best interest for them.

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